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QUARTO MEMOIRS OF 
THE BED F O R DS. H I R. E 
H_I S T O R I G A L R E G - 
O^R D S_OC IETY 
VOLUME I. 



ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF DOMESDAY BOOK 




BEDFORDSHIRE IN 1086: 



AN 



BY 



G. HERBERT FOWLER. 



" E VUS NE POEZ REN FERE OUTRE 



LE RECORD KE EST VOSTRE GARANT." 



LOUTHER: HEREFORD EYRE, 1292. 



PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY AT THE 
OLD HOUSE IN ASPLEY GUISE MGMXXII 



If 



Lack: 



Bedfordshire Historical Record Society, 
Quarto memoirs 



J?pjwle_r , G . Herbert 

Bedfordshire in 1086; an analysis 
and synthesis of Domesday book. 1322 
Vol.1 



/ 



THE BEDFORDSHIRE 



HISTORICAL RECORD 



SOCIETY 



i 




" A century hence .... the substance of Domesday 
Book will have been rearranged. Those villages and 
hundreds which the Norman clerks tore into shreds will 
have been reconstituted and pictured in maps, for many 
men from over all England will have come within Kin<r 
William's spell, will have bowed themselves to him and 
become that man's men. 1 ' 

Maitland : Domesday Book and Beyond, p. 520. 



IV "w 



4? 



Abbreviations. 



a. acres. 

B.H.R.S. Publications of Bedfordshire Historical Record Society. 
Bp. Bishop. 
Ct. Count. 

D.B. Domesday Book, and its edition by the Record Commis- 

sion. 

D. N.B. Dictionary of National Biography. 

E. Earl. 

f. father of. 

h. hides. 

li. pounds. 

m. ' man,' or ' men of.' 

Q.R. the value of the land when received (quando receptum) 

about 1067. 

R.C. or Rec. Com., editions of the Record Commission. 

R.S. Rolls Series of Chronicles and Memorials. 

s. son of. 

th. thane. 

T. in C. Tenant in Chief. 

T.R.E. in the day of King Edward (tempore regis Edwardi), in 

or before 1066. 

T.R.W. • in the day of King William (tempore regis Willelmi), 

1066- 1086. 
v. virgates. 

V.C.H. Victoria County History (of Beds., unless otherwise 

stated), 
w. wife of. 



343480 



BEDFORDSHIRE IN 1086: AN ANALYSIS AND 
SYNTHESIS OF DOMESDAY BOOK. 



By G. HERBERT FOWLER. 



CONTENTS. 



PART I: INTRODUCTORY. 



§ i The Birth of Domesday Book. 
§ 2 Collection of Material for the 
Survey. 

5 3 Saxon Scribe and Norman 
Cleik. 

§ 4 Purpose of the Survey. 
§ 5 The Interrogatory, 
g 6 Rearrangement of Returns by 
Fiefs. 

§ 7 The Task of Reconstruction. 
§ 8 The Text of Domesday Book. 
§ 9 The Facsimile of 1S62. 
§ 10 Previous Tables for Bedford- 
shire. 

§ 11 Numeration of the Entries. 
§ 12 Translation. 
§ 13 Tabulation. 

§ 14 Maitland's Statistical 'I ables. 
§ 15 Apologia. 
§ 16 Literature. 

§ 17 Explanation of common Terms. 

GUIDE TO TABLE I. 
§ 18 Tabulation of the Vills. 
§ 19 Textual Notes to Table I. 
§ 20 Schedule of forinsec and 
extrinsec lands. 

GUIDES TO TABLES II and III. 
§ 21 Tabulation of the. Hundreds. 
§ 22 Tabulation of the Shire. 



GUIDE TO TABLE IV. 

§ 23 Tabulation of Estates held in 
Chief, 1086. 

§ 24 Tenants in Chief as Sub- 
tenants. 

§ 25 Rubricated Headings of the 
Fiefs. 

§ 26 Miscellaneous Profits. 
GUIDES TO TABLES V AND VI. 
§ 27 Synthesis of Estates in Chief, 
1086. 

§ 28 Summary of Primary Tenan- 
cies, 10S6. 

GUIDE TO TABLE VII. 
5 29 Tabulation of sub-tenancies, 
10S6. 

§ 30 Multiple holdings of sub- 
tenants. 
§ 31 Miscellaneous Profits. 

GUIDES TO TABLES VIII— XI. 
§ 32 Tabulation of Saxon Estates. 
§ 33 Soc-land, 1066 and 10S6. 
§ 34 Thane-land, 1066. 
§ 35 Summary cf tenancies, 1066. 

GUIDE TO TABLE XII. 
§ 36 Water mills by River Systems. 



PART II : SYNTHETICAL. 

Table I. Synthesis of the Vills. 
Table II. Synthesis of the Hundreds. 
Table III. Synthesis of the County. 

Table IV. Estates of Tenants in Chief (order of Domesday Book). 
Table V. Synthesis of Estates of Tenants in Chief (order of Domesdav 
Book). 

Summary of Primary Tenancies : 1086. 

Synthesis of Estates of Sub-Tenants : 1086 (in alphabetical 
order). 

Synthesis of Estates of Saxon Holders, excepting socmen 
(in alphabetical order). 
Table IX. Soc-land .- 1066 and 1086 (by vills, alphabetically). 
Table X. Thane-land : 1066 (by vills, alphabetically). 
Table XL Summary of tenancies : 1066. 
Table XII. Mills (by river systems). 

PART III: ANALYTICAL. 



Table VI. 
Table VII- 



Table VIII. 



THE FISCAL AREAS. 
The Shire. 

37 D.B. and the Shire Moot. 

38 The ' County Flidage.* 

39 Vice-comitatus and Modern 

County. 

The Hundred. 

40 Antiquity and Meaning of the 

Hundred. 

41 The Bedfordshire Hundreds. 

42 Names of the Hundreds. 

43 Omission of the Hundred 

Heading in D.B. 

44 Order of the Hundreds in D.B. 

45 The ' Hundred Hides'. 

46 Odecroft Hundred. 

47 Hundreds and the ' County 

Hidage.' 

The Burgh. 

48 Fiscal status o£ Bedford. 

The VUi. 

49 D.B. Vills and Bedfordshire 

Villages. 

50 D.B. Vills of uncertain locality. 

51 Existing villages not named in 

D.B. 

52 Unnamed Holdings. 

53 The Five Hide Unit. 
THE AREAL MEASURES. 

The Hide. 

54 The Fiscal Hide and the Areal 

Hide. 



§ 55 The Original Principle of 

Assessment. 
§ 56 The Excess of Team-lands. 
§ 57 Date of the Assessment. 

The Carucate. 

§ 58 Meaning and Extent of 
Catucate. 

The Tearn=Iand. 

§ 59 The Team of Eight Oxen. 
§ 60 Area of the Team-land. 

The Acre. 

§ 61 Nature of the D.B. Acre. 
§ 62 Area of the Acre. 

The Meadow-land, 

§ 63 The Meadow and the Team. 
§ 64 User of the Meadow. 

The Wood-land. 

§ 6^ Swine in Woodland. 
§ 66 Estimation of Woodland re- 
quired. 
§ 67 Pannage. 

The Pastnre, 

§ 68 User of the Pasture. 

D.B. Areas and Modern Acreage. 
5 69 Stable and unstable 

Boundaries, 
g 70 Conversion of D.B. Measures. 
'] 71 Examples of Comparison. 



THE NORMAN SOCIAL 
FABRIC. 
The Burgh. 

72 The Borough of Bedford. 

The Church. 

73 The Higher Clergy and Re- 

ligious Houses. 

74 The Parish Church and 

Priest. 

The Royal Demesne. 

75 The 'Land of the King'. 

The Sheriff. 

76 Shire-Reeve and Vicecomes. 

The Tenant in Chief. 

77 Tenure in Chief. 

78 ' Tenet de Regc.' 

79 Tenure by Military Service. 

80 Tenure by Serjeauty. 

81 Other Tenures in Chief. 

82 ' Feudum 

83 Allotment of the County. 

84 Agricultural Efficiency. 

The Under Tenant. 

85 (Jndertenure by Military 

Service. 

86 Permanency of Undertenurc. 

87 Multiple Undertenure. 

88 Mesne Lord and Rear Vassal. 
S9 Grades of Rank. 

The Manor. 

90 Meaning of ' Manor \ 

91 Dependencies of the Manor. 

Manorial Protits. 

92 Value of the Mills. 

93 Character of the Mills. 

94 Fisheries. 

95 Park and Vineyard. 

96 Market. 

97 Miscellaneous Profits 

The Tillers of the Soil. 

98 Soke and the Socman. 

99 The ViUan Tenement. 

100 The Villan Rent, 
ior The Villan Status. 

102 The Bordar and the Cottar. 

103 Tenements of Bordar and 

Serf. 

104 Status of Border and Serf. 

105 Distribution of serfs. 

Miscellaneous Men. 

ro6 Officers of the Royal House- 
hold. 

107 Lesser Officials. 

108 Milites and Frenchmen. 

109 Englishmen and Almsmen. 



Population. 

§ 110 The Numbers of Men. 
Payments and Values. 

§ in The Danegcld. 

§ 112 Yield of the Danegeld. 

§ 113 Coinage. 

§114 Payment in bullion. 

§ 115 Payment in kind. 

§ 116 Farm of the Ancient 
Demesne. 

§117 Geldum, Warra, and 
Gablum. 
Significance of the Valets. 

§ 118 The Ravage of War. 

§ 119 The Invasion of Bedford- 
shire. 

§ 120 Routes of the Columns. 
§ 121 The Recovery. 

Title to Land. 

§ 122 Royal Grants. 

§ 123 Other forms of Title. 

$ 124 Claims and Encroachments. 

§ 125 Change of ownership under 

royal sanction. 
§ 126 Miscellaneous Cases. 

THE SAXON SOCIAL FABRIC. 
Eorl and Scii gerefa. 
§ 127 The Earl and the Shire. 
§ 128 The Sheriff. 

The Church. 
§ 129 Churchmen and their Lands. 

The Burgh 
§ 130 The Burgh of Bedford. 

Royal Land, 
s 131 Ancient Demesne. 
§ 132 Other Royal Land. 

Thegns. 
S 133 The King's Thanes. 
§ 134 The Lower Thanes. 
§ 131; Size of Saxon Estates. 
§ 136 The Sharing of the Spoil. 

The Lesser Landholders. 
§ 137 Problems of tenure. 
§ 138 Status of the Socmen. 
§ 139 Size and Number of Soclands. 
^ 140 Distribution of Soclands. 
$ 141 Fate of the Socman. 
§ 142 The 1 Man '. 
§ 143 Commendation. 
§ 144 Tenure ' de ' and ' sub ' 
§ 145 The Three Bonds. 
^ 146 Tenure and Geld. 
§ 147 Communal Ownership. 

The Tillers of the Soil. 
§ 148 The Geneat and Cotsetla. 
§ 149 The Theow. 

Miscellaneous Men. 
§ 150 Royal Officers. 



PART IV : PERSONAL. 



A. IN NORMAN TIME. 
§ 151 Introductory. 
§ 152 Origin of the Squire class. 
§ 153 Auxiliaries, 
•j 154-170 Personal notes (alpha- 
betical). 

B. IN SAXON TIME. 
§ 171-176. Personal notes (alpha- 
betical). 



C. PEDIGREES. 
I. Connections of the Conqueror. 
II. Honour of Wallingford. 

III. Giffard, Clare, Ryes, Todeni. 

IV. Tvri, Grentniesnil, Gand, 

Ardres. 
V. Hesding, Chaworth. 
VI. Taillebois. 
VII. The Godwinssons and their kin. 
VIII. Albini of Cainhoe. 



DESCRIPTION OF MAPS. 



§ 177 Introductory. 

§ 17S Hundreds of 1086. Map T. 

§ 179 Norman Estates. Map II. III. 

§ 180 Saxon Estates. Map IV. 

§ 181 Meadowland. Map V. 

§ 182 Woodland. Map VI. 



§ 1S3 Mills. Map VII. 

3 184 Notes on some Mills. 

§ 185 Invasion of Bedfordshire. 

§ 186 Routes of the Columns. 

Map VIII. 
§ 1S7 Soc Land. Map IX. 



INDEX. 



2 



PART I 



§ 1—4 



PART I. INTRODUCTORY. 

§ i. The Birth of Domesday Book. 1 — "Year 
1085 .... Then at midwinter was the King at 
Gloucester with his wise men, and held there his court, 
five days. . . . Afterwards the King held great council 
and very deep speech with his wise men about this 
land, how it was settled, or with what men. He sent his 
men over all England into each shire, and let render 
how many hundred hides were within that shire, or 
what the King himself had of land, and of cattle within 
that land, or what rights he ought to have from that 
shire for a twelve-month. Also he let write how much 
land his archbishops had, and his bishops, and his 
abbots, and his earls; and — though I 'ell it lengthily — 
what or how much each man that was settled on the land 
in England held in land or in cattle, and how much fee 
it was worth. So very narrowly he let it be shown, there 
was not a single hide nor a yard of land, nor further — it 
is shame to tell though he deemed it no shame to do — 
was there one ox nor one cow nor a head of swine left, 
that was not set on his writing. And all the writings 
were brought to him after." 

§ 2. Collection of Material for the Survey. — 
Such is the account which the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 
gives of the origin of Domesday Book. No complete 
record exists to show how the work of the Great Survey 
was carried out, and we are compelled to piece together 
scraps of evidence. The Inquisitio Eliensis is a return 
of the lands of the Abbot of Ely, contemporary with 
D.B., which Dr. Round 1 ' regards as having been com- 
piled, partly from the original returns on which the first 
volume of D B. was based, partly on the second volume 
of D.B. itself ; the heading of this seems to show the pro- 
cedure by which the original returns were obtained : — 

" Below is written here the Inquest of Lands what 
way the King's Barons held inquest, namely, by oath of 
the Shire-reeve, and of all Barons and their French- 
men, and of the whole Hundred, [and] of the priest the 
reeve and six villans of every vill." 

It is fairly clear that we are dealing here with a 
succession of inquests on oath, arranged in order of 
descending social and economic importance, not with 
one simultaneous gathering of scores of people. The 
" King's Barons " are the Commissioners or Legati 
whom he sent " over all England into each shire "; they 
received the returns made on oath by the Sheriff, by the 
tenants in-chief (barons) and their undertenants 
(Frenchmen), by the Hundied Moots, and by the eight 
usual representatives of each vill. Copies of the 
written returns made by the Hundred Moots have been 
preserved in the Inquisitio Eliensis, and in a similar 
contemporary document, the Inquisitio Comitatus Can- 
tabrigiensis. It is not so certain that the vills presented 
written returns to the Hundred; but it is eminently 
probable, from the swiftness with which the Survey was 
carried out, that the initial work was done in and by 
each vill separately; that the vill itself, assembled as 
town moot or hall moot, prepared the first returns. In- 
deed this is almost implied by such phrases as " Sale- 
ford answers (defendit se) for five hides." Only with 

a. Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Edition of R.S. (23), i, 353. F.d. Plummer 
and Fade, i, 216. 

b. Round : F.K., 133-137. 



the greybeards of the vill would linger the tradition 
of pre-conquest ownership, and the memory of wrong! ul 
seizure of land twenty years ago. 

The procedure may be conceived as follows : each vill sent as com- 
plete a return as it could to the Hundred Moot, by the mouths if not by 
the hands of its usual jurors, " the priest, the reeve, and six villans.' 1 
The Hundred Moot revised and embodied these returns in the form pre- 
served to us in the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis, consisting of a 
list of jurors, fullowed by a list of the vills in which each separate held 
ing was set out; the Hundred then submitted its return to the Sherifl 
in Shire Moot (5 37), or to the Commissioners, or to both, by the hands 
of its eight jurors. As Dr. Round has shown, of these eight, four were 
of French, four of English birth; an instance of "the Ring's policy of 
combining the old with the new, and fusing his subjects, their rights 
and institutions, into one harmonious whole." The returns as accepted 
by the Commissioners were sent to Winchester for enrolment, and probably 
not till then were the entries rearranged into their present form, that is, 
by estates or fiefs under the name of the overlord ; for the new arrange- 
ment, possibly also at an earlier stage, the oaths of the tenams-in-chicf 
and under-tenants would be taken. From the colophon of the second 
volume of D.B. it appears that the returns were made to the King :n 
1086; whether or not the fair copy of the returns was completed within 
that time, has been disputed. 

While the names of the D.B. Commissioners for 
this county do not seem to have been preserved, no one 
who has studied the record with care can fail to perceive 
that the same men took the evidence for Herts, Bucks, 
Beds and Cambs. The order and nature of the answers, 
and even the phrasing, are identical in these four 
counties, and entirely different (for example) from those 
in the Hunts. D.B. 

§ 3. Saxon Scribe and Norman Clerk. — There 
is one little point of interest which conhrms the view 
that the original returns were drawn up in and by Vill 
and Hundred; namely, the evidence that they were 
actually written by a Saxon scribe, which is afforded by 
the misspellings of the final (Norman) copyist, un- 
acquainted with the special Saxon letters. Such mis- 
spellings occur also in the l).li. of other counties; in 
our own, the writing of Colmeborde (8i° lor Colmworth), 
Suthgible (129, for Southiil), and Nortgible (177, for 
Northill), in which the letter wen (w) has apparently- 
been mistaken for b; and the writing of Pileworde (120, 
for Tillsworth), in which the letter thorn (th) has been 
mistaken for p, are cases in point. Birch suggests from 
other errors in the spelling of names, that the final fair 
copy was made from dictation, — a method which would 
save time and strain, but increase the possibility of 
error. He adds the pertinent remark that " we cannot 
accept Domesday forms of names of places as evidence 
of the ancient form of the words unless they are sup- 
ported by other contemporary examples of use." This 
view is borne out by the brief list of Saxon and D.B. 
place-names in B.H R.S., v. 39; and is indeed obvious 
from the way in which personal names of Saxons are 
misspelt in the record, or from the varied spellings of 
what is now spelt Redbornstoke (§ 42). 

§ 4. Purpose of the Survey. — " One great 
purpose seems to mould both its form and its sub- 
stance." " Our Record is no register of title, it is no 
feodary, it is no custumal, it is no rent roll; it is a tax 
book; a geld book " d , connected with the raising of the 
Danegeld (§ 111). This tax had been levied at least 
three times between the Conquest and the date of 
Domesday Book. The Conqueror found, however, 
that the assessment required adjustment; it produced 
less than it should; many estates or parts of estates 
(§ 58, 111) were exempt, and some (whatever the reason 

c. Throughout this memoir, the numbers appended to the name of a 
vill show its serial position in the original manuscript (§ 11} and in 
Table IV. 

d. Maitland, D.B., 3, 5. 



§ 5-8 



PART I 



3 



may have been) were undoubtedly underrated. The 
holding of Miles Crispin at Clapham 99 will serve to 
illustrate this point; he was assessed at 5 hides, though 
he held (say) 3.600 acres of arable land, and his manor 
was worth the very large sum of 24 li. yearly ; but at 
Chainhalle 126, Hugh de Beauchamp was also assessed 
at 5 hides, his arable land being only (say) 600 acres and 
his manor worth only 8 li. " That William intended to 
correct the old assessment, or rather to sweep it away 
and put a new assessment in its stead, seems highly 
probable, though it has not been proved that either he 
or his sons accomplished this feat. For this purpose, 
however, materials were to be collected which would 
enable the royal officers to decide what changes were 
necessary in order that all England might be taxed in 
accordance with a just and uniform plan.'"' 

§ 5. The Interrogatory. — If the questions put 
by the Commissioners for the preparation of D.B. were 
the same as those for the Inquisitio Eliensis, as seems 
probable, they held inquest of the following par- 
ticulars :- — 

"How the manor is called : who held, it in the time 
of King Edward : who now holds it : how many hides : 
how many teams on demesne : how many [teams] of the 
men : how many villans : how many cottars : how many 
serfs : how many free men : how many socmen : how 
much wood : how much meadow : how much pasture" : 
how many mills; how many fisheries : how much [land] 
has been added or withdrawn : how much the whole 
was worth together, and how much now : how much 
each free man or socman had or has there. This whole 
thrice, namely in the time of King Edward, and when 
King William granted it, and what like it may be now, 
and whether more can be had [from it] than is had." 

It will be observed that something of all these par- 
ticulars appear in our record, except the value of the 
lands of free men and socmen; these classes may have 
accounted for their own lands, at least in some cases, 
but there is nothing in our record to show it. c There 
seems to be no doubt that the lord was responsible for 
geld of the land of villans and similar classes. 

§ 6. Rearrangement of the returns by Fiefs. — 

While the materials collected for D.B. were concerned 
primarily with assessment for taxation, incidentally 
they are of value to us as a register of title, and as a 
census of men and stock. In D.B., as contrasted with 
the original returns, the lands of each ' tenant -in- chief 
from the King ' are brought together as a roll of his 
estate. From the point of view of the royal officers 
who had to levy men or money on him, this was the only 
feasible arrangement. But for those who seek to learn 
from D.B. something of the social and economic life 
of the country, who wish to create for themselves a 
picture of each several township, who want to trace the 
alterations in tenure produced by the coming of the 
Normans or the financial effect of the Conquest, 
Domesday Book as it stands is merely a bewildering 
patchwork, in which many townships have been torn 
into scraps and attached to equally incoherent frag- 
ments by the mere accident of ownership. Thus, for 
example, parts of Turvey are recorded among the lands 
of eight different tenants-in-chief; and Nigel d'Albini 
held land in at least fifteen different vills. 

a. Maitland : D.B., 4. 

b. Two texts read " how many pastures." 



§ 7- The Task of Reconstruction. — The first 

step towards a proper grasp of D.B. is once again to 
join these severed fragments, so that each Manor and 
Vill and Hundred can be seen as a whole ; in other 
words, to reconstruct in substance though not in the 
exact form, the original returns which the Hundred 
furnished to the Commissioners. When this has been 
done by means of tables, and indexes have been sup- 
plied for cross reference, then only can statistics or 
principles, classes or estates, be compared and studied 
as may be wished. 

The value of this reconstruction should not be con- 
fined to the County. Until similar work has been 
carried out for many counties, it is not possible satisfac- 
torily to discuss the meaning of D.B. as a whole, nor 
indeed properly to understand its details. Writers on 
our record, even of so acute an intellect as the late 
Prof. Maitland, have found that a conclusion drawn 
from one part of England often fails to fit the facts in 
another part. Nor is this surprising, seeing that in 1086 
England ' was still not much more than a geographical 
expression, in which were living different races and 
tribes, who had brought different customs with them 
from different parts of Europe, and till lately had been 
distributed among different kingdoms. When it has 
become possible to compare and reason about (say) the 
Wessex counties as a whole, and to weigh them against 
the Mercian counties as a whole, and not till then, it 
will be reasonable to discuss their relations to Lincoln- 
shire or Kent; as a preliminary step we must ascertain 
the normal for each county. 

It follows naturally from the aim of this task, and 
it cannot be emphasised too clearly at the outset, that 
such conclusions ai. are drawn in this memoir are in- 
tended to apply solely to Bedfordshire. It is for others 
to enquire how far they may be adapted to the problems 
presented by the Domesday Book of other counties. 

§ 8. The Text of Domesday Book. — The 

text of the Bedfordshire Domesday is accessible in 
Latin, both in the facsimile edition produced by the 
Ordnance Survey (Southampton, 4to., 1862), and in the 
reprint issued by the Record Commissioners (Domes- 
day Book, vol. i., pp. 209 — 218b.) An English trans- 

SJ%-S|>et«A» n jc.Wf fe-<i<f£ h&cr&ic tun rente .- 
iyaepnc .tma-c-/" • <^tr In dmc-tt ■ cxf-^xu^ 

•jUrt' lot-tuj.Wct^ y-fetw-^t-moUti yz.{JuSi<m-- 
teuma o^iTaxc'&Ulef c<jm<nf- 7 <f> ttc\iHB > 



Manerium. 
Aspeleia pro decern hidis se 
defendit. Acardus de iuri tenet 
de Hugone. Terra est duodecim 
carrucis. In dominio due carruce 
et tercia potest fieri et sedecim 
uillani habent octo carrucas et 
nona potest fieri. Ibi quatuor 
bordani et quinque serni et umim 
molinum decern solidorum. Pratum 
decern carrucis. Silua quin- 
quagmta porcis. In totis ualenciis 
ualet octo libre. Quando receptum 
centum solidi. Tempore Regis 
Edwardi decern Hbre. Hoc 
manerium tenuit Leueua commen- 
data Wallef comitis et quo uoluit 
cum terra sua recedere pot-ait. 

c. Compare § 146. 



Manor. 

Aspley answers for 10 hides. 
Acard de Ivri holds from Hugh. 
There is land for 12 teams. In 
demesne are two teams and there 
can be a third, and 16 villans have 
eight teams and there can be a 
ninth. There are 4 bordars and 
5 serfs and a mill of 10s. Meadow 
for ro teams. Wood for 150 swine. 
In total values it is worth 8 li.. when 
received iocs., in the time of King 
Edward 10 li. Leveva, commended 
to Earl Waltheof. held this manor, 
and could withdraw with her land 
where she would. 



4 



PART I 



§ 9-13 



lation by the Rev. F. W. Ragg, with a valuable intro- 
duction by Dr. J. H. Round, may be studied in the Vic- 
toria History of Bedfordshire, vol. i., pp. 191 — 266, with 
indexes of persons and places at the end of the volume. 

As is usual in early documents, the words of the 
text are much contracted, and it is by no means always 
certain how these contractions should be expanded. 
An entry of the usual type, contracted, expanded, and 
translated, is, therefore, supplied, in order to show the 
method of treatment adopted in the present memoir; 
this should be compared with the corresponding entry 
on Table I. 

§ 9. The Facsimile of 1862. — A note of 
warning may be added here : that the Facsimile, al- 
though a wonderful piece of work for the date (1S62) 
when it was made, is not always absolutely trustworthy, 
especially when the ink of the original has faded or 
been rubbed off. Collation of doubtful passages with 
the manuscript has therefore made possible some addi- 
tions and corrections to the translation given in V.C.H., 
i, 221-266; a list of these follows. The numbers of 
page and column refer to V.C.H., i ; the number of the 
line gives its position in the entry, not in the page. 

Page. Col. Entry. Line. 

223 ... 2 ... Kversholt n 8 For "when received 20 shillings*' 

read " when received 30 shillings". 

224 ... 1 ... Stagsden 15 5 For "and 7" read " and 6 ". 

224 ... 2 ... Melchbourne 20 ... 7 For " [ ]" read "3". 

224 ... 2 ... Dean 2t 2 For " [ 1 " read " 5 ploughs." 

225 ... 2 ... Hinwick 30 1 For " Turstan " read " Turstin ". 

226 ... 2 ... Estone 37 2 For " 1 hide" read " \ hide". 

245 ... r ... Bigglcsw. Hund. 203 4 For 11 52 " read " 7 ". 

247 ... 2 ... North ill 223 t For "Walter" read "William". 

255 ... 2 ... Sharnbrook 2S6 ... X For " the " read " ) 40 ". 

256 ... 1 ... Stiattou 288 7 For "3" read "4". 

261 ... 1 ... Hockhlfe 335 5 For "(11 ?) " read " 11 ". 

§ 10. Previous Tables. — The present tables 
are by no means the first attempts of their kind. About 
1874 the Rev. W. Airy, vicar of Keysoe, completed his 
"Digest of the Doomsday of Bedfordshire": this was 
published by his son in 1881, but is no longer in print. 
The book marked a distinct advance in the study of 
D.B., and has often been utilised by later writers. 
But a great deal of work has been done on the Domes- 
day period and on the county history since that date, 
which has lowered the historical value of the book. 
Again, Bedfordshire was among the six counties treated 
by Mr F. H. Baring in his "Domesday Tables" (1909), 
an interesting and suggestive work ; these tables, how- 
ever, dealt with some only of the D.B. returns, and 
omitted numerous details for which the reader was re- 
ferred to Mr Airy's Digest. There seems, therefore, to 
be a place for fresh synthesis and analysis of the 
County Domesday, which is intended not only to pre- 
sent all detail in a convenient form, re-constituting 
every vill and hundred as far as possible, but also to 
prepare the way for further research by summaries of 
estates, of classes, of values, and so forth, in tables and 
maps. 

§ 11. Numeration of the Entries. — Even in so 
small a county as this the entries are so numerous as 
to bewilder the student, and it is a first necessity to have 
some method of ready reference to every entry. The 
usual method of reference — to the folio of the tran- 
script of the Record Commission — sends the reader to 
an enormous page of two closely printed columns, in 

a. Owing to the softness of the paper, this can oniy be done neatly in 
the Facsimile edition by pencil or waterproof ink. 

b. The phrase is ambiguous ; it may perhaps mean that the mill lay 



which the object of his quest is often hard to find. In 
the original and facsimile the separate entries are 
generally so sharply defined — marked as a rule by 
rubrication of the initial letter — that no method can 
be simpler and clearer than a numbering of each entry 
in serial order; and 1 venture to recommend to every 
student of the Croat Survey that he should number the 
entries in his copy in the same way. 1 This can readily 
be done from Table IV., which follows the order of the 
original text. The long and detailed work, of which 
the results are given in Part III. of this memoir, has 
tested the principle of numeration severely, and con- 
vinced the writer that it cannot be bettered. Through- 
out this memoir an arabic number in ordinary type, 
printed after the name of a vill, is the serial number of 
the entry in D.B.; a small letter on the line after a vill 
refers to the position of the entrv in the Schedule to 
Table I. (§ 20). 

§ 12. Translation. — The small amount of trans- 
lation in this memoir, forming column xxiii. and the 
Schedule to Table I., is believed to follow the lines 
usually adopted by D.B. students of to-day. 

Two points only need be noted, (i) In the case of certain claims made 
for land — for example, William Spech holds 7h. iv. in Chawston 215, and 
his men claim " DE his vii hidis et i virgata " for an acre and a half of 
meadow against the men of F^udo : — it is obvious that they do not claim 
for meadow ' out of' arable, but 1 in right of' their arable; and ' de ' in 
such cases has been translated accordingly, (ii) the phrase ' lacere in ' 
has given previous trouble to other students of our record. It appears to 
be used in three senses : (a) as meaning simply ' belongs to ' ; for example, 
Cranficld s2 " belonged and belongs to the Church ot St. Benedict " ; (h) 
as applied to something which lies physically or legally in a place; thus 
a mill in Bromham 302 " is indeed of the fee of the Countess, but docs 
not lie in this land," meaning apparently that the mill belonged to her 
manor, but was physically built on some other lsnd' 11 ; again soke is said 
to lie legally in the place where it must be rendered, as the aokes of 
Wilshamstead 296 and of Elstow 207 " lay in " Kempston ; (c) as meaning 
'is appurtenant to', and then translated in this memoir as 'lies to'; 
examples of this are in Bedford 1, Hanefeld 86, Cople 173, Stratton 242; 
Wardou 201, Ilatley 322, and Everton 243; variants ot this use are ' iacere 
ad ' 111 Marston 77 and l J abc-naam 230, ' iacere cum ' in Houghton Con. 
quest 331, ' iacere ibi ' in Staughton 24 and Barton 33, and ' adiacere ' in 
Leighton 2. 

§ 13. Tabulation. — It is probably humanly im- 
possible, in such detailed work as these Tables and the 
subsequent computations, for a single-handed student 
to escape error. The mere copying and rearrangement 
is difficult enough to achieve with any accuracy; as the 
greatest living Domesday scholar complains '"No one 
who has not analysed and collated such texts for him- 
self can realise the extreme difficulty of avoiding oc- 
casional error. The abbreviations and the formulae em- 
ployed in these surveys are so many pitfalls for the 
transcriber, and the use of Roman numerals is almost 
fatal to accuracy." Fractions of hides and virgates, 
plough-teams and money, are a further trial to one 
whose arithmetic was always weak. Onlv a staff of 
clerks, to check and cross-check, could have ensured 
absolute accuracy; and the writer will gratefully receive 
notes of errors detected, and will take opportunity to 
publish them later. 

Especially must all grand totals be regarded as approximations; there 
are many points of doubtful interpretation where the meaning of our 
record is incapable of being construed with certainty; possibly the compiler 
was not clear himself, owing to the vagueness of local returns. For 
example, there is an oft recurring difficulty : — " In Houstone Hugh holds 
five hides. There is land for six teams and they are there. And eight 
villans and six bordars and five serfs " (Houghton Conquest, 135)- Are 
all the hides to be reckoned as Hugh's demesne, or were some villan 
land ? were the teams all his, or did the villans hold some oxen ? In 
such a case 1 have generally accepted the teams as on demesne, because 
the entry which distinguishes between demesne teams and villan teams is 
so commonly found, but I have not put the hides into demesne unless 
authorised by a definite statement. Consequently the hidace held in 
demesne perhaps may have been larger than is shown in the Tables. 

physically on her Bromham land, but that it rendered its profits to some 
other manor of the Countess. Vet in that case they should have obviously 
been entered under that manor, and apparently are not so entered. 



§ 14-18 



PART I 



§ 14. Maitland's Statistical Tables. — "As matters 
now stand, two men not unskilled in Domesday 
might add up the number of hides in a county and 
arrive at very different results because they would hold 
different opinions as to the meaning of certain formulas 
which are not uncommon." Thus Maitland — and he 
might have added other sources of divergence. But 
it is instructive to set his totals" alongside of those pro- 
duced in Table III. and elsewhere in this memoir, not 
only for the intrinsic value attached to all his work, but 
also in order to emphasise once again that in statistics 
drawn from D.B. the figures may faithfully reflect com- 
parative results, but cannot present absolute numbers 
accurately. 

Population. Hides. Teamlands. Teams. Valet. 

Maitland 3875 1193 1557 1367 1096H. 

Table III 3723 1210 1581 1401 1033b. 

Difference p.c. ... -4.0 +1.4 +i-5 +2.4 -6.0 

Maitland took the figure of Population from Ellis, 
who probably did not attempt to reduce the number of 
undertenants as has been done in Table VII.; and took 
the Valet from Pearson, who included estimates of the 
value of the royal farms and of silver when paid in 
various ways (§ 114), which I have not dared to do. In 
all other cases my figures are the higher, but their per- 
centage difference from Maitland's totals is not large ; 
it is not so likely to be due to faulty arithmetic as to the 
principles respectively adopted in the interpretation of 
the record. 

Similarly the figures of population given in Mr 
Airy's " Digest," when comparable with those in the 
present Tables, are not found to agree with them 
exactly. 

§ 15. Apologia. — One great Domesday student 
has written of another, " Great masses of [his] work 
consist of similar guesses and assumptions. Now if 
these were kept scrupulously apart from the facts, they 
would not much matter; but they are so inextricably 
confused with the real facts of Domesday that, virtu- 
ally, one can never be sure if one is dealing with facts 
or fancies." The present writer has most earnestly 
tried to give no just foundation for a similar criticism; 
the third part of this memoir is indeed packed with 
" guesses and assumptions " ; but every effort has been 
made to say, as clearly as language permits, what are 
fancies and what are facts. It is surely permissible, 
without defying this Society's motto, to hazard sugges- 
tions, which can be tested against inferences from the 
record in other counties. This indeed was one of the 
chief motives for undertaking the work; without such 
suggestions the interpretation of D.B. can make no 
further advance, for all its salient features have been 
picked out long ago, and only local spade-work can 
correct and add to the inferences which earlier students 
have already drawn. 

§ 16. Literature.— Reference has been frequently 
made in foot-notes to works of which the full titles are : 

Baring, F. H. — Dorr.csdav Table*. London, iqoo, Svo. 

Davis, H. W. C. and Wriitwell, R. J. — Regesta Regum Anglo-Nnrmar.norum. 

Vol. i. ; Oxford, 1913, Svo. Quoted as ' Regesta.' 
Freeman, E. A. — The Norman Conquest. London, 1870-1876, Svo. Quoted 

as ' Freeman, N. C.' 
Maitland, F. W. — Domesday Book and Beyond. Cambridge, 1907, 8vo. 

Quoted as ' Maitland, D. B.' 

a. Maitland : D.B., 400-401. 



Round, J. H. — Feudal England. London, 1909, Svo. Quoted as ' Round, 

Round, J. H. — Domesday Studies (reprinted from Domesday Commemora- 
tion Studies. London, 1S88-1891, 410.) 

Turner, G. J. — Calendar of Feet of Fines relating to County of Hunting- 
don. — Camb. Antiq. Soc., 1913, Svo. Quoted as ' Turner, Hunts. 
Fines.' 

Walter of Henley; together with an Anonymous Husbandry. Seneschaucie, 
etc. R. Hist. Soc., 1S90, Svo. Quoted as ' R. Hist. Soc.' 

Full acknowledgment of the present writer's in- 
debtedness to the works of Dr. J. H. Round and the 
late Professor Maitland is impossible ; the obligation 
can only be met by a humble attempt to follow in the 
paths which they have illumined. To Dr. J. E. Morris 
and to another friend, who read practically the whole 
memoir in manuscript, he owes thanks for many sug- 
gestions and corrections. 

§17. Explanation of common terms. — The 

Guides to each Table successively follow this para- 
graph, but inference and detailed explanation have 
been deferred to Part III. To those who are unfamiliar 
with the language of D.B., the following brief but 
limited definitions of words used in the Tables may 
prove temporarily helpful; their subjects are discussed 
at length in the paragraphs set against them. 

Hide of land — the unit of assessment for Danegeld § s4 

Hidage — the assessment of an estate in hides § 55*57 

Teamland — the land which can be tilled by one team of 

8 oxen § 59, 60 

Demesne — lands retained in the lord's hand for personal 

use or profit 

Villans bordars serfs — peasants dependent 3n the lord, 

graded in order of descending importance § 99-105 

Valet — the yearly value of the land and other profits ... § 118-121 
Socmen — dependents of higher status than villans, lower 

than 'sub-tenants'; chiefly pre Conquest § 98, 138-141 

GUIDE TO TABLE I. 

§ 18. Tabulation of the Vills. — Except for the 
first nine entries in our Record, most of the information 
given by D.B. falls readily into tabular form. State- 
ments which cannot well be exhibited thus, such as 
claims and disseisins, are set out on the right-hand 
pages of Table I ; with them are printed passages of 
which the exact meaning is doubtful, or which contain 
unusual facts or expressions. This first table, which is 
the basis of the whole memoir, includes (it is believed) 
with one exception, all the information furnished by 
the original text; it was prepared from the Facsimile 
edition, has been checked by Mr Ragg's translation, 
and has been collated with the original manuscript 
where any uncertainty was felt. The single omission 
referred to above is the power of his disposal of his 
land possessed by the pre-Conquest holder; this was so 
nearly universal in Bedfordshire, that only those cases 
where it was wanting have been given in Table I., and 
they will be found in column xxiii. 

Column 

i This gives the modern or modernised name of the vill or 
manor, and the D.B. spellings of each separate holding, pre- 
ceded by the serial number of the entry ; a manor (§ 90, 91) is 
printed in thick type, a less important holding in ordinary 
type. 

ii The assessment of the land for taxation is given in hides and 
virgates, and the equation 1 hide = 4 virgates = i2o acres has 
been accepted. Thus a half hide is shown in the table as 2 
virgates, and an acre as 1/30 virgate. 

iii The figures show the number of team lands, an expression of 
the amount of arable land which was or might 
be made available. A team is generally accepted as having 
consisted of eight oxen; lesser numbers of oxen than the full 
team are expressed as fractions of a team; thus * means three 
oxen, and \ means a half team (dimidia caruca) or four oxen. 

iv The names of the tenants in chief in 10S6 are recorded in this 
column. Strictly speaking, under King William all T. in C. 



6 



FART I 



§ 19-20 



held land only from him; some entries however expressly state 
that 'A. de B. hulds from the King,' and the tact has then 
been recorded in the Table, but its significance, U any, is not 
yet clear 78). The estates of all tenants in chief have been 
brought together in Tables IV and V. 
v contains the names of the subtenants in 10S6. Their estates ha>e 
been brought together in Table V 1 1. 

vi records the tenants, apparently the sitting tenants, T.R-E. Its 
position enables their relation to the men in cols, v and vii to be 
seen readily. The named men are arranged alphabetically in 
Table VIII, the socmen are brought together in Table IX. 

vii shows the tenants of superior rank or the overlords of the 
lesser men, T.R.E. Their estates have been brought together 
alphabetically in Table VIII. 

viii — x relate to the ' demesne,' land retained for his own use or profit 
by the lord. 

viii shows the number of hides and virgates in demesne, 
ix shows the number of teams actually there. 

x the number of further teams for which arable land was available, 
xi — xiii deal with the villans. 

xi gives the number of villans on the holdings, 

xii the number of teams which the villans, bordars, and serfs, had 
there, 

xiii the number of further villan teams for which arable land was 
available. 

xiv shows the number of bordars on the holding. 

xv shows the number of serfs on the holding. 

xvi states the number of teams for which meadow was available. 

xvii records the number of swine which the woodland could support 
(pannage). 

xviii shows the number of water mills connected with the holding, and 
xix the yearly value of the profits from the mills (multure, etc.). 

xx — xxii The royal manors are not included in these totals. 

xx states the total value ('valet') of the holding from all sources 
in 10S6. 

xxi gives the same valet when the land was received by the post- 
Conquest holder (quando receptum or Q.R.). generally taken as 
late in 1066, or in 1067. 

xxii shows the same ' valet * before the Conquest, generally taken as 
the first three quarters o£ 1066. 

xxiii This contains statements which do not appear in the tables, 
as well as passages of unusual form or doubtful meaaing. 

§ 19. Textual Notes to Table L — 

Arlesey, 47, 97. Baring suggests that the fractions have been wrongly 
entered. 

Barford, Great, 157. The scribe wrote 'car,' underlined it for deletion, 

and wrote ' hid ' above the line. 
Ba r ford, Great, 158. Although the scribe, having written xl sol', 

deleted the * sol * and substituted ' li ', there can be no doubt that 

he meant * sol * ; hides cannot be worth 40 ' li and the Q.R. 

and T.R.E. valets show that shillings were meant. 
Battlesdon, 76. The hidage is given as ' vizij * ; apparently the scribe 

made a minim-stroke too many. Eight hides bring the total of the 

vill to 10 hides. 
Battlesdon, 264. The valet of 7I1. is obviously a slip for 7s. 
Bedford Church, 44. This seems to be a repetition of part of Entry 1, 

under the esrate of the Bishop. 
Broom, 189. This entry has been added in the margin : Broom was pro- 

ably a manor, but is not so marked. 
Campton, 200. The hidage is uncertain; there seems to be a superfluous 

' et '. 

Eversholt, 356. The socmen villan and valet under this entry refer to the 
triple holding in Eversholt Potsgrave and Woburn. 

Leighton Church, 45. This seems to be a repetition of part of entry 3, 
under the estate of the Bishop. 

Meppershall, 281. The line of figuies given in the Table seems to repre- 
sent the sum for entries 281 and d, except for the hidage and 
team-lands. 

Millbrook, 187. More T.R.E. holders than Godwin are implied. 

Milton Ernest, 197. The enumeration of the villan ploughs is imperfect ; 

the facts seem to have been as shown in the Table. 
Stanford, 370. " In the same vill holds Ordui and four parts of a virgate." 

The valet shows that some land has been omitted; in the Table 

Ordui is credited with 2j v., a guess based on the team land, the 

valet, and the "five-bide unit." 
Staughton, 90. The Saxon holder was probably " a man of Godric the 

Sheriff." 

Staughton, 254. It is permissible to guess that the Q.R. valet is too high. 
Stratton, 242. The name of the Norman sub-tenant has been omitted. The 

scribe may have meant that there was one team on demesne, and a 

half-team short, but the phrasing is obscure. 
Sutton, 315. Entry in margin. 

Wymington, 367. The doubtful words 1 de do ' have been taken as * de 
dono [Regis]'. 

§ 20. Schedule to Table I. — The schedule to 
Table I, which now follows here, contains a translation 
of entries which refer to lands now or formerly wholly 
or partly in Bedfordshire, but then assessed in other 
counties (terra forinseca); and to land then in another 
county but assessed in Bedfordshire (terra extrinseca). 
In order to complete the picture, the forinsec entries 
have been tabulated under their vills in Table I, and 
are there recognisable by being lettered and not num- 



bered; their tenants appear at the end of Tables IV, 

VII, VIII. But parts of Stanwick, Rushden and 

Newton Bromswold (now in Northants) and of Edles- 
borough (now in Bucks) were intrinsec, were actually in 

the County of Bedfordshire lor administrative 
purposes. 

A. TERRA FORINSECA. 

Hertfordshire. 

a. Land of Robert de Todeni (Treunge Hundred). — 

In Bereworde Baldric holds of Robert five hides. 
There is land for three teams. On the demesne 
are two, and there can be a third. There are three 
villans with a priest and a certain frenchman with 
four bordars. Meadow for a team. Pasture for 
the township's cattle. Wood for a hundred swine. 
In all it is worth 40 shillings, when received 30 
shillings, T.R.E. 60 shillings. This land Osulf son 
of Frane held, and could sell to whom he would 
[i, 138]. 

b. Land of St. Paul of London (Danais Hundred).— 

The Canons of London hold Canesworde. For 
ten hides it answers. There is land for ten teams. 
On the demesne are five hides, and there are two 
teams and might be three more. There eight 
villans with three bordars have two teams, and 
there might be three more. There are three serfs. 
Pasture for [the township's] cattle ; wood for a 
hundred swine, and from rent of wood two shil- 
lings. In all it is worth 70 shillings, when received 
100 shillings, and the same T.R.E. This manor 
Lewin cilt held of King Edward [i, 136]. 

c. The same Canons hold Cadendone. For ten hides 

it answers. There is land for ten teams. On 
demesne are four hides, and there is one team and 
might be three more. There twenty two villans 
have six teams. There are five bordars and two 
serfs. Pasture for [the township's] cattle. Wood 
for a hundred swine, and two shillings' In all it is 
worth a hundred and ten shillings, when received 
six pounds, and as much T.R.E. This manor 
Lewin held from King Edward, [i, 136]. 

d. Land of Gilbert son of Salomon (Tredunge Hun- 

dred). — Gilbert son of Salomon holds Maper- 
teshale. For three hides and a virgate it answers. 
There are three villans and four cottars. This 
land is assessed in Bedefordscyre with the rest of 
the land. This land Lewin thane of King 
Edward held [i, 142]. 

e. Land of the King (Hiz Half Hundred). — King 

William holds Westone. For five hides it answers. 
There is land for fourteen teams. On demesne are 
two hides, and there are two teams. And sixteen 
villans with three borders have five teams and there 
might be five more. There are four serfs. 
Meadow for seven teams. Pasture for the town- 
ship's cattle. Wood for four hundred swine, and 
three shillings. This manor Earl Harold held, 
and it lay and lies to Hiz [Hitchin]. But the 
assessment (wara) of this manor lay in Bedeford- 
scire T.R.E. in the Hundred of Maneheue, and 
the manor is there and always was. And after the 
death of King Edward it did not acquit itself of 
the king's geld, [i, i32d]. 



HAKT I 



f. Land of Robert de Oltji. — In Polehangre Martel 

holds of Robert de Oilgi a half hide. There is 
land for a team, and it is there with two cottars 
and two serfs. Meadow for a team. Wood for 
two swine. It is and was worth 10 shillings, 
T.R.E. 20 shillings. This land Aluric man of 
Earl Wallef held and could sell [i, 13rd]. 

Huntingdonshire. 

g. Land of the Bishop of Lincoln (Lestone Hundred). 

— In Partenhale Alwin had a virgate of land for 
geld. There is land for half a team. This land 
lies in Bedefordescire, but renders geld and ser- 
vice in Hontedunescire. This the King's servants 
claim for his use. Worth 5 shillings T.R.E. and 
now. William [? de Warenne] holds from Bishop 
R[emigius], and ploughs it with his own demesne, 
[i, 203 dorso.] 

h. Of one virgate of land of Alwin Deule in Partenhale 

King Edward had the soke [i, 208]. 

i. Land of William de Warene. — In Caissot Allic 

[had] three virgates of land for geld. There is 
land for six oxen. [It is] a soke. There are one 
socman and seven bordars and four acres of 
meadow and fifty acres of pasturable woodland, 
[i, 205 dorso]. 

j. Land of William de Warene. — In Suineshefet are 
three hides and a half for geld. There is land for 
four teams. [It is] a soke. There are now one 
socman and seven villans and five bordars and 
sixteen acres of meadow. Pasturable woodland, 
one league long ai jd four furlongs broad. It is 
worth 40 shillings. Eustace Lthe Sheriff] holds 
from William [i, 205 dorso]. 

k. The men of the County witness that King Edward 
gave Swineshefet, soke and sake, to Earl Siward. 
And Earl Harold held it thus, save that they paid 
geld in the hundred 'and in the army marched with 
them, [i, 208]. 

1. Land of Eustace the Sheriff. (Kenebaltune Hun- 
dred). — In Swineshefet had Furfa a half hide for 
geld. There is land for a half team, with sake and 
soke. There is now one villan, and three acres of 
meadow. Pasturable wood one league 111 length 
and one furlong in breadth. It was worth 15 shil- 
lings, T.R.E., now 6 shillings. Ralf holds it from 
Eustace [i, 206]. 

m. From Furfa's land the soke was the King's [i, 208]. 

n. Land of the King's Thanes. (Delestune Hundred). 
— In Caissot had Alwin one virgate of land for 
geld with sake and soke. There is land for two 
oxen. It lies in Bedefordescira but pays geld in 
Hunted[one]scire. The same man holds now 
from the King, and has there one villan with two 
oxen in the team. It was worth 16 pence T.R.E., 
now likewise [i, 207d]. 

o. Land of Rannulf. (Toleslund Hundred). — In 

Evretune Ingewar had seven hides for geld. 
There is land for eighteen teams. There 
are now in demesne two teams, and nine- 
teen villans and two bordars having nine teams. 

a. It seems possible that this may be Staughton co. "i3eds. , not Easton 
co. Hunts., as has been hitherto supposed ; in that case it would be classed 



There is a priest and a church and fifteen acres of 
meadow and forty acres of underwood. T.R.E. 
it was worth 10 li. Rannulf brother of Ilger holds 
it from the King, [i, 207]. 

Northamptonshire. 
Land of William Peverel. — To this manor 
[Higham Ferrars] belong these members : 
p. In Farnedis are three virgates of soke-Iand. There 
is land for one team, which two socmen have 
there [i, 225d]. 
q. In Potintone is a half hide of soke-land. There are 
four villans with one team [i, 223d]. 

B. TERRA EXTRINSECA. 

Huntingdonshire, 
r. The County bears witness that the third part of a 
half hide which lies in Estone 1 and pays geld in 
Bedefordscire belongs to Spalduic a manor of the 
Abbot of Ely, and thus the Abbot held it T.R.E., 
and for five years after the coming of King 
William. This land Eustace reft by force from 
the church, and keeps it [i, 208]. 

GUIDE TO TABLE II. 

§ 21. Tabulation of the Hundreds. — The head- 
ings of the columns in Table II. are identical with 
those of Table I., except (a) for the addition of columns 
showing the number of socmen T.R.E., and giving the 
percentages which the Valets of 1086 and Q.R. bear to 
the Valet of King Edward's day; and (b) for the 
omission of the holders and subtenants of 1086 and 
1066, and of the annual value of the mills, since 
neither of these seemed to bear on the constitution of 
the Hundred. 

The figures given for each vill are the sums of 
those for the separate holdings in Table I ; the totals 
below form a summary of the statistics of the Hundred. 
For the sake of completeness, similar tables have been 
furnished for forinsec extrinsec and extracentenal 
lands (for these terms see § io, 41). 

GUIDE TO TABLE III. 

§ 22. Tabulation of the Shire. — In this Table 
the headings of the columns are the same as those of 
Table II, except for the omission of the Valet percen- 
tages. By addition of the totals got from Table II, is 
obtained the line marked ' Total A,' which summarises 
the united Hundreds and Half Hundreds. The addi- 
tion to this of the extracentenal and extrinsec land in 
the line marked ' Total B,' gives a complete view of 
the composition of the D.B. County. But, for compari- 
son with later statistics, the forinsec land, which has no 
place in the D.B. county, should be added; this has 
been done so far as seemed safe, and yields the line 
marked ' Total C 

Xote. In the line of extracentenal land and col. xvi, the Bishop of 
Lincoln's a li. appears in order to balance with Table VI. col. x. Owing 
to the unknown value of the farm of the Royal Manors, their value cannot 
be given. 

GUIDE TO TABLE IV. 

§ 23. Tabulation of Estates of Tenants in Chief. 

— This table is intended (a) to show the actual order of 
the entries in D.B., and the number of the folio on which 

as forinsec land. 



s 



PART 1 



§ 24—28 



each occurs, arranged according to the estates of the 
various Tenants in Chief; (b) to give some idea of what 
such an estate actually implied, in men kind and 
money. 

A. the various classes of men dependent on the Tenant in Chief are 
brought together in three columns : 

(ii) Undertenants, apparently of that cla^s which appears Inter as 
Lords of Manors. Although these men often held more than one 
manor, they would owe military service in respect of each 
separately ; they should therefore be reckoned in each case for 
military service, though not for statistics of population. 

(iii) Undertenants of less importance— socmen, soldiers, and small- 
holders. It is not always possible sharply to distinguish be- 
tween this class and the former. 

(iv) Villans, bordars, and serfs. 

D. The total land over which the T. in C. had ultimate control, and for 
the assessment on which he seems to have been accountable to the 
King, his estate or fief, is expressed both by the hidage (v), and by 
the number of teams for which there is land (vi), 

C. The land which the T. in C. retained for his own use, known as his 
demesne, is shown by the carucates (vii) or hides (viii) at which it is 
assessed ; the number of teams on the demesne is also given (ix). 

D. In the case of T. in C, but not of -undertenants, the other sources of 
revenue in kind or in money, follow; — the number of mills (x) "with 
their money value (xi) and their due of eels (xii) ; the wocd, expressed 
by the number of swine for which there was pannage (xiii), and its 
dues in money (xiv) ; the meadow, expressed by the number of teams 
(xv), and its dues in money (xvi). Next is shown the value of each 
holding at the moment (xvii), and the percentage ratio which it bears 
to the Q.R. Valet or value of the holding when received (xviii). 

E. The antecessor, the T.U.E. holder, is named in the last column (xix). 
A few explanatory notes may be added : — 

Bedford i. For details see Table I, col. xxiii. The valet of the church 

is shown under 44. 
Leighton 2, Luton 4, Houghton Regis 6. — The value of the Royal farms 

paid in kind, cannot safely be expressed in money, and therefore no 

valet is given. For details of these manors, see Table I, col. xxiii. 

The valet of Leighton Church is entered under 45. 
Milton Ernest 09a. — This most ambiguous entry has been tabled on the 

suppositions that (l) it formed part of the land of Miles Crispin, (2) it 

still had two socmen on it, (3) it was a separate holding from the 

Clapham manor. 
Southil) 246, — A half hide of wood. 
Southill 262. — A half hide of wood. 

Meppershall, 281. — The hidage and team lands returned under Hertford- 
shire (Meppershall d) are here omitted ; but the other details are in- 
cluded, for it is not safe to separate them. 

When the D.B. formula runs " There is land for . . . teams and they are 
there " ; their figure is included in parentheses ( ), because in some cases 
villan teams may have been (though they probably have not been) included 
in the number stated. 

§ 24. Tenants in Chief as Undertenants. — 
A point on which it is impossible to be certain is the 
extent to which T. in C. were also undertenants of 
other T. in C. for convenience of husbandry. In some 
cases such undertenancy is unmistakeable, because the 
full name is given; for example, Eudo Dapifer in 
Wyboston 55. Judged by the topographical position 
of their other holdings, it seems probable that in this 
way several T. in C. appear as undertenants only by 
their christen-names, and an attempt will be made 
later on to identify some of them (§ 30). In separating 
columns ii and iii some regard has been paid to this 
point in order not to swell unduly the column of small- 
holders, etc.; but both these columns are only of the 
roughest kind of approximation ; and in any case they 
represent tenancies, not individuals. 

§ 25. Rubricated Headings to the Fiefs. — The 
name of the T. in C, and his number in the list of such 
tenants on fo. 209, are rubricated at the head of each 
fief or estate. 

In two cases only does any difficulty appear, (a) We have on fo. 216 
" William " as the holder of 2 h. in Farndish 26S, a blank being 

left for his surname. It seems likely that William Pevcrel was intended. 
Part of Farndish (p. in Table I) was a membrum of his manor of Iligham 
Ferrars ; and he was a sufficiently important person to have been entered 
simply as 'William ' in the returns from the Hundred, to the confusion of 
the Norman scribe unacquainted with the local magnates of the next county. 

(b) On fo. 218, under the rubric of " Land of the Burgesses of Bedford," 
are entered four men who are described either as "of Bedford " or as 
" burgess " ; they are clear enough. After these entries comes a blank 



space for a missing rubric, followed by five entries, 351-355 of Table III), 
these are succeeded on fo. 218 d by " The Land of the King s Reeves and 
Almsmen", properly rubricated. The five tenants without a rubric are 
fairly obviously not Burgesses, for their tiny holdings he far lrom Bedford, 
between Hinwick in the north and Arlesey in the south. Of the first of 
these we are told definitely that King William granted the land in alms, 
of the next thiee that they or their fathers before them held the same 
land T.R.K., and that the fifth is or was an inferior officer of the King. 
All these entries are ot precisely the same type as those of the Reeves and 
Almsmen, who follow them; and the natural inference is that they deal 
with the same kind of folk. Since for the Reeves and Almsmen an al- 
ternative title, the " King's Service " (ministerium Regis) has been used 
in the Tables, these unrubricated five have been entered as " ? King's 
Service " in Tables IV and V, but fused with Reeves and Almsmen in 
Table VI. 

§ 26. Miscellaneous profits. — The following 
have not been included in Table IV. among sources of 
revenue to T. in C. 



Abbot of Ramsey 

F.udo dapifex 
Eudo dapifer 
Hugh de 

Beauchamp 
Nigel d'Albini 

Nigel d'Albini 
Walter Fleming 

Walter Fleming 

Osbert piscator 
Ralf de Insula 
Countess Judith 
Countess Judith 



Iron for [?a] plough [from the Cranfield 52. 
woodland] 

Two acres of vineyard. Eaton Socon 103. 

Pasture for the cattle of the vill. Sandy 10S. 

A park of woodland beasts. Stagsden 125. 

A ram and a load of oats from the Harlingdon 1S3. 

wood. 

Iron for [ ?a] plough rfrom the wood] Westcotts 191. 
From pasture 6s. and there is yet Langford 245. 

pasture for 300 sheep. 
From dues of the wood ten rams Segcnho 249. 

yearly. 
A fish stew. 
5s. from hay. 
From pasture 2s. 
Pasture for the cattle of the vill. 



Sharnbrook 275. 
Biggleswade 289 
Kcmpstorfc 298. 
Potton 313. 



GUIDE TO TABLE V. 



§ 27. Synthesis of the Estates of Tenants in 

Chief. — The figures in this table are the sums of the 
separate holdings in Table IV, and show roughly what 
each man had in the county. Additional columns show 
(xviii) the amount due from his fief for Danegeld at 2 
shillings on the hide, which was at the rate usually de- 
manded; (xix) the total value of all lands which he re- 
tained in his demesne, if any were so retained; (xx) the 
percentage ratio which their value bore to the Q.R. 
valet, as an index of the efficiency of his administration 
or husbandry. 

GUIDE TO TABLE VI. 

§ 28. Classified Summary of Primary Tenancies, 
1086. — In this table the main features of the distribu- 
tion of the men lands and value of the County, among 
the primary classes of tenants, have been brought out 
by summing the corresponding columns of Tables IV or 
V; and percentages of the totals have been calculated 
when the figures were fairly certain. Twenty-six 
carucates of Baronial land escaped taxation and are not 
included in these totals. 

Of Bedford Town only a hide was assessed for geld. 
Its valet is included under Church Land (Bedford 44). 
The only valet given here for Royal lands is that of 
Biscot, this vill being in a Hundred and the valet there- 
fore needed to make up to the Total B. of Table III, 
col. xvi. Totternhoe appears to have contained a No- 
Rent party who declined to pay geld for their hides 
(Totternhoe 233). Their land has to be reckoned here 
in order to bring the hidage (nearly) up to that of Total 
B of Table III, col. ii. There is a discrepancy be- 
tween tables III and VI of 10a. on the total hidage, 
and of half a team on the total team lands. To correct 
these might take weeks of work, and, as the errors are 
only microscopic percentages, they are negligible for 
our purposes. 



§ 29-30 



PART I 



9 



GUIDE TO TABLE VII. 

§ 29. Tabulation of Sub-tenancies, 1086. — The 

Undertenants, set in alphabetical order under their 
font-names, have been treated similarly to the T. in C. 
in Table IV, with the addition of a column (xix) for 
Danegeld at 6s. on the hide (the rate in 10S9), and the 
substitution of their overlord (or other primary estate) 
for the antecessor in the last column. Their ' manorial ' 
profits — demesne, mill, wood, etc. — which did not ap- 
pear in the estates of the overlords in Tables IV- VI, 
are here shown under the name of the tenant who ap- 
pears to have actually enjoyed them. 

Those who still held the same land as before the 
Conquest are marked "(T.R.E.)" Those who held 
jointly with another tenant ere marked "(jointly)." 
When the undertenant has underlet his holding to 
another, he is marked "(mesne) ;" the sources of 
manorial profit are not shown under his name, but 
under that of the ultimate tenant or rear vassal, who is 
marked "(rear)." 

When the entry runs " There is land for . . . teams 
and they are there," these teams appear under the 
demesne in parentheses (. . .). 

§ 30. Multiple holdings of Undertenants. — 

Names which are believed to represent the same man 
are bracketed together. In many instances their 
identity is obvious, both font-name and surname being 
recorded in full; in other cases only a font-name is 
given. 

Reference has already been made to the occurrence, among Undertenants, 
of T. in C, who held outlying lands of other estates for convenience of 
husbandry. Thus Kudo dapifer held from the. Abbot of Ramsey, in 
Wyboston 55 and Little Barford 56, lands which were convenient to his 
own, but remote from the demesne manors of Ramsey. The Abbot of St. 
Edmund held a half hide from Countess Judith in Blunham 328, which he 
could farm with his own demesne of Blunham 50, but was separated from 
her demesne of Potton by the whole breadth of Sandy. Miles Crispin held 
from Countess Judith a hide in Oakley 300, which could be worked from 
his demesne manor in Clapham 99 more easily than from her nearest 
demesne manor of Kempston, 298. It is not so apparent why Ranulf 
brother of Ilger, who only held Pavenham 230 in chief in Bedfordshire, 
should have farmed Countess Judith's land at Everton 323, until we find 
that he held in chief the Huntingdonshire portion of Everton also {D.B. 
Hunts., fo. 207, Everton 134). 

Besides these clear cases, there is a probability that other T. in C. 
are concealed among L'ndertenants owing to the omission of their surname. 
Nor is the omission surprising; if Countess Judith held a small outlying 
piece of land, in a district where she had nothing else but Hugh de 
Beauchamp had a big demesne, she might well let it to hini at farm ; and, 
in making out his return for the Vill or Hundred, the scribe who had 
already entered Hugh de Beauchamp as the big T. in C. there, would 
merely write that ' Hugh ' held as undertenant from the Countess. It is 
not to be supposed that such undertenancies, of which there seem to be 
several, were in the nature of solemn 'subinfeudations', to appear later 
in the lists ' de veteri feffamento ' ; they were in most cases merely tem- 
porary arrangements in the interest of a more economic agriculture, but 
some undoubtedly persisted, resulting in the transference of land from one 
Honour to another. 

Among the smaller men who were purely undertenants, there are also 
cases where more than one entry appears to refer to the same man. Here 
the nearness to each other of the different holdings, and the fact of a 
common overlord, are the chief arguments for the use of the bracket ; but 
in some cases the later association of the tenant's descendants with the 
lands in question has been also available. A few notes on individual cases 
follow. 

Alric. The three holdings under this name are in contiguous manors. 
Alwin. The four holdings in Sutton probably represent one under- 
tenant, 

Alwin reeve with three holdings may represent a second Alwin, 
Alwin in Clifton or Beeston may be identical with either of these. 
It is most unlikely that, if the bearers of this name were numerous separate 
persons, they should all be confined to a small area in the extreme eastern 
side of the county. 

Bernard. The lands in the neighbouring vills of Astwick and Henlow, 
held from the linked estates of AEelina Taillebois and Hugh de Beauchamp, 
were probably in the hand of one undertenant. It is probable that he 
was identical with Burnard in Arlesey, which touches both Astwick and 
Henlow. 

Gilbert, who held in Felmersham from Countess Judith, is undoubtedly 
Gilbert son of Salomon. The two parts of his holding — the one by serjeanty 
as Larderer, the other from the Honour of Huntingdon — remain distinct 



for a long time. Compare B.H.R.S., vi, 34, no. 140, where David Earl 
of Huntingdon represents the Honour in "1205. 

Hugh. Eighteen holdings of undertenants are registered in this name 
which, though common, was not so disproportionately predominant among 
the Normans. 

When the eighteen Hughs are listed, it is sufficiently remarkable that 
they are all found to be undertenants of only three estates — William Spech, 
Countess Judith, and the linked estates of the Wahull family (Walter 
Fleming, and Walter brother of Seier his supposed uncle). If there were 
eighteen separate Hugh undertenants, it is most improbable that they 
should be confined to three estates; the point is fairly obvious if the Ralf 
Robert and Roger undertenants in the same list are considered. Maps II 
and III should be consulted, if it be desired to grasp the evidence cited 
below. 

In Streatley 211, Hugh holds 20 acres from William Spech. Hugh de 
Beauchamp had land there, but not in demesne. There is no evidence, 
therefore, of identity. 

In Stanford 220, Hugh holds ih. ov. from William Spech. Hugh de 
Beauchamp had ih. o}v. there in demesne (Stanford 130), and probably 
ih. in Southill from Countess Judith (Southill 324), as well as his demesne 
of 2h. iv. there (Southill 129); he may well have farmed William Spech's 
hide. 

In Houghton Conquest 295, Hugh holds oh. av. from the Countess. 
Hugh de Beauchamp had 5I1. ov. there in demesne (Houghton Conquest 
>3S)- 

In Bolnhurst 299, Hugh holds oh. 2v. from the Countess, who had no 
demesne anywhere near. Hugh de Beauchamp had no demesne or other 

land in Bolnhurst, but in Keysoe 122 the next village, 4I1. 3V. were of his 
demesne. In the Testa de Nevill, land in Bolnhurst is held of the Honour 

of Bedford, so that Hugh 01 his successors obtained a permanent title in 
fee. 

In Bromham 302, Hugh holds 2h, ov., and in Stagsden 303, he holds 
Th. ov., from the Countess. In Stagsden 125, Hugh de Beauchamp held 
5h. ov., in demesne, from which the other two could be worked. 

In Southill 324, Hugh holds ih. ov. from the Countess, who had no 
land near. Hugh de Beauchamp held 2h. iv. in demesne (Southill 129). 

In Cardington 326, Hugh holds 3h. ijv., and in the adjacent Cople 327 
he holds oh. iv., from the Countess. Hugh de Beauchamp held in demesne 
6h. 2jv. in Cardington 131, from which both the other holdings covid be 
worked. 

In Radwell 305, Hugh holds 2h. 2jv., and in Sharnbrook 307, oh. 3V. 
from the Countess. Hugh de Beauchamp had no land in demesne in the 
neighbourhood, and no land at all in Radwell; but in the. Testa de Nevill 
lands in Radwell are held of the Honour of Bedford . 

In Potton 309 Hugh holds 15 acres from the Countess. As this was 
her chief demesne manor, this Hugh is almost certainly not Hugh de 
Beauchamp, but probably a retainer of the Countess. 

When we turn to the six Hugh undertenants of the Wahull family, 
we find another possibility of reducing their number. Walter Fleming's 
lands were in three widely separate sections; one group in Willey Hundred 
—Udell or Wahull, Podington, Wymington, Milton Ernest, Thurleigh, and 
Turvey; a second group in the extreme east of the county — Slratton, Holme, 
Astwick, Langford. Southill, and Henlow; and lastly one outlying manor 
at Totternhoe. In the district of the first group we find as a Tenant in 
Chief one Hugh Fleming, possibly a brother and certainly a compatriot and 
adherent of Walter Fleming ; and I suggest that he was the Hugh who 
held as undertenant ia Turvey 235, Podington 237, and Thurleigh 240. If, 
as seems likely he was also the Hugh undertenant in Astwick 244 and 
Henlow 248, he may have been managing the demesne manor of Langford; 
and in this connection it is interesting and significant that while Hugh 
Fleming's own demesnes had appreciated by 50 per cent, above the Q.R. 
value, and while Odell, the future head of Walter Fleming's barony had 
depreciated by 38 per cent., Langford on the other hand had appreciated 
by 55 per cent. 

He may also well have been the Hugh who held 4h. Ov. from Walter 
brother of Seier (Walter Fleming's supposed uncle) in Silsoe 2150; and 
here again the comparative values support the suggestion, for Walter's sole 
demesne manor of Segenho 249 had depreciated by 40 per cent., while 
Silsoe in Hugh's hands had appreciated by 60 per cent. Of two virgates 
of this land, his men claim that Hugh holds them ' from the King ' ; he 
is therefore probably a tenant in chief. 

If the foregoing surmises are correct, we are left with four Hughs, 
who are shown as such in this Table- Both Dr. Morris (B.H.R.S., 1, 201, 
202; v. 2, 3) and writers in V.C.H. Beds, have to some extent antici- 
pated these suggestions, but approached the matter from another point of 
view. 

Osbert de Broilg. Osbern and Osbert were treated as the. same name 
by the scribe of the Beds. D.B. Thus under the general heading of 
Osbern son of Richard, he is named twice as Osbert and once as Osbern. 

Osbert. A triple mention of this bare name has been assigned to one 
man on the strength of the common overlord. 

Pirot. The four entries probably refer to the same man, as the later 
family of that name held ' Perot's Manor ' in Beeston. in Wyboston, and 
in Pulloxhill and Harhngton ; the two latter touch Streatley and were 
also d'Albini land. 

Rail Passaquam. A second Ralf is bracketed with hini, because his 
descendants later held in Biddenham under the Norman name Passelewe 
(Passe 1' eau). 

Walter Monachus or Le Moyne left a family which held in Wardon, 
Chicksand, and Beeston in Northill ; the first three Walters are therefore 
bracketed. The common overlord of Northill and Goldington points rather 
to the fourth Walter being the same man. 

Walter f? Fleming]. These holdings are assigned to him from their 
nearness to his chief manor of Odell, while William Soech had no demesne 
within many miles. The point of Walter Fleming's agricultural ineffi- 
ciency, already raised, crops up again; as one of these holdings had only 
maintained, the other had fallen to 20 per cent., of the Q.R. valet. 



10 



PART I 



§ 31—36 



§ 31. Miscellaneous profits. — The following 
have not been included in Table VII among sources of 
revenue to Undertenants. 

Burnard A market of 10s Arlesey gy. 

Erfast From pasture iod. ... Henlow 207. 

William 

camerarius.. From the church 20s, Luton 5. 

GUIDE TO TABLE VIII. 

§ 32. Tabulation of Saxon Estates (socmen 
omitted). — This Tabic has been prepared in order to 
shew all named pre-Conquest holders of lands; the un- 
named socmen form the subject of Table IX. Though 
some were doubtless alien by origin, immigrants in the 
time ol King Edward or even of his predecessors, we 
may for convenience call them Saxons ; they were 
Saxons by domicile, if not by blood. Entries believed 
to refer to the same man are bracketed as in previous 
tables. As the table is intended ultimately for com- 
parison of classes of men before and after the Con- 
quest, the references to a thane's ' men ' are included in 
his bracket, although appearing also in this list under 
their own names. The D.B. hidage, which was prob- 
ably also their hidage, is shown in each case, together 
with the post-Conquest successor. 

GUIDE TO TABLE IX. 

§ 33. Soc Land, 1066 and 1086.— This table 

includes all records of nameless socmen, arranged in 
alphabetical order of the vills (col. ii) for ready refer- 
ence. The numbers in column i, and in the total, give 
the numbers of soclands (lands owing soke), not at all 
necessarily the number of separate persons who owed 
soke for those lands (§ 139). The hidage with which 
they are debited in D.B. fills column iii ; the few soc- 
men of 1086 appear in column iv; when these are said 
to be the same men as before the Conquest they are 
marked by an asterisk*. In column v are any details 
about them which D.B. supplies, and, in the case of 
those who could not give or sell their land, a reference 
to § 138 where this point is discussed. 

This Table is assuredly incomplete : of the 
smaller named men in Table VIII, it is probable that 
many, it is implied that several, were really socmen, 
though they are not specifically described as such. 



GUIDE TO TABLE X. 

§ 34. Thane Land, 1066. —The Thanes of lower 
rank than King's Thanes are few in 1066, and, unlike 
the case in Huntingdonshire, do not appear here at all 
in 1086. The percentage which they held of the hidage 
of the vill is shown in column iv. 

GUIDE TO TABLE XI. 

§ 35. Summary of tenancies, 1066. — This has 
been prepared for comparison with columns vi and vii 
of Table VI, which shows the distribution of land at the 
date of D.B. 

GUIDE TO TABLE XII. 

§ 36. Water Mills arranged by River Systems. — 

The drainage of this County (see Map VII) is all to the 
Wash, except in the S.E. corner where it falls to the 
River Thames by way of the Lea River (VI); the high 
ground of Streatley Sundon and Houghton Regis 
forms the watershed between the two systems. The 
River Ousel (I), rising in the S.W. corner of Bedford- 
shire, soon flows northward through Buckinghamshire, 
receiving in that county a considerable tributary (I A) 
which rises in Woburn. The River Ouse (II), joined by 
the Ousel at Newport Pagnel, enters Bedfordshire at 
Turvcy, and, after confluence with the River Ivel (III) 
at Tempsford, leaves it at Eaton Socon, where it is 
joined by the Till Brook (IV)". The River Ivel (III), 
rising at Baldock, enters the county at Stotfold; before 
confluence with the Ouse it receives two important 
streams, — the River Hiz (III A) from Hitchin, and the 
Sheftord Brook (III B) drawn from numerous sources. 
In the north of the county Podington Brook flows into 
the River Nene, and thus also reaches the Wash. At 
Dunton and Eywortfr the county boundary is formed by 
the River Rhec (V), later called the Cam, which joins 
the Ouse near Ely. 

In Table XII the mills have been arranged hydro- 
c;raphically, by streams from the source downwards. A 
few mills not mentioned in D.B., but recognisable on the 
six-inch Ordnance Survey have been added to the list 
for greater completeness; in their case columns iii and 
iv are blank. In column v, the letter W implies that 
a mill is, or was fairly lately, still at work, as shown by 
the Survey; some evidence of the existence of old mills 
from placenames is set in ' inverted commas ' ; a few 
modern names of mills are given. More detailed notes 
on some mills will be found in § 184. 



a. Also known as the Kym. Antiquaries of the Monkbarns type in- 
vented river names from the villages on their banks; the 'Kym' is par- 
ticularly funny, as Kimbolton (Chenebaltone) means Cynebald's Town. 



The original name of this stream is perhaps the Heile or Haile (B.H.R.S., 
1, 12S) and cognate derivative to Ivel, for Yielden (Gieueldenc) is on 
its early stream. Sec Skeat : Place Names of Bedfordshire, 12. 



11 



PART II : SYNTHETICAL. 



Table I 

Table II 

Table III 

Table IV 



Table V. 

Table VI. 

Table VII. 

Table VIII. 

Table IX. 

Table X. 

Table XI. 

Table XII. 



Synthesis of the Vills ... ••• § 18-20 

Synthesis of the Hundreds ... § 21 

Synthesis of the County ... § 22 

Estates of Tenants in Chief 

(order of Domesday Book § 23-26 

Synthesis of Estates of Tenants 
in Chief (order of Domes- 
day Book) ... ... ... § 27 

Summary of Primary Tenan- 
cies : 1086 ... ... ... § 28 

Synthesis of Estates of Suh- 
Tenants : 1086 (in alpha- 
betical order) ... ••• § 29-31 

Synthesis of Estates of Saxon 
Holders, excepting socmen 
(in alphabetical order) ... § 32 

Soc-land : 1066 and 1086 (by 

vills, alphabetically ... § 33 

Thane-land : 1066 (by vills, 

alphabetically) ... ... § 34 

Summary of tenancies : 1066... § 35 

Mills (by river systems) ... § 36 



12 



TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VILLS 



VlLL 



X 
h. V. 



Column i 

Ampthill. 



188, Amrnetelle. 


5 


0 


8 


Arlesey, 








47. Ahichesel. 


8 




g 


97. Alricheseie.* 


6 




6 


20S. Alricheseia. 


0 


3h 




3^5 Alricesei. 


0 


°l 




Asi'LEV Guise. 








103. ASjKKlJ. 


10 


0 




AST WICK. 








1 f.f. K at ii ii i r hi' 








1 67. Estuuiche, 


0 


2 


1 


100. luu it. lie . 






1 
5 










BarforDj Great. 








157. Bereforde. 


3 


0 


4 


158. Bereforde. 


5 


*t 


1 1 


160. Bereforde. 


1 


2 


2 


161. Bereforde. 


1 


3i 


3 


Bakfokd, Little. 








5G. Bereforde. 


5 


O 


5 


274. Bereforde. 


3 


O 


3 


Barton. 








53. Bertone." 


1 1 


O 


12 


Barworth. 








a. Berewurde. 


5 


O 


3 


Battlesdon. 








76. Kadelesdone. 


L8 


0] 


8 


264. Badelestone. 


0 


2 


i 


334. Badelesdone. 


1 


2 




Bedford. 








1. Bedeford.* 




O 





1086 



Tenant in Chief 



Sub-tenant 



1066 



Demesne 



Villans 



Tenant 



OVERI ORD 



h.V. 



Nigel de Albini. 

Bishop of Durham. 
William de Ow, 

Nigel d'Albini. 
The King. 

Hugh de Beauchamp. 

Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Hugh dc Beauchamp. 
Walter Fleming. 

Hugh de Beauc hamp. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 

Abb. Ramsey. 

1 he King. 

Abb. Ramsey. 



Robert de Todeni. 



Walter Giffard. 
William Chambt 
The King. 

Bp. of Lincoln. 



V 


vi 


vii 


viii 


ix 




ii 


xii 


xiii 


Nigel de Wast. 


~ socmen. 










6 


4 








Abb. of Waltham. 


0 


3 


O 


8 


4 


1 


Burnard. 




Alestan de Boscum.be. 


0 






1 3 


5 


0 




(§h) 1 socman, m. of 


Alestan. 










Erfast. 


2 socmen. 




0 


X 


O 


0 


0 


0 


Ulsi, Kg's. prebendary 


















Acard de Ivri. 


Leveva, commd. to 


Earl Waltheof. 


O 


2 




16 


8 


X 


Bernard. 


6 socmen 




0 


1 


0 


2 


2\ 


0 


Wenelinc. 


[ ? socmen]. 




0 


1 


0 


0 


O 




Ledmar. 


same Ledmar, m. of 


Earl Tosti. 


0 


i 


0 








Hugh. 


Lewin, thane of 


King Edward. 


0 


i 




0 


O 


0 


Rualon. 


3 socmen, m. of 


King Edward. 




3 


0 




I 




Wirnund de Taissel. 


3 socmen. 




0 


5 
1 


u 


J 


6 


0 


Anschetil priest. 


2 socmen. 




0 


0 


X 




0 


retbaud. 


3 socmen. 




0 


2 


0 


I 


1 




( Osbern under ) 




Abb. Ramsey. 


u 


1 


0 




4 


0 


j Eudo dapifer. f 


















Osbern, s. of Walter. 


Ulmar, thane of 


King Edward. 


0 


2 


0 


4 


1 


0 






Abb. Ramsey. 


3° 


2 


I 


20 


9 


0 


Baldric! 




Osulf, s. of Frane. 


0 


2 


1 


3* 


0 


0 


Richard Talebot. 


7 socmen. 




0 


2 


I 


7 


5 


0 


Robert. 




Morcax priest. 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


Azelina Taillebosc. 


Anschil & Alwin, socm 


ill 


0 


1 


i 


2 




0 



St. Paul, Bedford. 



44. Bedeford Ch. 
Beeston. 

114. Bistone. * 

115. Bistone.* 

116. Bistone. 
222. Bistone. 
279. Bistone.* 

353. Bistone. 

371. Bistone*" 



3 o 

4 o 
1 o 
o 3i 



Bp. of Lincoln. 

Eudo, s. of Hubert. 
Eudo, s. of Hubert- 
Eudo, s. of Hubert. 
William Spech. 
The King. 



3 | The King, 

ii * [The King.] 



Rolland after Norman. 

Norman. 

Pirot. 

Turstin chamberlain. 

Godmund. 
Alwin [reeve.] 



Ravan, man of 
Lewin Cilt, thane of 
Godwin, man of 

same Godmund. 
Dot. 



Norman. 
Norman. 
Ulmar of Etone. 
The King. 
Earl Tosti. 



0 


2 O 


4 


X 


O 


1 1 


0 


I O 


4 


3 


O 


1 


0 


I O 


0 


0 


O 




□ 


4 4 


0 




O 




0 


0 0 


0 


0 


O 




0 


1 0 


0 


O 


O 


3 


0 


0 0 


D 


O 







BlDDENHAM. 

39. Bideham. 
48. Bidenham.* 



Bp. of Lincoln. 
Abb. St. Edmund. 



Ernuin priest. 
Ordui of Bedford. 



Leuric,* man of 
Ulmar, priest of 



Bp. of Lincoln. 
King Edward. 



65. Bideham.' 



The King. 



St. Paul. Bedford. 



Leviet, priest. 



King Edward. 



66. Bideham.' 

149. Bideham. 

212. Bideham. 4 

347. Bideham. 

348. Bideham.' 



3 =>l 

O I 

X o* 



i [The King-] 



St. Paul, Bedford. 



Hugh de Beauchamp. Serlo de Ros. 
William Spech. Rail and Serlo de Ros. 



The King. 
The King. 



Osgar of Bedford. 
Godwin of Bedford. 



Marwen. 



? The King. 



Alsi of Bromham, m. of Queen Edith 
11 socmen. 

same Osgar. 

same Godwin, J h. . ... 



TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VILLS 



13 



VlLL 



Column i 

Ampthill. 
1S3. Ammetelle. 

Aei.esey. 
IT. Alrichesel. 

97. Alrirheseie.* 

20S. AJricheseia. 
,55 Alricesei. 

Ash.ey Guise. 
138, Aspclcla. 

Astwick. 
ICG. Estiiulclic. 
jt»7- Estuuiche. 
168. Estuuiche. 
244. Estuuiche. 

Baeford, Great. 

157. Bereforde. 

158. Berelordc. 

160. Bereforde. 

161. Bereforde. 
Barfoed, Little. 

56. Bereforde. 

274. Bereforde. 

Barion. 
53. Bertone." 



Barwosih. 
a. Bereworde. 

Battlesdon. 
76. Radelesdonc. 

264. Badelestone. 
Badelcsdone. 

Bedford. 
Bedeford." 



BtDDENHAM. 

39. Bideharn. 
48. Bidenham.* 



65. Bideham.' 



66. Bideham.* 



MO. Bideham. 

347- Bideham. 

348- Bideham.* 



Mli.LS 



Valet 









w 








d 










s.'d. 


li. s. 


li. s. 


li. s. 



35.0 
0.0 



2.0 
0.6 



2.0 
0.6 



0.0 
10. o 



0.0 
0.0 



o-3 



0.10 
2.0 



0.2 
0.10 



O.IO 

1.0 



0.2 
o. 10 



liv 


XV 


IVi 


xvii 


iviii 


sis 




xxi 


SMI 


2 


I 


6 


300 


0 


0.0 


4.0 


2.0 


4.0 


5 


2 


3 


0 


2 


26.8 


7.0 


7.0 


8.0 


10 


O 


0 


0 


1 


10. 0 


7.0 


7.0 


7° 


0 


O 


1 


O 


0 


0.0 


0.17 


0.17 


1 .0 


4 


5 


10 


5° 


1 


10 0 


8.0 


5° 


10.0 


3 


0 


i 


0 


0 


00 


1.0 


0. 10 


0.10 


3 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


O.IO 


o-5 


1 .0 


3 


0 


O 


0 


1 


9-4 


r.o 


1 ,0 


1 .0 


1 


0 




0 


1 


130 


0. 16 


0. 16 


0. 1 6 




3 


2 


0 


1 


22.0* 


3° 


1. 10 


3° 


b 


1 


I 


0 


0 


0.0 


2.0 


1 .0 


3° 


6 


3 




0 


1 


7.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


S 


1 


I 


0 


0 


0.0 


2.0 


1.0 


3° 


4 


3 


2 


0 




12.0* 


4.0 


30 


4.0 


2 


5 


I 


0 


0 


0.0 


3-o 


2.0 


3-0 


7 


6 


6 


200 


1 


2.0 


10. 0 


10. 0 


12.0 


4 


0 


it 


100 


0 


0.0 


2.0 


1. 10 


3° 


10 


0 


S 


0 


0 


0.0 


5° 




8.0 






u 


0 


0 


0.0 


o-5 


°-5 


I0.7] 


1 


0 


! 


0 


0 


0.0 


1 .0 


1 0 


2.0 



Bedeford Ch. 














5° 






Beeston. 




















Bistone,* 


2 


1 


3 


O 


O 


0.0 


1 . 10 


1 .0 


2.0 


Bistone.* 


0 


2 


4 


0 




30.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.10 


Bistone. 


1 


0 


1 


O 


O 


0.0 


0.10 


0.5 


1.0 


Bistone. 


0 


0 


4 


O 


0 


0.0 


O.IO 


0. 10 


1 .0 


Bistone.* 


u 


0 


I 


O 


0 


0.0 


0.0 


0. 10 


I 0 


Bistone. 


0 


0 


i 


O 


0 


0.0 


o-5 


0.5 


0. 10 


Bistone* 


2 


0 


O 


O 


0 


0.0 


0.1 


0.4 


O.IO 



2.0 

0.6 



0.10 
2.0 



0.2 

O.IO 



Supplementary Details. 
Special Phases, etc. 



Arlesey, 97. 



Barford, Great, 157. 



Barford, Little, 56. 



Bartoo, 53. 



Barworth, a. 



Bedford, 1. 



Beeston, 114, 115. 

Beeston, 279. 
Beeston, 371. 



Biddenham, 39. 
Biddenham, 48. 



Biddenham, 65. 

Biddenham, 66. 
Biddenham, 212. 
Biddenham, 348. 



* There is a market of 10 shillings. 



And 80 eels. 



* And 125 eels. 



" With this manor the Abbot claims 12 acres of meadow 
against Nigel d'Albini and Walter Fleming, which lay 
to it T.R.E. Hut John de Roches disseised him un- 
justly, and to this the Hundred witnesses. 

* Three villans, with a priest and a certain frenchman, 
t 1'asture for the cattle of the v i 11 . 



Bedeford answered for a Half Hundred T.R.E., and 
still doc-s so fur the forces and ships. The land of tiiis 
vi 11 was never hidated, nor is so now, beyond one hide 
which belonged to (lacmt 111) die Church of St. Paul in 
alms T.R.E. and still rightly belongs. But Kr-migius 
the Bishop withdrew it from the alms of the Church of 
St. Paul, unjustly as men say; and now holds it and 
whatever belongs to it. It is worth too shillings. 



Now F.udo holds [these two] from the King, as his men 
say, but [they] are not of the fee of Lisois. 

This land is waste, but when Turstin received it, was 
worth 10 shillings. 

' This land was added to the King's service (minis- 
terium), in which it was not T.R.E. ; but Dot [? Soc'] 
who held it and could give and sell it. 

Leuric could not give or sell without leave. 

Ordui, when he was Reeve of the Burgh, deprived 

[Ulmar] of this land for a certain forfeiture, and now 

says that he holds it of the Abbot of St. Edmond, but 

the men of the Hundred say that (quia) he occupied it 

wrongfully. 

Leviet priest held thi s land in alms from King Edward 
and afterwards from King William. When dying, he 
granted to the church of St. Paul 1 virgate of this 
land. But Ralf Tallgebosc added the other two virgates 
to the same church in alms. 

Ralf Tallebosc added this to the church of St. Paul in 
alms. 

' William says that he has this land in exchange for 
Totingedone. 

' The same man who now holds it held half a hide of 
this land T.R.E., which he could give to whom he 
would. But the other half hide and quarter virgate he 
bought after King William came into England, but did 
service neither to the King nor to anyone therefor, nor 
has he a deliverer for it. Against the same man 
William Spech claims one virgate and a quarter, 
which was delivered to him and afterward he lost it. 
xxiii 



TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THH VILLS 



1086 



1066 



VlLL 



Column 

34g. liideham. 



X 
h. v. 



Tenant in Chief 



Sue-tenant 



Tenant 



CVERI ORD 



Demssne 


\ 


ILL ANS 




teams 




teams 


h.v. 




iber 










e 

3 




o 






e 







i of i The King. 



Ordwi of Bedford same Ordwi, 2\ v. 



o i o 



3$o. Bideham. 


0 




i 


The King. 


Ulmar of Bedford. 


same Ulmar. 


Biggleswade. 














289. Pidieh-suuade. 


10 


□ 


to 


Ralf do Insula. 


















2 socmen (?} hide). 


BlSCOT. 














9. Blssoptscote.* 

j 


5 


Q 


_ 
5 


The King 




CiuWui] man 01 


Bletsoe, 














148. Rlecheshou. 






4 


Hugh de Beauchamp. Usbert de Broilg. 


3 socmeri (3 v.) 


301. Blacheshou. 


2 


2 


4 


Countess Judith. 


Osbern. 


Leveva, rn. of 


Bluschah. 














50. Blunham. 


4 


1 


4 


The King. 


Abb. St. Edmund. 


4 socmen. 


1 13. Bluneham, 


O 


I 


i 


Eudo, s. of Hubert. 


Domnic. 


4 socmen. 


328. Bluuham. 


0 


2 


1 


Countess Judith. 


add. Dt. LOmuoa. 


A man of 


Bolnhurst. 














13. Bolehestre. 


_ 


2 




Bp. Bayeux. 


Tovi priest. 


Azor man of 


14. Bolehestre. 


Q 






Bp. Bayeux. 


2 soc men. 


Same 2 so-men 


26. Bulehestre.* 


0 


3 
1 


r* 


Bp. Coutances. 




Gudmunt, in. of 


62. Bolehestre.* 

1 

| 


2 


5 


Abb. Thorney. 




Alfleda, from 


299. Bolehestre. 


O 


2 


1 


Countess Judith. 


flugh. 


Almar, thane of 


Bkomham. 






















Count Eustace. 


Ernulf de Arde. 


A 1 w 0 1 □ ql L>eur ic , ni . 0 1 


ISO. Br un eh am. 


b 




6 


Hugh dc Beauchamp. 


Serlo de Ros. 


Aisi, man oi 


302. Bruneham. 


2 


0 


2 


Countess Judith. 


Hugh. 


Godwin, man of 


378. Bruneham. 


0 


'i 


1 


LThe King.] 


Osiet. 


Same Osiet. 


Broom. 














189. Brume. 


5 


0 


5 


Nigel d'Albim. 


Nigel de Wast. 


7 socmen. 


Caddixgtok. 












64. Cadendone.* 


5 


0 


6 


St. Paul, London. 






c. Cadendone. 


10 


0 


10 


St. Paul, London. 




Lew in [Cilt] from 


Cainhoe. 














193. Chainehou. 


4 


0 


6 


Nigel d'Albini. 




Aiuric, thane of 


336. Cainou. 


I 


0 


2 


Azelina Taillebosc. 


Turstan. 


Uluric, socmen of 


Campton. 














83. Chambeltone. 


4 


*i 


4 


Walter Gifard. 


Ralf de Langetot. 


G socmen. 


98. Chambeltone. 


0 


2 


i 


William de Ow. 


Fulbert. 


Alwin, man of 


280. Chambeltone. 


1 


ii 


ii 


The King. 


Turstin [chamberlain.] 


3 socmen. 


Cardingtok. 














131. Chernetone. 


6 


A 


8 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 




13 socmen. 


526. Chernetone. 


3 


'i 


4 


Countess Judith. 


Hugh. 


Azelin,* man of 


Carlton. 














16. Carlentone. 


1 


1 


'4 


Bp. Bayeux. 


2 socmen from 


Same two socmen. 










Herbert s. of Ivo. 




198. Carlentone. 


1 


■I 


ii 


Nigel d'Albim, 


Chetel. 


Golderon, man of 


199. Carlentone. 


1 


oi 


i* 


Nigel d'Albim. 


Bernard. 


3 socmen. 


276. Carlentone. 


1 


Ii 




The King. 


Osbern fisher. 


Godwin frambolt, th. of 


366. Carlentone. 


0 


3i 


1 


[The King ] 


Chelbert. 


Same Chelbert," m. of 



Archbp. Stigand. 



Asgaz staller. 



Aschil. 

King Edward. 



King Edward. 
Bored. 

King Edward. 
King Edward. 

King Edward. 



Queen Edith. 
Earl Harold. 



0 li] 

5 2 3 



o o 



Alii, thane of 



King Edward. 



King Edward. 
King Edward. 



Alestan. 



Earl Tosti. 



Levenot. 



King Edward. 
Queen Edith. 
King Edward. 



2. if 



0 


1 


O 


0 




0 




i 


1 


0 






0 


2 


O 


16 


4 


0 


0 


2 


O 


S 


O 


0 






O 


0 


O 


0 


0 


5 


O 


9 


O 


0 


2.0 


2 


4 


1 




0 


4-0 


1 


3 


22 


6 


0 


a-3 


2 


2 


3 


2 


0 


0 


1 


0 


1 


1 


0 


0 


1 




4 


3 


0 


0 


1 

1 


0 


1 


0 


0 


■ <i 


0 


2* 


s 


0 


22 


1 


0 


12 


7 


0 


0 


4 


0 


12 


0 


0 


0 


<i 


0 




0 


0 


0 


■4 


0 


3 


0 


0 


0 


H 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


! 


0 


2 


1 


0 


0 


1 


0 


2 


□ 


0 



Chatxhalle. 
12G. Chainhalle. 
127. Chainhalle.* 

Chai crave. 
102. Celgraue. 
ZS3. Celgrave. 

Column i 



5 


0 


5 


0 


2 




0 


oi 


0 


8 




10 






lii 



Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 

Ernulf de Hesding. 
The King 



Aschil, thane of 
Aschil, thane of 



Albert of Lorraine. 



King Edward. 
King Edward. 

Edward wit. 
The same Albert. 



2.0 


2 


O 


I 2 


3 


0 


0 


i 


O 


O 




0 


0 


O 


O 


u 


0 


0 




2 


O 


'3 


8 


0 




Ix 











TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VILLS 



15 









teams 


c 


Mills 




Valet 






VlLL 


« 

o 

05 


1 Serfs 


Ih 

o 
-a 

TO 
QJ 


j Wood for sv 


j number 
' value 


li. s. 


K 

li. s. 


w 
« 
H 
li. s. 


Supplementary Details. 
Special Phases, etc. 



149. Ilidcham. 


1 


0 


1 


0 


° 


o.O 


O.IO 


0. ro 




liiodennainj 349* 


350. Bideham. . 


0 


0 


0 


0 


O 


0.0 


0. 1 


0. 1 


O.I 




Bicci r.swADK. 






















289. l'lchelcsuuade. 


IO 


3 


10* 


0 


2 


47,0 


17.0 


15.0 


10. 0 


Biggleswade, 2S9 


11 1 SCOT 






















9. BIssopcBcote." 


0 


3 


4 


0 


O 


00 


2.0 


2.0 


3° 


Biscot, 9. 


Bl.ETSOE. 






















148. Blecheshou. 


2 


2 


1 


100 


\ 


10. 0 


3° 


3° 


3° 




301. Fladieihou. 


3 


3 


1 


100 


i 


1 0.0 


3 0 


3.0 


3° 




Bi i.Nii \m 






















$0. Blunham. 


5 


1 


4 


0 


1 


20.0 


40 


3.10 


6.0 




113. Hln noh.ntl . 






X 
4 










°-3 


°-5 




3.28. Blunham. 


0 


0 


I 


0 


0 


0.0 


1 .0 


0. 10 


1 .0 




BOLNHl'RST. 






















13 Uolcticslre. 






1 
1 


3° 














14. Bolehestre. 












0.0 


0. 10 


0. 10 


0. 12 




26. BuJehcstre.* 


4 




I 


20' 


O 


0.0 


0.15 


0.15 


1 .0 


Boln hurst, 26. 


62. Itolehestre.' 


5 












3° 


2.0 


6.0 


Bolnhurst, 62. 


2< <j B lehestre 








20 




0 0 


0 10 


°- 5 


0. 1 2 




11 K O M 1 1 A M . 






















t>8. Brunchani. 


0 


O 




0 


O 




O.IO 


1.0 


1 .0 




150. Itr u licit a 111 . 


5 




5 


40 






7.0 


S ,Q 




Bromham, 1 50. 


302. Bruneham. 


2 




2 


0 




40.0* 


1 .0 


O.IO 


O.IO 


Bromham, 302. 


370. liruncnam. 






1 
3 












°- 5 




Broom. 






















189. Brume. 


5 




0 






0.0 


2.0 








Caddincton. 






















64. Cadcndone.* 


4 




0 


300 




0.0 


2.0 


O. IO 


5° 


Caddington, 64. 


c. Cadendone. 


5 






loot 


O 


0.0 


5.10 


6.0 


6.0 


Caddington, c. 


Cainhoe. 






















193. Chainchou. 


3 


5 


8 


100* 




6.0 


3° 


I.TO 


5-o 


Cainhoe, 193. 


336. Cainou. 


3 


0 


1 


TOO 


O 


0.0 


1.0 


O.IO 


1 .0 




Campton. 






















83. Chambtltone. 


0 


0 


4 


40 


i 


3-3 


3° 


I .0 


3.10 




98. Chambcltone. 


0 


0 


0 


O 


O 


0.0 


o-5 


o-S 


0.5 




280. Chambcltone. 


1 


° 


1 \ 














Campton, 2S0. 


Carpincton. 






















131. Chcrnctone. 


6 


0 


3 


I20 




40.0* 


6.0 


5-o 


6.0 


Cardington, 131 


326. Chernetone. 


3 


3 


1 


O 


O 


0.0 


2.0 


1.0 


2.0 


Cardington, 326. 


Carlton. 














i.6| 








16. Carlentone. 


0 


0 


1 


O 


O 


0.0 


1 .10 


1. 10 




198. Carlentone. 


2 


0 




O 


O 


0.0 


1.0 


O.IO 


0.15 




199. Carlentone. 


5 


0 


1 


O 


l 


13-4 


2.0 


1.0 


1 .10 




276. Carlentone. 


4 


0 


2 


O 


O 


0.0 


1 .0 


1.0 


2.0 


Carlton, 366. 


366. Carlentone. 


3 


0 




O 


O 


0.0 


O.IO 


0.23 


0. 10 


Chainhalle. 






















126. Chainhalle. 


9 


5 


3 


IOO 




40.0* 


8.0 




7.0 


Chainhalle, 126. 


'27. Chainhalle." 


2 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0.0 


0.2 


0.2 


0.2 


Chainhalle, 127. 


Chal crave. 






















1^2. Celgraue. 


0 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0.0 


0.2 


0.2 


0.2 


Chalgrave, 2S3. 


»3. Celgrave. 


4 


6 


8 


5° 


0 


0.0 


7.0 


6.0 


6.0 


Column i 








ivii 


xviii 


xix 






ixii 





Half a hide and a quarter virgate, the same man wbo 
now holds it held T.R.E. , and could give it to whom he 
would. But one virgate he held in pledge T.R.E., and 
still holds, as the men of the Hundred witness. The 
same bought one virgate and a quarter after King 
William came in England, and did no service L therefor] 
to the King nor to any other. 



And five shillings from hay. 



This land Ralf Talliebosc added to Luton, the King's 
manor, for the increment which it gave to him, and 
put it outside the Hundred in which it answered 
T.R.E. On the other hand, he took other five hides 
from another Hundred, and set them in Flictham 
Hundred. 



* In exchange for Bledone. 

* On the day that King Edward was alive and dead, the 
land belonged to 'Ihorney. To this the men of the 
Hundred bear witness. 

+ In demesne is one carucate of land twsides the 2 hides 
and virgate. 



* And a hundred and twenty five eels. 

* And a hundred eels. It (.the mill] is indeed of the fee 
of the Countess, but does not lie in this land. 



* The Canons have a writ of the King in which is held 
that he himself gave this manor to the Church of St. 
Paul. 

* Pasture for catde. 
+ And two shillings. 



* And 2 shillings [.due from the wood]. 



* Two villans and a bordar have a half plough. 

* And a hundred eels. 

* Azclin could not give or sell without leave of him who 
held Cameston. 



Of this land the same Chelbcrt held one virgate. He 
was man of Queen Edith, and could give to whom he 
would. But he took possession of (occupauit) two vir- 
gates and a half, whereof he has found neither deliverer 
nor vouchor, land which Alii thane of King Edward 
held. 

And a hundred eels. 
This lies to Putenehou. 



In demesne are three carucates of land. 



16 



TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VII.LS 









1086 


1066 


Demesne 


VlLLANS 


VlLL 


V 

to 


-o 

c 










teams 




teams 




■d 


rt 






















s 




Tenant is Chief Sub-tenant 

1 


Tenant 


Overlord 


h.v. 


a. 


o 


E 








h. v. 


H 


1 












Z3 
C 




o 
x: 





Column 1 




ii 


Hi 


iv 






vii 


Vlil 


ix 


s 


II 


xil 


■iii 




Charlton. 




























332. 


Cerkntone.* 


10 


0 


10 


Adeliz de Grentmesnil 






E. Tosti , later 


5 1 ' 


2 




16 


r [ 


Q 


















King Edward. 














^ W 5 I UP* . 




























io 5 . 


Chauelestorne. 


1 


I 


1 


Eudo, s. of Hubert. 




2 men of 


King Edward. 


0 




O 


4 


O 


O 


"55- 


Calnostorne. 


0 


4 


1 


Huph de Beaurham[J- 


Riwalo. 


2 socmen. 




0 


m 

I 


O 




O 


o> 


• '5- 


Chauelestorne." 


7 


1 


7 


William Spcch. 


William, s. of Raine- 


12 .socmen. 




0 


O 


16 


6 


O 










ward. 


















216. 


Chauelestorne. 








Will. Spech. 


William gros. 


2 men of 


King Edward. 


0 




O 


2 


0 


O 




Chicksand. 


























43- 


Chichesane. 


0 


2 


i 


Bp. Lincoln. 


Will, de Caron. 


Alwin Dcule. 




0 


0 


O 


0 


0 


O 


314. 


Chichesane. 


3 


0 


2 


Azelina Taillebosc* 


1 socmen. 


4 socmen. 




0 


1 


I 


0 


0 


O 


345- 


Chichesane, 


1 


0 


I 


Azelina Taillebosc* 


Walter. 


Sueteman, ni. of 


Ulmar of Etone. 


0 


1 


O 


0 


0 


O 




Clapiiam, 




























99. 


Clopehain.' 


5 


0 


3 n 


Milo Crispin. 




Bricxtric, King's thane 


Abbot of Ramsey. 


5 ot 


8 


2 


iS 


20 


O 




Clifton. 






























Cliftone. 


3 


o\ 


2 


Bp. Lincoln. 


Will, de Caron. 


Alwin Deule, m. of 


King Edward. 


O 


X 


I 


.1 


0 


O 


57- 


Clistune. 


t 


0 




Abb. Ramsey. 


Lewin. 


Same Lewin.* 


Abb. Ramsey. 


O 




O 


0 


0 , 


0 


119. 


Clisione. 


(j 


2 


41 


Eudo, s. of Hubert. 


William de Caron. 




Ulmar of Etone. 


O 


2 


O 


9 


a* 


0 
















3 socmen (j.oJ hide-). 














2C>6. 


Cli stone. 


2 


0 




Nigei d'Albiiu. 


William de Caron. 


4 socmen. 




O 


■ 


k 


0 


0 


O 


3 3 9- 


Cliftone. 


1 






Countess Judith. 


Alwin. 


I71ui ic man of 


K.ing Edward. 




1. 
■ 












Clopiiill-. 




























192. 


C lupelle. * 


5 


0 


8 


Nigel d'Albini. 




2 thanes, men of 


Earl Tosti. 


3° 


2 


O 


5 


6 


O 




f'ni ifnrftD tu 
V.UI.HftUttIJl. 




























159. 


Colncworde. 


5 




10 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 


Wimund de Taissel. 


als jeni \_i j, tn mo 01 


King Edward. 


0 


2 


O 


1 2 


8 


O 
















8 socmen. 


















COPLE.* 




























1*7 A 


Cochepol 


4 




4 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 


Robert. 


3 socmen. 




0 


2 


O 


6 


2 


0 


171. 


Cochepol. 


1 




1 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 


Raynald. 


2 socmen. 




0 




O 


0 


0 


O 


172. 


Cochepol. 


1 




1 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 


Gunf rid. 


2 socmen, m. of 


The King. 


0 


1 


O 


t 


0 


O 


«73- 


Cocliepol. 


X 


0 


1 


Hugh de Beauchamp. Norman. 




Aschil (3 v.*) 


0 




O 


0 


0 


O 


















Alestan (1 v.) 














>74- 


Cochepol. 


1 


0 


1 


Hugh de Beauchamp. Branting. 


3 socmen. 


0 


1 


O 


0 


0 


O 


,7 §? 


Cochepol. 


0 


3 




Hugh de Beauchamp. 


Robert. 


2 socmen. 




0 


1 


O 


0 


, 0 


0 


176. 


Cochepol.* 


0 


A 


\ 


Hugh de Beauchamp. Roger priest and 


3 socmen. 




0 


i 


O 


0 


0 


O 












Liboret. 


















Cochepol. 


0 


1 




Countess Judith. 


Hugh. 


Wlwin, man of 


King Edward. 


0 


O 


O 


0 


0 


0 


Cranfield- 


























52. 


Cranfelle. 


10 


0 


12 


Abb. Ramsey. 






Abb. Ramsey. 


2.0 


2 


O 


18 


10 


O 




CUDSAND. 


























82. 


Cudessane. 


3 


2 


3 


[Walter Gifard.] 


Germund from 


4 socmen. 




0 


I 


O 


1 


2* 


O 














Ralf Langetot. 


















.78. 


Cudessane. 


2 


0 


ii 


Hugh de Beauchamp- 


3 socmen. 


4 socmen. 




0 


■ i 


O 


0 


0 


O 


Dean. 


























21. 


Dena. 


4 


0 


5 


Bp. Coutances. 


(6 socmen.) 


6 socmen, of the King's 


Borret. 


0 


O 


O 


0 


0 


O 










soke * men of 
















36- 


Dene. 


3 


oi 


3i 


Bp. Lincoln. 


Godfrey. 


Godric, thane of 


King Edward. 


0 


2 


O 


?• 


■ i 


O 


84. 


Dene.* 


2 


0 


3 


Will, de Wareuna. 


3 socmen. 


Same 3 socmen. + 




0 


3 


O 


0 


0 


O 



TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THE V1LLS 



17 





VlLL 


j 

1 Borders 




j Meadow for teams 


Wood for swine 


Mills 


Val et 


u 

C 


! ' value 


■g 
0 

li. s. 




H.s. 




Column i 


siv 


xv 


XVI 


xvii 


Jiviii 


- 


si 






CHARLTON. 




















J32. Ceilcnlone.* 


9 


2 


1 0 




J 


30.0 


10. 0 


S.o 


12.0 


Chawston. 




















,o^. ChaueJestornc. 


0 


0 


1 


O 


O 


0.0 


0.10 


0.10 


IO 


iec. Calnestorne. 




0 


i 


60 


O 


0.0 


0. 10 


0. 1 5 


I .O 


aie. Chauelestorne.* 




1 


7 


ro 


I 


'J 4 


6.0 


4.0 


g.O 


316. Chauelestorne. 


0 


0 


1 


0 




0.0 


°*5 


o-5 




Chicksand. 


















43. Chkhcsane. 


0 


0 


0 


0 




0.0 






O 2 


344. Chichesane. 


0 


0 


2 


2fi 


O 


O.U 


! .O 


i .0 


>.s 


345. Ckichcsane. 


0 






5° 


I 


100 


1.0 


1 .0 


I .IO 


CtAPHAU, 




















99. Clojithani." 


'5 


4 


6 


200} 


I 


40.0 


24.0 


24.0 


12.0 


CLIF'XON. 




















42. Cliftone, 


0 


2 


2 


O 


O 


0.0 


1.0 


1.0 


4.0 


57. Clistone. 


0 


O 


\ 


O 


«l 


0.0 


0. 10 


0.10 


I.O 


119. Clistone. 


1 


3 


4l 


O 


2 


40.0* 


s-° 


4.0 


6.0 


20O. Clistone. 


G 


o 


I 


O 


O 


0.0 


0.15 


0. 10 


1.0 


320. Cliftone. 




0 


i 


O 


° 


0,0 


°-5 


o, s 


0.10 


Ci.orHiu.. 




















192. tlunelle.* 


5 


1 


4 


20of 


O 


0.0 


3-° 


1 . 1 0 


S.o 


COt MWOHTH. 




















159. Colneworde. 




1 


0 


200 


O 


0.0 


5° 


5.0 


4 0 






















i/u. locncpm 


1 


1 


1 


ioo' 


O 


0.0 


3.0 


1 .0 


3 - 1 


17'* Cochepol. 


2 


0 


j 


O 


0 


0.0 


0.10 


0.5 


O.TO 


Cochepol. 






1 

T 




O 




0. 10 


°-5 


0. 10 


173. Cochepol. 


0 


0 


I 


O 


O 


0.0 


0.6 


0.6 


0.8 


174. Cochepol. 


0 


0 


i 


0 


O 


0.0 


0.10 


0.10 


O.IO 


175 Cochepol. 


0 


0 


i 


0 


O 


0.0 


o-7i 


o. 7 { 


0.7* 


176. Cochepol.* 


0 


0 


I 


0 


O 


0.0 


o-5 


0.5 


°-5 


327. Cochepol. 


0 


0 


O 


0 


O 


0.0 


0.2\ 


o.j{ 


0.2^ 


Crantield- 




















52. Cranfelle. 


2 


5 


2 


1000* 


O 


0.0 


g.O 


9.0 


12.0 


ClIPSAND. 




















82. Ciidtssane. 


3 


1 


3 


40 


+ 


0.0 


2.0 


1 .0 


3° 


178. Cudessane. 


1 


0 




4 


O 


0.0 


1.0 


1 .0 


1 . 10 


Dean. 




















21. Dena. 


6 


2 


0 


0 


O 


0.0 


3-0 


3.0 


2.0 


36. Dene. 


8 


2 


1 


O 


O 


0.0 


2.0 


1. 10 


1. 10 


84. Dene.' 


5 


1 


0 

4 


0 


O 


0.0 


I. IO 


1 . 10 


1. 10 



supplementary details. 
Special Phases, etc. 



Charlton, 332. 



Chawston, 215. 



Chicksand, 344. 
Chicksand, 345. 

Clapham, 99 



Clifton, 57. 
Clifton, 119. 

Clophill, icj2. 



Cople, 170. 
Cople, 173. 

Cople, 170-176 



Cranfield, 52. 
Cudsand, 82. 



Dean, 36. 
Dean, 84. 



* King Edward held this manor, and it had been of Earl 
Tosti. This land was T.R.E. a bcrewick of I'otone, 
the manor of Countess Judith, so that no one could 
separate it therefrom. 

+ Sixteen villans and nine bordars with five ploughs. 



* In right of (de) these seven hides and one virgate, the 
men of William Spec claim one acre and a half of 
meadow against the men of Kudo dapifer, and the Hun- 
died boars witness that hi^ antecessor had it T.R.E. 
And other seven acres of land the same William claims 
against a certain man of Hugh do Beanchamp, whereof 
he himself is disseised, but his antecessor was seised. 
Out of (de) the land aforesaid Kudo dapifer claims an 
acre against Uuallon, man of Hugh dc Beauchamp. 



* Of her dower. 

* This is of her marriage portion. 

* The Abbot and monks of Ramsey claim this manor, be- 
cause it is and was T.R.E. [a part] of their living, and 
the whole Hundred boars witness of this. 

t Besides these five hides, are in demesne ten carucates 
of land. 

t And [from the wood a due of] six pence. 



* The. same man hold T.R.E., but could not separate from 
the church [of Ramsey]. 

* And a hundred and fifty eels. 



" In light of (dc) these live hides, Nigel claims one vir- 
gate, which his antecessor held T.R.E He himself was 
seised thereof after he came to the Honour, but Ralf 
Tallgebosc disseised him. 

+ And [from the wood] twelve ponce. 



* The wood over all Chochepol is for 100 swine. 



* Of this land Aschil hold throe virgates, which lay to 
his manor of Welton [ Wellington]. 



Of this manor of Chochepol, Ralf Tallgebosc had nine 
hides in exchange for Wares, as say his men, and, when 
be received them, they were worth 4IL 



* And iron for [ ? a] plough [due from the wood]. 

* One villaq and three bordars with two teams. 
t There a mill can be made. 



* As to three and a half hides, they could give and sell 
and withdraw to another lord, without leave of Uorred. 
But half a hide they could not give and sell without his 
leave. 

* The villans [number not given] have a team and a half. 
There are eight bordars and two serfs. 

* Of a half hide and a half virgate of this land, William 
Spec was seised by the King and his deliverer. _ But 
William de Warcnna disseised him without a King's 
writ, and took two horses away from his men, nor has 
he yet restored them. To this the men of the Hundred 
witness. 

+ [Of the three socmen] one could not give and sell his 
land without le-ave of his lord. But the other two could 
do this. 



18 



TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VILLS 



VlLL 


to 
n 
•0 

I 

h. v. 


Team-lands 


1086 


1066 


Demesne 


VlLLANS 


Tenant in Chip*. 


Sub-tenant 


Tenant 


Overlord 


h.v. 


teams 


v. 

° 


teams 


there 


short 


I 
I 


0 




Column 1 




ii 


til 


w 






vi 




vit 


viii 






xi 


xli 




373" 


Dene.* 


1 31 


3i 


[The King.] 


11 King's socmen. 


Same 11 socmen. 






O 


,1 

j 1 




0 


O 


0 


374- 


Dene. 






The King. 


Goduin Dere of 


Same Godwin. 






O 


0 


0 


0 


0 


O 


DUNTON. 




Bedford 






















79- 


Domtonc. 


1 3 


2 


Walter Gifard 


Ralf de Langetot. 


4 


socmen, men of 


Archbp. Stigand. 


0 


2 


0 


4 


O 


0 


2C0. 


Damtone- 


g 1 


8 


The King 


Richard 1'ungiant. 






Archhp. Stigand. 


4.1 






1 2 


5 


O 




Eaton Brav. 






























10. 


Kitone. 


12 1 


20 


Bp. Bayeux. 




Alsi, man of 


Queen Edith. 


2.0 


4 


2 


2« 


g 


6 




Eaton Socon. 






























103. 


Etone.* 


20 0 


ib 


Eudo, s. of Hubert. 




Uimar, thane of 


King Edward. 




4 


0 


38 


12 


0 












2 socmenf 


3 socmen. 


















Edi.esborough. 






























227. 


Edingebcrgc. 


10 0 


7* 


Gilbert de Gand. 




Ulf, thane of 


King Edward. 


5-° 


4 


0 


IO 


4 


0 




Edwohth. 




























95. 


Edeuuorde. 


7 35 


S 


William de Ow. 


2 soldiers. 






Alestan de Boscume. 


0 


3 


0 


8 


5 
















(:£ h.) 2 socm., m. 


of Alestan. 














3 6.. 


Edcuuorde.* 


2 2 


2 


[The King.] 


Alwin reeve. 


Branting, in. of 




King Edward. 


0 


2 


0 


2 


0 


0 




Elsiow. 






























297. 


Elnestou. 


3 2 


7 


Countess Judith. 


Abbess of Elstow. 


4 socmen,* in of 




ECing Edward. 


0 


2 


0 


>4 


5 


0 




Elvf.ndon. 




























273. 


Eluendone. 


1 1 




Osbern s. of Richard 


Hugh Hubald. 


Alwin, man of 




Stori. 


0 


'! 


0 


O 


0 


0 




EVERSHOLT. 


























ii. 


Eureshut. 


1 0 


2 


Bp. Bayeux's fee. 


Ansgot de Rochester. 








4 thanes. 


0 


I 


1 


4 


0 


0 


140. 


Eureskot. 


7 2 


8 


Hugh de Beauchamp 


RaU. 


Turgis, thane cf 




King Edward. 


0 


2 


0 


■5 


6 


0 


35 6 - 


Euie^ot.* 


0 2 




[The King.] 


Herbert, Kg*s. leeve. 


5 socmen. 




0 


O 


0 


1 


0 


0 



EVERTON. 

323. Huretoiie * 5 ° 5 Countess Judith. Rannulf, bro. of Ilger. ... ... Earl Tosti. 023 4 

o. Euretune." 70 18 The King. RannuU, bro. of Ilger. ... ... Ingewar. 020 igt 



Evwokih. 
218. Alsseuuorde. 

338. Aieuuorde.* 
Farndish. 

268. Fernadis. 

269. Fernadis. 
p. Farnedis.* 

Fei.mersham. 
282. Flammeresham. 
304. Falmeresham. 

Fl-ITTON. 
231. Fliclitham. 

FLIIVVICK. 

267. Flkteuuiche, 

Gladley. 
293. Gledelai. 

GOLDINGTON. 

40. Goldentone. 
128. Goldentone.* 



162. Goldentone.' 

163. Goldentone.' 

164. Goldentone.' 
368. Goldentone.' 



Gravenhurst. 
142. Crauenuest. 

Hanefei.d. 
86. Hanefelde* 



5 ° 
5 0 



375- 



Hanefeld. 
Hari.incton. 
183. Herlingdone. 



2 o 

3 ° 



3 * 

0 3 

o 1 

5 o 



William Spech. 
Azelina Taillebosc. 

The King. 
The King. 
William 1'everel. 

Gilbert s. of Salomon. 
Countess Judith. 

The King. 

The King. 

Gozelin Brito. 

Bp. Lincoln. 

Hugh de Beauchamp. 



Brodo. 
William. 

Henry, s. of Azor. 
2 socmen. 



Robert Fafiton. 
William Lovet. 



Ivo Tallebosc. 



3 Hugh de Beauchamp. Roger, s. of Teodric. 

3 Hugh de Beauchamp. Richard. 

1 Hugh de Beauchamp. Walter, 

i The King. Alric Wintremelc. 



Hugh de Beauchamp. William Froissart. 

Will, de Warenna. 

The King's Soke. Saiet. 

Nigel d'Albini. 



20 socmen. 




5*2 


3 


0 




6 


0 


Same Brodo. 




0 




0 


p 


0 


0 


3 socmen. 




0 


2 


0 


3 


1 


0 


2 socmen. 




0 


1 


0 


2 


0 


O 






0 


O 


0 


0 


1 


0 


6 socmen. 




4 0 


3 


0 


4 


4 


O 


Alii, thane of 


King Edward. 


O 


1 


0 


2 


1 


1 


Alwin horim, thane of 


King Edward. 


2.0 


2 


0 


3 


2 


3 


Alwin, thane of 


King Edward. 


2.0 


2 


0 


3 


3 


2 


Wigot, huntsm. of 


King Edward. 


0 


i 


0 


0 




0 


Alwin Sac, m. of 


The Bp. of Lincoln. 


0 


* 


0 


2 


0 


0 


9 socmen. 




O 


3 


0 


7 


0 


0 


3 socmen. 




O 


2 


0 


3 


1 


0 


Almar, m. of 


Aschil. 


O 


2 


0 


5 


1 


0 


The men of the Vill 


in common. 


O 


1 


0 


0 


0 


0 


Same Alric, m. of 


King Edward. 


O 


1 


0 


0 


0 


0 


5 socmen. 




0 


2 


0 


4 


1 


I 






O 




0 


O 


- 0 


0 


Same Saiet. 




O 


* 


0 


0 


0 


0 


4 thanes. 




O 


31 


2 


12 


5 


0 


*/i 


vii 










zii 





Vl'-L 



Mills 



TAEI.6 I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VILLS 
Vai et 









w 




o 


oi 




> 


o 


6i 




s. d. 


li. s. 


li. s. 


li. s. 



Column i 


xiv 




XVi 


xvii 




xi* 




s\i 


xxu 


■.73. Dene.* 


O 


0 


O 


O 


O 


0.0 


1. 10 


I. IO 


I.XO J 


174. Dene. 














O- 1 






I) UNTO N. 




















70. Domtone. 


2 


0 


O 


0 


0 


0.0 




I - I 3a 




2tK>. Damtoue- 


2 


3 


O 


60 


0 


0.0 


8.0 


6.0 


6.0 


Eaton Bray. 




















10. Eltone. 


'3 


2 


6 


300* 


O 


0.0 


16.0 


20.0 


20-0 


Eaton Socon. 




















103. Etone.* 


7 


8 


12 


400? 


2§ 


36.6 


15.0 


8.0 


10.0 


Edlesborouch. 




















227. Edingeberge. 


0 


0 


0 


O 


O 


0.0 


5.10 


5'" 


10. 0 


Edworth, 




















95. Edeuuorde. 


2 


5 


2 


O 


0 


0.0 


S.o 


10. 0 


10.0 


361. Edeuuorde.* 


0 


0 


0 


O 


O 


0.0 


1. 10 


1. 10 


I.IO 


Fxstow. 




















297. Elnestou. 


1 1 


4 


4 


60 


1 


24.0 


s° 


2.0 


10.0 


El-VKNDON. 




















273. Elucndone. 


0 


0 


1 


34 


O 


0.0 


0. 10 


O. IO 


0.15 


Eversholt. 




















1 1 . Eurc^hot . 


1 


0 


x 


50 


O 


0.0 


x.o 


1. 10 


2.0 


140. Eureshot. 


0 


4 


8 


IOO 


q 


0.0 


5.0 


3*° 


3.0 


356. Eurcsot.* 


0 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0.0 


0.6 


1.0 


1 .0 


E Vr BTON . 




















323. Euretone-* 


r 
j 








Q 


0.0 


3 0 


5-0 


5*° 


0. Eurctune* 


2 


0 




§ 


0 


0.0 






10.0 


Ey worth . 




















218. Aisscuuorde. 


2 


6 


9 


O 


1 


8.0 


7.0 


7.0 


8.0 


33S. Aieuuorde.* 


1 


f 0 


1 


O 


0 


0.0 


O.IO 


0. IO 


O.IO 


Earn dish. 




















268. Fernadis. 


2 


1 


1 


O 


0 


0.0 


2.0 


1 .0 


2.0 


269. Fernadis. 


(1 


0 


4 


O 


0 


0.0 


0.10 


0. 10 


1 .0 


p. Farnedis.* 


















Felmersium. 




















282. Flainmereshara. 


6 


0 


4 


O 


0 


0.0 


5-o 


12.0 


12.0 


304. Falmeresham. 


4 


0 


1 


O 


1 


10.0 


3° 


5-o 


5-0 


Fl.ITTON. 




















231. FUchthara. 


3 


4 


6 


5° 


0 


0.0 


3.0 


3-o 


5-° 


FUTWICK. 




















267. Flicteuuiche. 


7 


0 


5 


100 


1 


4.0 


2.10 


3° 


8.0 


Gladlev. 




















293. Gledelai. 


0 


0 


1 


100 


1 


16 0 


1 .0 


t.o 


2.0 


GOLDINGTON. 




















40, Goldentone. 


0 


0 




0 


0 


0.0 


0.6 


0.6 


0.6 


128. Goldentone.* 


X 


0 


X 


0 


1 


30.0T 


3-0 


3-o 


4.0 


1C2. Goldentone.* 


2 


0 


1 


0 


0 


O-O 


1 . 10 


1 .0 


2.0 


163. Goldentone." 


0 


1 


2 


0 


0 


0.0 


2.0 


O.IO 


3-o 


164. Goldentone.* 


0 


2 


\ 


0 


0 


0.0 


0.15 


O. IO 


0.15 


Goldentone.* 


0 


0 




0 


0 


0.0 


o-S 


°-5 


0.5 


Gravenhurst. 




















U2. Crauenhest. 


3 


4 


4 


IOO 


0 


0.0 


3° 


30 


5-o 


Hanefeld. 




















8<j. Hanefelde.* 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


O.IO 


O.IO 


O.IO 


17v Hanefeld. 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


0.5 


0.5 


O.IO 


H ARLINGTON. 




















183. Herlingdone. 


6 


10 


4 


400* 


0 


0.0 


6.0 


4.0 


9.0 


Column i 




XT 














xxii 



Dean, 373. 

Eaton Bray, 10. 
Eaton Socon, 103. 



Edworth, 361. 



Elstow, 297. 



Eversholt, 356. 



Everton, 323. 
Everton, o. 



Eyworth, 338. 
I'arndish, p. 



Goldington, 128. 



Goldington, 162, 
Goldington, 163. 

Goldington, 164. 
Goldington, 368. 



Hanefeld, 86. 



Harlingdon, 183. 



Supplementary Details. 
Special Phases, etc. 



* This land Ralf [Taillcbosc] added to the King's service 
(ministerium), in which it was not T.K.E. 



* And [from duos of the wood] twelve pence. 



* Out of (de) this land, Tcdbald man of Counters Judith 
claims one hide, of which Eudo disseised him after thai 
he came to the manor. 

f And two socmen who were not able to give and sell 
their land. 

t And two acres of vineyard. 

§ And a hundred eels. 



* This land [and five others] Ralf Talgcbosc added to the. 
King's service when he was Sheriff, for they were not 
in it T.K.E. Those who now have them, hold by grant 
of the King. So they say. 

' Hut their soke lay always to Camcstone. 



* This land [and two others] he holds in the King'} 
service, which did not lie in it T.U.E. But from the 
time that Ralf Talgolw.sc was Sheriff he says that he 
held by giant of the King. 

* It lay to Potone, the Countess' own manor. 

* There is a priest and a church. 

+ Nineteen villans and two bordars having nine teams. 
t Fifteen acres of meadow. 
§ Forty acres of dwarf wood. 



* This land is of her marriage portion. 



Soke land. 



* [One virgate] which lies to Putenehou. Of this land 
Half Tallgebosc had two hides and three virgates in 
exchange for Warres. 

+ And a hundred eels. 

* These two hides Ralf Tallb' had in exchange for Wares. 

* These three hides Ralf Tallgebosc had in exchange for 
Wares. 

* This land is exchange for Wares. 

* This land Abric afterwards, when William was King, 
gave to the Canons of St. Paul [? Bedford], and 
granted that after his death they should have it 
altogether. 



This land lav always to Chencbaltone, but always gelded 
(warram dedit) rightly in Bedfordshire. 



And [from the wood] a ram and a load of oats, 
xx m 



20 



TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THE Vli.LS 



Vim 



h. v. 



Column i 

Harrold. 
106. Harcunelle. 

Harrowden. 
67. Herghetone.* 



205. Herghetone. 6 o 

325. Hcrgentone. 3 o 
Hati.ey. 

322. Hatelal.* 3 i\ 

339. Hatelai.' 5 1J 



Hawnes. 

136. Hagenes. 5 o 

Henlow. 

207. Haneslau.* 5 2 

248. Hanslaue. 3 2 

342. Haneslauuc.* 1 3 



343. Haneslanue. 
354. llanslau. 

Hicham Coliion 
144. Echam. 

HlNWICK. 

30. Heneuuic. 
213. Heneuuic. 
252. Haneuuich. 



257. Haneuuic. 1 3 

.278. Heneuuic. 1 3 

351. Hencuuich. o 2 



HOCKLIKFE. 

335. Hoclieleia. 10 o 

Hoi.cote. 

209. Holecote.* 4 o 

\ 

Holme. 

96. Holme. o 3 

165. Holma. o 1 

204. Holme. 1 o\ 

243. Holme. 1 o 

290. Holme. 2 o 

311. Holme. o 2 

312. Holme. o 1 
362. Holme.* > 2 

Hot.well. 

59. Holewelle. 3 * 

61. Holewelle. 6 2 

Houghton Conquest. 

135. Houstone. 5 o 

295. Houstone. o 2 

331. Oustone.* 4 2 



1086 



Tenant in Chiei 



Sub-tenant 



1C66 



Tenant 



Overlord 



8 
3 

6} 

8 



5i 
31 



Countess Judith. 
Ernuin priest. 

Nigel d'Albini. 
Countess Judith. 

Countess Judith. 

Azelina TaiUebosc. 

Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Nigel d'Albini. 

Walter Fleming. 
Azelina TaiUebosc. 



Gilbert de Blossevile. 



Canons of Bedford. 



Erfast. 

St. Nich of Angers (3V 

Hugh. 

Widrus. 



Azelina TaiUebosc. 
The King. 



Bernard. 
Alric. 



So li Hugh de Beauchamp. William de Locels 



Bp. Coutances. 
William Spech. 
The King. 

Gunfrid de Cioches. 
The King. 
The King. 



8 Azelina TaiUebosc. 
3 William Spech. 
1 William de Ow. 



Turstin. 
Walter. 

Hugh Ileming. 
Tetbald. 

Turstin chamberlain. 
Fdward, in alms * 



Ralf Passaquam. 



3 thanes of 
Ernuin's f., m. of 



14 socmen. 
Azelin,* m. of 



1 socman (1 virg.) 

Ulmar, thane of 

(2$ v.) 2 soon., m. of 



A[s]chi[l], thane of 
9 socmen. 

)• 

6 socmen. 



2 socmen, men of 
Same Alric. 

5 socmen. 



Ulnod, man of 
Alwold, man of 

2 socmen. 

Godwin Frarnbolt, th. of 
Edward's father. 



Uluric. 



g Hugh de Beauchamp. Mortuing 



Nigel d' Albini. 
Walter Fleming. 
Ralf de Insula- 



\ Counfess Judith, 
i Countess Judith. 
ii [The King ] 



4 Abb. Ramsey. 

6 Abb. Westminster. 



Fulcher of Paris. 



Fulcher [of Paris.] 
2 men. 
Alwin reeve. 



6 Hugh de Beauchamp. 

1 Countess Judith. Hugh. 

6 Adeliz de Grentme^ml. Eroald. 

(1 socman, i hide ) 



Aluetia, m. of 

1 socman under 
7 socmen. 

2 socmen. 

3 socmen (2 v.) 
Alwin, man of 
Godwin, man of 



7 socmen. 
Lepsi, man of 
3 socmen 



Demesne 



h.v. 



vii 


viii 


ii 


1 


si 


xii 


xiii 


King Edward. 










7 


5 


King Edward. 


0 


i 


0 


O 


0 


0 






1 


0 


1 4 


7 


0 


Earl Tosti. 


0 


3 


0 


6 


O 


0 


Earl Tosti. 


I.OJ 


2 


0 


s 


4* 


0 


King Fdward 


I.I 


2 


0 


8 


6t 


0 


Ulmar. 














King Edward. 


2 2 


3 


0 


1 4 


5 


0 




O 


2 


0 


in 


3i 


0 




O 


1 




4 


2 


0 


Anschill. 


O 


2 


0 


2 


O 


0 


Anschill. 


O 


l 


0 


3 


O 


0 




O 


i 


0 


O 


O 


0 








0 


M 


y 


G 






1 


0 


3 


1 


0 


Ulsi, s. of B org ret 


O 




1 \ 


0 


O 


0 


Bishop Wlwi. 


O 


2 


0 






0 










3 






King Fdv. ard. 


I.O 




0 


2 


1 


0 






i 
4 










Anschil. 


5° 


2 


0 


»3 


6* 


0 


Alric. 


O 


X 


0 


5 


2 


0 


Anschil. 


O 


I 


0 


0 


O 


0 


Anschil. 


O 


■1 


0 


0 


O 


0 




O 


2 


0 


3 


O 


0 




O 


I 




0 


O 


0 


Archbp. Stigand. 


O 




0 


6 


O 


0 


King Fdward. 


O 


\ 


0 




O 


0 


King Edward. 


O 


i 


0 


0 . 


0 


0 


[of King Edward.] 


O 


1 


i 


2 


O 


0 


Abb. Ramsey. 


I.O 


X 


<) 


8 


3 


0 


Abb. Westminster. 




2 




1 1 


4 


0 




0 


6 


O 


S 


O 


0 


Earl Tosti. 


0 


1 


O 


0 


O 


0 




0 


2 


O 


1 1 


3i + 





HoucinoN Regis- rT . ... . , a 

6. Houstone.* 9 2 22 The King. ... - - - [The King]. o 2 o 38 



7. Houstone Ch. o a J [The King.] William chamberlain. ... ... [The King]. 



Column 



TABI.K I : SYNTHESIS OF THB VILLS 



21 













Mills 




Valet 






VlLL 


J Bordars 


i Serfs 


Meadow for 


-3 

0 
0 

> 


| number 


1 
> 

s. d. 


1 

li. s. 


c£ 

Ct 

li. 5. 


ui 

li. s. 


Supplementary Details. 
Special Phases, etc. 



Column i 

Haerolu. 
jo6. Hareuiielle. 

Hareowdek. 
67. Herghetone.* 

205. Herghetone. 

325. Hergeutone. 

Hatley. 
322. Hatelat." 

339. Hatelal.* 

Hawnfs. 
136. Hagenes. 

HENLOW. 
207. Haneslau.* 

248. Hanslaue. 

342. Ilaneslauue." 

343. Haneslauue. 
354. Hanslau. 

HlGHAM GOBION. 

14J. Echaro. 

HlNWICK. 
30. Heneuuic. 
213. Heneuuic. 
2^2. Haneuuich. 



3 5 



Haneuuic. 
Heneuuic. 
351. Hcneuuich. 



Hockmkfe. 
335. Hochelela. 

HOLCOTE, 

209. Holecote.* 

Holme. 
96. Holme. 
165. Holma. 

204. Holme. 
243. Holme. 
290. Holme. 

311. Holme. 

312. Holme. 
362. Holme.* 

HOLWELL. 

59. Holewelle. 
61. Holewelle. 

Houghton Conquest. 
135. Houstone. 

205. Houstone. 
331. Onstone.* 



Houghton Regis- 
6. Houstone.* 



Houstone Ch. 

Column i 



0 


0 


6 


200 


1 


3G.8* 


6.0 


16.0 


20.0 


0 


0 


* 


4 


0 


O.O 


0. 10 


0.5 


0.10 








5° 






5-° 


4.0 


5.0 


4 


0 


3 


0 


0 


O.O 


1 .10 


1 .0 


2.0 






3 


4 


0 


0.0 


ft - 

D 


5° 


6.0 


4 


1 


2 


4+ 


X 


18 0 


Co 


50 


6.0 


9 


1 


1 


500 


0 


0.0 


10.0 


7.0 


7.0 


0 


3 


5+ 


0 


X 


5.0 


5.10 


4 0 


7.0 


4 


2 


3i 


0 


I 


34 0 


3-° 


2.0 


3.10 


2 


2 


2 


O 


0 


0.0 


I.XO 


1 .0 


I.XO 


0 


0 


t 


0 


0 


0.0 


1 .3 


1.3 


1.8 


O 


■ 0 


i 


O 


0 


0.0 


0.2 


0.2 


0.2 


2 


e 


6 


IOO 


0 


0.0 


8.0 


8.0 


12.0 


I 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


l-O 


Li-o] 


L1.0] 




















4 


3 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


1. 10 


1 0 


2.0 


O 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


1.0 


0.10 


2.0 


! 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0.0 


I - 10 


O- 10 


1 . 10 


I 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0.0 


0 5 


o-S 


0.10 


I I 


0 


4 


IOO 


0 


0.0 


8.0 


8.0 


J 2.0 


8 


1 


O 


5° 


I 


54 


3-o 


1 .0 


2.0 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0 


0.0 


0.16 


0.12 


1.0 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0 


0.0 


^-3 




0.5 


0 


0 


I 


0 


0 


0.0 


1 0 


O.IO 


1.10 


3 


0 


I| 


0 


0 


0.0 


1.0 


0 , if' 


1.0 


0 


0 




0 


0 


0.0 


2.0 


1. 10 


20 


0 


0 


4 


0 


0 


0.0 


o-7 


0.7 


O.IO 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 




°-5 


°-s 


0 


, 0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


1.0 


1.0 


1 .0 


1 


2 


X 


0 


0 


0.0 


4.0 


4.0 


4 0 


4 


3 


1 


0 


2 


20.0 


5-° 


5.0 


5° 


6 


2 


6 


200 


O 


0.0 


5.0 


5 0 


7.0 


2 


0 


0 




O 


0.0 


0.10 


0.10 


0.12 


7 


3 


2 


22 5 


O 


0.0 


4.0 


3-o 


8.0 



0.0 0.12 



Harrold, 306. 
Harrowden, 67. 

Harrowden, 325 
Hatley, 322. 
Hatley, 339. 



Henlow, 207. 
Henlow, 342. 



Hinwick, 252. 

Hinwick, 351. 

Hockliffe, 335. 
Holcote, 209. 



KSIU 

* And two hundred eels. 

" Of this land Ernuin has neither deliverer nor writ, but 
occupied it against the King, as the Hundred bears 
witness. 

* Azelin could not give or sell without leave of him who 
held Caniestone, the Earl's manor. 

*' This manor F.arl Tosti he'd, and it lies to Potone, the 
Countess' own manor. 

* Of Azelina's marriage portion. 

T Eight villans and four bordars with six teams. 
J From rent [of the wood] three shillings. 



* Of these five hides and a half, St. Nicholas of Angers 
now holds three virgates in alms. 

T From pasture, ten pence. 

* This land was a bcrewick of Stotfold, T.R.E. Hugh de 
Beauchamp claims it against Azelina, saying that she 
wrongfully holds it, and that it was never her dower. . 



One villan and four ttordars and three serfs with one 
team. 



This land King William granted to him in alms, where- 
of he has both a writ of the King, and the witness of 
the Hundred. 

Thirteen villans and eleven bordars with six teams. 



This land is in exchange of Totingedone [Toddington] 
which he exchanged. 



Holme, 362. 



Houghton Conquest, 331. 



Houghton Regis, 6. 



This land [and five others] Ralf Talgebosc added to the 
King's service, when he was sheriff, for they were not 
in it T.R.E. Those who now have them, hold by grant 
of the King. So they say. 



* In right of (in) this same [land] the said Adeliz claims 
a half virgate and thirty acres between wood and plain 
against Hugh de Beauchamp, and the men of the Hun. 
dred bear witness that this land T.R.E. lay with the 
rest of the land which Adeliz holds, and he who held 
this land could give and sell to whom he would This 
land Ralf [Taillebosc] wrongfully occupied when he was 
Sheriff. 

+ Eleven villans and seven bordars, with three teams and 
a half. 

* A demesne manor of the King. 

t In all; it renders yearly ten pounds by weight, and a 
half day in grain and 'honey and other things which 
belong to the King's farm. From small dues and from 
one sumpterhorse sixty-five shillings. From the custom 
of dogs sixty-five shillings. And to the Queen two 
ounces of gold. From the increment which Ivo Talle- 
bosc levied, three pounds by weight, and 20s. of blanch 
silver, and an ounce of gold to the sheriff. 



I 22 



TABLH I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VILLS 



Viix 







BO 








X 




h. v. 





1086 



Tenant is Chief 



Sue-tenant 



Tenant 



1066 



ChfRLORI) 



Demesne 



Villans 



Column i 
HUSIiOENF. CRAWLEY. 

179. Crawclal. 
2CG. Crauelnl. 

Kemtston. 
298. Cnincstone. 

Kenemondwick. 
49. Chenemondewicbe. 

Kekswoxth. 
b. Canesworde. 

Kevsoe. 
122. Cbaisot. 

[272. Caissot. 
i. Caissot.* 



50 5 Nigel d' Albini. 

50 5 The King. 

10 o 20 CouDtess Judith. 

33 4 Abb. St. Edmund. 

10 o 10 St. Paul, London. 

43 5 Hugh de Beauchamp. 



Turgis. 

William Lovet. 



o 1 
P 3 



i Osbern s. of Richard. Hugh Hubald. 
I William de YYarenne. 1 socman. 



9 thanes. 

Grimbald, man of 



2 thanes (2 h. 3J v.) 
2 socmen. 

Lewin cilt from 



Aschil, thane of 
12 socmen (3^ h.) 



King Edward. 
Earl Gucrt. 

Earl Wallef.* 

King Edward. 

King Edward. 

Allic. 



'■3 

5.0 



18 12 4 
620 



n. Caissot.* 

Knotting. 
19. Chenotinga. 

Langford. 
245. Laugcford. 



Leighton. 
2. Lestone * 



5 ° 



i The King. 

5 lip. Coutances. 

6 Walter Fleming. 



Alwin. 



43 o 52 The King. 



Lewin, thane of 
1 socman (1 hide). 



Same Alwin. 
Burret. 

King Edward. 



The King (26 H.) 
10 h. Wenesi chamb. of King Edward. 
7 h. Starcher th. of King Edward. 



3-0 
4 ■ 



8 3 
ia 9* 

82 46 



3. Lestone Ch. 
45. Lestone Ch. 

LlDLINGTON. 

63. Litlucletone. 
Luton. 

4. Loitone.* 



[The King.] 
Bp. of Lincoln. 

Abb. Barking. 

The King. 



Bp. of Lincoln. 



Bishop WJwi 



IKing Edward]. 

Abb. Barking. 
[The King]. 



23 8 
80 78 



5. Loitone Cb.* 
Marston. 
77. Merestone.* 



186. Merslone. 

Maulden. 
78. Meldone. 
, 134. Meldone. 
) 190. Meldone.* 



■ 3i 

8 oi 

3 ° 

o 2 j 



Tht King. 
Walter Gifard. 



10 Nigel d'Albini. 

4 Walter Gifard. 
1 Hugh de Beauchamp 
Nigel d'Albini. 



William chamberlain 
Hugh de Bolebec. 

Erfast. 

Hugh de Bolebec. 



Morcar priest. 
2 thanes. 

21 socmen. 

Godwin, man of 



Alwin, bro. of Bp. Wulwi 
Aschil. 



294. Meldone. 
359. Meldone.* 



5 'i 

o 2 



5 Countess Judith, 
i [The King.] 



Abb. of Elstow. 
a King's reeve. 



Alwold, thane of 

1 socman v.) 

2 socmen of 



King Edward. 
King Edward. 



Melchbourne. 
20. Melceburne. 

Meppershall. 
281. MalperteseMe.* 



10 o 10 Bp. Coutances. 
40 4 The King. 



6 socmen. 



Burret. 



Gilbert, 9. of Salomon. I.ewin cilt, thane of King Edward. 
4 socmen (2 h.) 



30 3 

5.0 3 



d. Mapertesbale.* 



31 3 Gilbert, s of Salomon. 



Lewin, thane of King Edward 



1 



TABLE I: SYNTHESIS OF THE VILI.S 



23 



i 179. 


Cra.\elal. 


7 


I 


5 




o 


O.O 


1 .10 


2.0 


5" 


20C. 


Craiielai. 


3 


2 


5 


O 


2 


lO.O 


2.0 


1.10 


5° 
























| 298. 


Camestone, 


12 


8 


20 


2 GO* 




5.0 


18.0 


22.0 


30.0 




Kenemondwick. 




















1 49- 


Cbeiieinondewiche. 


O 


o 


I 


O 


1 


13-4 


3-0 


1. 10 


4.0 









c 

re 




Mlt-LS 


Valet 




VlLL 


£ 
m 

-0 

0 

ea 


1 
1 

a 1 

Al 


J Meadow for ! 


0 




1 

„ ! § 

1 i I 

c 1 s. d. 


li. s. 


li. s. 


li. s. 


supplementary details. 
Special Phases, etc. 



Column i 



Kenswosth. 
b. Canesworde. 

Kf\ soe, 
122. Chalsot. 

h 373. Caissot. 
I i. Caissot.* 



n. Caissot.* 

Knotting. 
19. Chenotinga. 
Langkord. 
245. Langelord. 



Lf.ighton. 
2. Lestone." 



100I 



3.10 5.0 



0.0 

0.0 



4 0 

0.2 



i6t 



400 
16 



5« 
0.2 

0.0 0.1 J 

0.0 4.0 
36.8 15.10 10. o 

30.0 f 



5° 
o 4 

3.0 3.0 

5° 



3- 


Lestone Ch. 


6 


0 


3 


0 


O 


0.0 


40 


4-0 


4.0 


{- 45 ' 


Lestone Ch. 














4.O 




LlDLINGTON. 




















\ 63 - 


Lltlncletone. 


16 


7 


8 


400 


O 


0.0 


8.0 


8.0 


12.0 




LllTON. 




















I *• 


I.oilone.' 


47 


0 


4 


2000+ 


6 


100.0 








\ 

5- 


I.oitone Ch.* 


4 


3 


0 


5° 


1 


10. 0 


3° 








Marston. 






















Merestone.* 


5 


0 


3 


300 


0 


0.0 


2.IO 


I.O 


4.0 


186. 


Merstone. 


2 


4 


8 


300 


0 


0.0 


7° 


S-o 


12.0 




Maui.den. 




















78. 


Meldone. 


0 


0 


4 


5° 


0 


0.0 


2.10 


2. 10 


4 0 


\ 134. 


Meldone. 






1 


20 


0 


O.U 


0. 10 


°-5 


0.12 


1 Ujo ' 


Meldone.* 




















294. 


Meldone. 


0 


2 


5 


100 


1 


3-0 


3.0 


4.0 


7.0 


> 359- 


Meldone.* 


0 


0 


i 


0 


0 


O.O 


0.3 


°-3 


O.IO 




Melchdourne. 




















20. 


Melceburne. 


'5 


3 


3 


100 


0 


O.O 


8.0 


5° 


6.0 




MEPPER SHALL. 




















281. 


Malperteselle." 


4 


2 


7 


200f 


0 


O.O 


6.0 


6.0 


10. 0 



d. Maperteshale* 



Kempston, 298. 
Keneinond wick, 49. 
Kensworth, b. 

Keysoe, i. 
Keysoe, n. 

Lao g ford, 245. 
Leighton, 2. 



Luton, 4. 



Luton, 5. 

Marston, 77. 

Maulden, 190. 
Mauldon, 359. 

Meppershall, 281. 

Meppershall, d. 



* And from pasture two shillings. 



* This land Earl VValtheof and his wife gave to St. Ed- 
mund in alms T.R.W. 

* Eight vill ins with three bordars have two teams. 
+ Pasture for [the township's] cattle. 

t From rent of wood, two shillings. 



* It is a soke. 

t Four acres of meadow. 

t Kitty acres of grazing woodland. 

* It lies in Bedeforde scire but pays geld in 
Hunted [one Jsci re. 



* Twelve villans, seven bordars, and five serfs with nine 
teams. 

+ And two shilings, over and above [ from meadow]. 
From pasture six shillings, and there is still pasture for 
three hundred sheep. 

* A demesne manor of the King . . . T.R.K. there were 
but thirty hides. 

t Toll of market renders seven pounds. In all it renders 
yearly twenty-two pounds by weight and a half day to 
the King's farm in grain and honey and other things 
which belong to the farm. To the Queen's use, two 
ounces of gold, and for one sumpter horse and custom 
of dogs seventy shillings, and a hundred shillings by 
weight, and forty shillings in blanch silver. '1 his tvo 
TallieU) c levied .is increment, and :ui ounce of gold to 
the use of the SheriS yearly. 

Of the land of this manor, Wenesi chamberlain held 
ten hides from K ing Edward, which Ralf Taillebosc 
added to Lestone, where they used not to lie T.R.E. 
And again the same Ralf added other seven hides to 
this manor which were not there T.R.E. Those seven 
hides Starcher, thane of King Edward, held. 

* A demesne manor of the King. 

t And from dues [of the wood] ten shillings eight pence. 

X From toll and market a hundred shillings. In all, it 
renders yearly thirty pounds by weight, and a half 
day in grain and honey and other customs which be- 
long to the King't farm. To the Queen four ounces 
of gold, and from a sumpter horse and other small cus- 
toms seventy shillings, and from the custom of dogs six 
pounds and ten shillings. And, from the increment 
which Ivo Tallebosc levied, seven pounds by weight and 
forty shillings of blanch silver, and an ounce of gold to 
the Sheriff. 

* The church renders yearly twenty shillings. 

* Against (super) this land Erfast, man of Nigel d'Albini, 
claims half a close (sepem), which lay to the manor of 
his antecessor, as the men of the Hundred bear witness. 

1 In Meldone John dc Roches wrongfully occupied twenty- 
five acres against the men who hold the vill, and now 
Nigel d'Albini has the land. 

* This land [and five others] Ralf Talgebo?c added to 
the King's service, when he was Sheriff, for they were 
not in it T.R.E. Those who now have them, hold by 
grant of the King. So they say. 

* In Herefortscire [Herts.] the same vill answers for 
three hides and one virgate. There is land for three 
ploughs. 

t And from custom of the wood ten shillings. 



■ This land is assessed in 

of the land. 
+ There are three villan 



Bedefordescyre with the rest 
and four cottars. 



24 



TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VILLS 



VlLL 




1086 


1066 


Demesne 


\ 


ILLASS 












teams 




teams 


Tenant in Chief 


Sub-tenant 


Tenant 


Overlord 


h.v. 


there 


sliort 


£ 
c 




short J 



Column i 






in 






vi 


vii 


viii 


ix 


31 


xi 


xii 


xiii 


MlLT.HROOK. 




























187. Melebroc. 


5 


0 


0 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Nigel de Wast. 


•*• 


Godwin, s. of Lewin. 


0 


2 


0 


A 


4 


O 














? socmen 
















Mil LO 




























46 Melehou * 


4 




4 


The King. 


Bp r)urhato. 




Abb, ot Waltham. 


V 2 


1 




4 


2 


Q 


80 Mclchou. 


5 




5 


Waiter Gifard. 


Half de angetot. 


10 so men 








0 


8 


0 


Q 


94. Melehou. 






j 


William de Ow. 


Godmar, man of 


Ales tan. 


0 


I 


0 


0 


O 




Mii.ton Brvan. 




























12. Mildentone. 


4 


0 


4 


Bp. Bayeux. 


Ansgot of Rochester. 


7 socmen. 




0 


1 


1 


4 


2 


O 


111. Middeltone, 


6 


0 


6 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 


William Froissart, 


Auti, housecarl of 


Earl Algar. 


0 


i 


0 


t> 


3 


O 


Milton Ernest. 




























gqa. Mildentone. 4 








[Milo Crispin.] 


[2 socmen.] 


2 socmen. 








- 








147 Middeltone 




3T 


3 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 


William Basset. 






0 


2 


0 


1 


1 


O 


197. Mildentone. 


2 


-J 




Nigel d'Albini. 


Turgis. 


6 socmen. 




0 


I 


0 


4* 


A 




234. Mildentone. 


2 


0 


3 


Walter Fleming. 


Rainald. 


2 socmen, men of 


Brictric. 


0 


I 


0 


2 


1 


1 


333. Mildentone. 


3 


1 


4 


Adeliz de Grentmesnil. 


Ivo, dapifer of H. de 


Godwin, man of 


Borret. 


0 


2 




% 




0 












Grentmesnil. 


















377. Mildentone. 


0 


°i 


1 


The King. 


a King's bedell. 


The bedell's father. 
















Newton Bromswold. 




























27. Neuucntone. 


0 


1 




Bp. Coutances. 


William his dapner. 


Alwin , man ot 














KORTIIILI.. 














Ulrnar of Etone. 






4 








117. NortgiueDe]. 


1 


2 


'} 


Eudo, s. of Hubert. 


Pirot. 


Ravan, man of 


0 


I 


3 


0 


O 


118. NortgiueLle j. 


1 


2 


2 


Eudo, s. of Hubert. 


Ralf. 


2 socmen. 


Kin£ Edward. 


0 


2 


O 


0 


0 


0 


177. Nortgtblc. 


0 


2 


{ 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 


Walter. 


Osiet, man of 




h 




0 


0 




223. Nortgiuele. 


6 


2 


7 


William Spech. 




6 socmen. 




4.0 


3 


O 


10 


4 


0 


_ 

t )AKLEY. 














King Edward. 














225. Acheltii. 


4 




8 


Robert de Todeni 


2 soldiers. 


Osulf, thane of 


0 


3 


I 

| 


7 


4 


0 


300. Achelai. 


1 


O 




Countess Judith. 


Milo Crispin. 


G od wi u , m a n of 


Earl Harold. 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


Odell. 




























73. Wadclle. 


4 


2 J 


[5] 


Count Eustace. 


Ernulf de Arde. 


Alwold, thane of 


King Edward. 


0 


1 


I 


3 


2 


1 


230. Wadchellc. 


S 


>3 


5 


The King. 


Walter Fleming. 


Levenot, thane of 


King Edward. 


2.0 


2 


O 


'3 


3 


0 














1 socman (£■ hide). 
















I'AVENHAM. 




















[3] 








71. Pabcneham. 


2 


2 


3 


Count Eustace. 


Ernulf de Arde. 


Aluuuld, thane of 


King Edward. 


0 


0 


0 




0 


230. Pabeneham.* 


5 


O 


b 


Rannulf bro. of Ilger. 


Robert, s. of Nigel. 


Godwin, thane of 


King Edward. 




1 


I 


9 


2 


2 


277. Pabenehani. 


2 


2 


3 


The King. 


Turstin chamberlain 


Alsi, man of 


his brother Alii. 


1 .0 


1 


O 


6 


2 


O 


Pecsdon. 














Abb. Ramsey. 














54. Pechesdone. 


[O 


O 


'4 


Abb. Ramsey. 






2.0 


2 


I 


37 


1 1 


O 


Pertenhall. 














Alwin Deule. 














g h. Partenhale." 


0 


I 


4 


Bp. Lincoln. 


William. 




0 


0 


O 


0 


0 


O 


Podington. 














King Edward. 










3i 




237. Podintone. 


1 


3 


Si 


Walter Fleming. 


Hugh. 


Levenot, thane of 


0 


2 


O 


4 


O 


251. Podintone. 


2 


1 




The King. 


Hugh Fleming. 


4 socmen. 




0 2 


1 


u 


3 


'* 


O 


c]. Potintone. 








William Eeverel. 








0 


0 


0 


4 


1 


O 


Pol. EH ANGER. 














Earl Waltheof. 














f. Polehnngre. 


0 


2 


I 


Robert d' Oilgi. 


Martel. 


Aluric, man of 


0 


j 


0 


0 


0 


O 


POTSGRAVE. 














Morcar priest of Luitone. 














263. Potesgraue. 


1 


0 


I 


The King. 


William chamberlain. 




0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


O 


292. Potesgraue. 




2 


7i 


The King. 


Gozelin Ento. 


[v E versholt, 35^1 


4 thanes. 


3.0 


3 


0 


3 


2 


2* 


356. Potesgraue.* 


X 


0 


[ 1 he King. J 


Herbert, Kg.'s reeve 
















357. Potcsgraua. 


0 


2 


i 


[The King.] 


a King's groom. 


Oswi, man of 


Earl Tosti. 


0 


} 


0 


0 


0 


O 


Potion. 














Earl Tosti. 














309. Potone.* 


0 


oh 


I 


Couutess Judith. 


Hugh. 




0 


t 


0 


0 


0 


O 


313. Potone. 


I 0 


0 


12 


Countess Judith. 


(2 socmen.) 




King Edward.* 




3 


0 


iSt 


8 


I 












4 socmen (1 h. 1 v.) 
















Priestlev. 




























182. Prestelai. 


I 




2 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Turgis. 


5 thanes. 




0 


2 


0 


1 


0 


O 


358. Prestelai.* 




0 


I 


[The King.] 


a King's reeve. 


4 thanes. 




0 


0 


0 


I 


0 




Pulloxhill. 




























195. Polochesseie. 


10 


0 




Nigel d'Albini. 


Roger and Ruallon.* 


8 socmen. 




0 


2 


2 


1 1 


9 


O 


PUTNOE. 














King Edward. 














124. Putenehou. 


4 


0 


5 


Hugh de Beauchamp 




Aschil, thane of 


2.0 


2 


O 


6 


3 


O 


Radwell. 




























200. Radeuuelle. 




■i 


5 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Nigel de Wast. 


10 socmen. 


King Edward. 


u 


1 


O 


6 


4 


O 


305. Radeuuelle. 


2 






Countess Judith. 


Hugh. 


Tovi, housecarl of 


O 


O 


1 


0 


O 



TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OH THE VILL. 



2b 



Vim, 



Column i 
MlLLBROOK. 

IS7. Melebroc. 

MlLLO. 
46. Melehou.* 
SO. Melehou. 
04, Melehou. 

Milton Bkyan. 
12. Mildentone 
141. Middeltone. 

Milton Ernest. 
goa. Mildentone;* 



147. Middeltone. 
197. Miklentoae. 

234. Mildentone. 
333. Mildentone. 

377. Mildentone. 

Newton Bhomswold. 
27. Neuuentone. 
Nokthill. 

117. Nortgiue[le]. 

118. Nortgiue[le]. 
177. Nortgible. 
223. Nortgiuele. 

Oakley. 
225. Achelai. 
300. Achelai. 

Odell. 
73. Wadelle. 
23G. Waiiehelle. 

pAVENHAM. 
71. Pabcneham. 
2:10. Pabencham." 

277. Pabeneham. 

Pegsdon. 
54. Pechcsdone. 

Pertenhall. 
g. h. Partenhale.* 



POD1NGTON. 

237. Podintone. 
251. Podintone. 
q. Potintoue.* 

POLEHANCER. 

f. Polehangre. 

POTSGRAVE. 

263. Potesgraue. 
292. Potesgraue. 
356. Potesgraue.* 



357- Potcsgraua. 

Potton. 
309. Potone.* 
313. Potone. 

Priestley. 
■ S2. Prestelai. 
358. Prestelai.* 



Pulloxhill. 
195. Polochessele- 

PUTNOE. 

124. Putenebou. 

Radwell. 
200. Radeuuelle. 

305. Radeuuelle. 



c 

■0 
0 
CQ 


Serfs 


Meadow for teams 


S 

1 

•O 

O 
O 
>. 


MlL.'.S 


Valet 


number 


% 
rt 

s. d 


CO 

li. s. 


K 
Oi 
li. s. 


ti 

VL 

f— 

li. s. 


xiv 


IV 


svi 




xvlii 




» 


xxi 


xxii 


2 


0 


a 




2 


6.0 


3-° 


1. 10 


t.o 


0 






O 








2.0 


3-o 


4 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0.0 


5.0 


5.0 


5.0 


I 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0.0 


0. 10 


O.IO 


0. 10 


3 


8 


4 


30 


0 


0.0 


4.0 


4.0 


2.0 


3 


4 


6 




0 


0.0 


6.0 


4.0 


S.o 


4 


a 


2 


g 


0 


0.0 


1. 10 


1 .10 


2.0 


3 


u 


3 




0 


0.0 


1. 10 


1. 10 


2 0 


1 


0 


2 


O 


0 


0.0 


1 .0 


1.0 


»-5 


0 




2 




1 




3 ° 


3*° 


4.0 


0 


O 


0 


O 


0 


0.0 


O.I 


O.I 


0. 1 




O 


0 


O 


0 


O.o 


0.1 


O.I 


0.1 \ 


1 


0 


■4 


O 


I 


14.0 


1.0 


O.IO 


••5 


5 


3 


2 


IfW) 


0 


0.0 


30 


2.0 


3° 




0 


* 


0 


0 


0.0 


o-S 


°-5 


0. 10 


0 


4 


7 


200 


i 


1 3.0 


6.0 


6.0 


S.o 


3 


5 


4 


0 


I 


26.0* 


4.0 


4.0 


4.10 


3 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0.0 


O.IO 


O.IO 


1.0 


7 


2 


3 


5° 


0 




3- n 


S-° 


8 0 


5 


5 


5 


60 


I 


36.8* 


5.0 


h 0 


10. 0 


2 


0 


3 


O 


1 




'■5 




4 0 




3 


6 




0 


0.0 


3-° 


4.0 


60 


1 


0 


3 




0 


0.0 


2.0 


2.0 


=•5 


7 


5 


3 


60 


2 


27.8 


10. 0 


10. 0 


120 


0 


0 


0 


O 


O 


0.0. 


0.5 




0.5 


9 


2 


1 


20 


O 


0.0 


4.10 


2.10 


2.10 




1 


0 




O 


0.0 


1. 10 


1. 10 


2.0 


2* 


2 


1 


2 


O 


0.0 


0.10 


O.IO 


I .0 


0 


0 


1 


O 


O 


0.0 


0.15 


0.15 


2.0 


6 


3 


5 


O 


O 


0.0 


2.10 


5-0 


10. 0 


0 


0 


0 


O 


O 


0.0. 


°-5 


0.5 


O.IO 




0 


0 




O 


0.0 


0.5 


o-S 


0.2 


'3 


3 


1 2 


: 


I 


5.0 




5° 


1 3.0 


4 


0 


2 


40 


O 






1 .0 


3.0 


0 


0 


1 


20 


O 


0.0 


°-5 


0 10 


1. 10 


*3 


2 


6 


IOO 


O 


0.0 


10.0 


8.0 


13.0 


4 


2 


0 


IOO 


I 


30.0* 


4.0 


2.0 


2.0 


6 


3 


5 


0 


I 


IO-O 


4.0 


4.0 


S.o 


1 


1 


1 


0 


O 


0.0 


1.0 


O.IO 


2.0 


xiv 


XV 


xv i 


xvii 






XX 


xxi 


xxii 



Supplementary Dm ails. 
Special Phases, etc. 



Millbrook, 1S7. 
Millo, 46. 

Milton Ernest, 99a. 
Milton Ernest, 197. 

Newton Bromswold, 

Oakley, 225. 

Odell, 236. 
Pavenham, 230. 

Pertenhall, g, h. 



Poddington, q. 
Polehanger, f. 

Potsgrave, 356. 



Potton, 309. 
Potton, 313. 



Priestley, 358. 

Pulloxhill, 195. 
Putnoe, 124. 



[And there were — socmen] who all were able to give 
and sell their land to whom they would. 

This land King Edward gave to the Church of Holy 
Cross of Waltham, as the men ot the Hundred witness. 



In Middeltone two socmen held sixteen acres of land, 
and paid geld (warram dederunt) in the same vill. . . . 
These socmen Robert de Olgi added to Clopeham, wrong, 
fully as the men of the Hundred say, because they 
never lay to it .T.R.E. 

And four vilians [hove] two teams and a half, and 
[there can be another] half team of the vilians. 



27". * Alwin could not give and sell without leave of Iiorred. 



And two hundred eels. 



And two hundred eek. 



In right of (de) this land Rannulf, brother of Ilger 
claims twelve acres of land against Gilbert, son of 
Salomon, and four acres of meadow against Hugh de 
Gientmaisnil, whereof Rannulf was wrongfully dis- 
seised. And the men of the Half Hundred say that 
that land, which Hugh and Gilbert now hold, lay 
T.R.E. to the land which Rannulf son of Ilger holds. 
This land lies in Bedefordcscire, but renders geld and 
service in Hcntcdunc^cire. This the King's servants 
claim for his use. King Edward had the soke. 



* Sokeland. 
■ Two cottars. 



* This land [and two others] he holds in the King's 
service, which did not lie in it T.R.E. But from the 
time that Ralf Tallgebosc was Sheriff, he says that he 
he held them by grant of the King. 

* This land Earl Tosti held in his manor of Potton. 

* And it had been of Earl Tosti. 

i Eighteen vilians and two socmen with eight teams. 
X Pasture for the township's cattle. 

* This land [and five others] Ralf Talgebosc added to 
the King's service when he was Sheriff, for they were 
not in it T.R.E. Those who now have them, hold by 
grant of the King. So they say. 

* Roger and Ruallon hold Nigel d'Albini holds Lsic] 
Polochessele. 

* And a hundred eels. 



TABLE 1 : SYNTHESIS OF THE VILLS 



VlLL 


0 

be 

rs 

X 
h v 


Team-lands 


1086 


1066 


Demesne 


\ 


ILL ANS 


Tenant in Chief 


Sub-tenant 


Tenant 


Overlord 


h.v. 


teams 


number 


teams 


! 

j there 


c 


| there . 


*. 

0 


Column i 


H 


in 


iv 






vii 


Vii) 


Ex 




11 


XII 


siU 


RlSF.LEY. 


























* j. lviscmi. 


6 0 


7 


Bp. Coutances. 


2 Frenchmen and 


4 h.) 6 socm., m. of 


Burred (a h.) 


0 


7 


0 


0 


0 


O 








6 Englishmen. 
















38. Riselai. 


1 0 




Bp. Lincoln. 


Godfrey. 


Godric, thane of 


King Edward. 


0 


1 


0 


1 


0 


O 


123. Riselai.* 


1 0 


2 


Hugh de Beauchamp 


Aschil, Hugh's antecessor 


0 


2 


0 


0 






146. Riselai. 


0 2 


1 


Hugh de Beauchamo 


Aluric priest. 


Wenot, man of 


Godric the Sheriff. 


0 


4 


0 


0 


0 


O 


271. Riselai. 


0 2 


1 
3 


Osbern* s. of Richard. Hugh Hubald. 


\lwin, man of 


Stori. 


0 


j 


0 






O 


2S7. Riselai. 


1 0 


The King. 


David de Argentoin. 


tiomdai, man of 


Earl Harold. 


<J 


0 


I 


, 


0 


O 


ROXTON. 


























Rochestoiie. 


1 1 


1 


Hugh de Beauchamp. Rualon. 


4 socmen, m. of 


King Edward. 


0 


[1] 


0 


0 


0 


o 


217. R oc hesil on e. 


ft 1 
ft 3 


8 


William Spech. 




12 socmen. 




4 3 


2 


0 


1 2 


6 


0 


Kushden, 


























35. Risedene. 


0 2 




Bp. Coutances. 


Alwold. 


Aluric, man of 


Borred. 




I 




0 


0 


- 


121. Risedene. 


0 1 


j 


William Pevrel. 


Malet. 


Samar priest, m. of 


Ctess. Goda. 




J 


0 


0 


0 


0 


Salfokd. 


























159. Saleford. 


5 0 


5 


Hugh de Beauchamp 


Turchil, thane of 


King Edward. 


0 




0 


1 2 


4 


0 


Salpiio. 


























137. Sakhou.* 


5 ° 


8 


Hugh de Beauchamp 


11 socmen. 


Same 11 socmen. 




0 


0 


0 


0 


8 


0 


Sandy. 


























108. Sandcie.* 


16 1 


16 


Eudo, s. of Hubert. 


Ulmar, thane of 


King Edward. 


8.1 


3 


0 


24 


8 


5 


Segenho. 


























249. Segenehou. 


10 0 


10 


Walter bio. of Seiher. 


Levenot, thane of 


King Edward. 


4.0 


1 


2 


»4 


7 


0 












1 socmen hide). 














Segresdon. 
























255. Segrcsdooe. 


0 1 




Hugh piucerca. 


Alwin, man of 


Earl Harold. 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0 


0 


S ewe i.e. 


























8. Sewelle.* 


3 0 


2 


The King. 


Walrave, man of 


Queen Edith. 


0 




I 


1 


0 


0 



Sernebroe. 


0 


2 


1 


Bp. of Coutances. 


Turgis englishman. 


Alwin, man of 


Borrct. 


0 




0 


X 


O 


0 


Sernebroc. - 


3 


0 


3 
1 


Bp. of Coutances. 


7 socmen. 


Same 7 socmen, m. of 


Boned. 


0 


3 




0 


O 


0 


Sernebroc. 


0 


2 


Bp. of Coutances. 


Humfrey. 


Aluric, man of 


Borred. 


0 


1 


0 


0 


O 


0 


Sernebroc. 


0 


2 


9 
4 


Bp. of Coutances. 


Borred, thane of 


King Edward. 


0 


0 


0 


0 


O 


0 


Serneburg. 


2 


0 


4 


Count Eustace. 


Robert, son of Rozelin. 


Alwold, man of 


King Edward. 


0 


2 


0 


4 


2 


0 


Sernebroc. 


0 






Hugh de Beauchamp 


Osbern de Broilg. 


3 socmen. 


0 


0 


0 


0 


O 


0 


Sernebroc. 


0 


2j 




Hugh Fleming. 


Robert. 


Leuric, man of 


Abb. of Ramsey. 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


0 


Sernebroc* 


0 


2 


I 


The King. 


Osbern fisher. 


Tovi, house-carl of 


King Edward. 


- 1 


1 


0 


1 


0 


0 


Sernebroc. 


2 


°5 


3 


Albert of Lorraine. 




Algar, man of 


Queen Edith. 


1 .0 


2 


0 


4 


( X 


0 


Sernebroc. 




3 




Countess Judith. 


Hugh. 


Oviet, man of 


King Edward. 


0 


1 


0 




0 


0 


Scernebroc* 


0 


i 


i 


The King. 


Almar. 


Almar's father. 




0 


0 


0 




0 


0 



Sheiton (Stodd ) 
23. Eseltone. 

Shelton (Redd.). 

184. Esseltone. 

185. Esseltone. 
285. Esseltone.* 
330. Eseltone. 

Shili.ington. 
58. Setlilindone. 

SlLSOE. 

194. Siuuiiessou. 
250. Sewilessou. 

Southili-. 

110. Sudgiuele. 

129. Sudgible. 

219. Sudgiuele. 

246. Sudgiuele. 

247. Sudgiuele. 
262. Sudgiuele. 
324. Sudgiuele. 



5 


0 


6 


Bp. Coutances. 


Will., his dapifer. 


tflveva* (under) 


Borret. 


0 


2 


0 


14 


4 


0 


1 


0 


1 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Erfast. 


Alward, man of 


Alric, s. of Goding. 


0 


1 


0 




O 


0 


0 


2 


i 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Stephen. 


Suglo,* man of 


Alric, s. of Goding. 


0 


i 


0 


0 


O 


0 


3 


0 


5 


Albert of Lorraine. 




Almar, man of 


Earl Tosti. 


1 .0 


2 


O 


7 


3 


0 


0 


2 


i 


The King. 


Adeliz de Grentmesnil. 


Godwin, man of 


Earl Guert. 


0 


i 


0 


0 


0 


0 


10 


0 


'4 


Abb. Ramsey. 






Abb. Ramsey. 


3.0 


2 


0 


27 


12 


0 


2 


0 


4 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Nigel's concubine. 


Aluric parvus, thane of 


King Edward. 


0 


1 


0 


2 


2 


1 


4 




10 


Walter, bro. of Seiher 


Hugh. 


Levenot, thane of 


King Edward. 


0 


2 


0 


6 


7t 


X 












3 socmen (£ hide) 
















0 


04 


X 


Eudo, s. of Hubert. 


William de Caron. 




Alric. 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


0 


2 


1 


3 


Hugh de Beauchamp 




8 socmen. 




0 


3 


0 


0 


0 


0 


5 


oj 


7 


William Spech. 


2 Frenchmen. 


16 socmen. 




0 


4 


0 


8 


3 


0 




0 


Walter Fleming. 






Walter's antecessor. 














0 


1 


* 


Walter Fleming. 


Alric. 


Lewin,* thane of 


The King. 


0 




0 




0 


0 






0 


Richard Fungiant. 






Archbp. Stigand. 














1 


0 


2 


Countess Judith. 


Hugh. 


Tuffa, man of 


Earl Waltheof. 


0 


z 


0 


3 


0 


0 



Stagsden. 



7°- 
125. 



Stachedene. 


3 


3 


4 


Stachedene.* 


0 


X 


\ 


Stachedene. 


5 


0 


5 


Stachedeoe. 


1 


0 


1 



Bp. Bayeux. 
Count Eustace. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 

Countess Judith. 



Herbert s. of Ivo 
Godwi englishman 



Hugh 



!2 socmen, men of 

2 men of 

1 man of 

2 socmen, men of 



King Edward. 

King Edward. 
Earl Harold. 
King Edward. 



[|] 



TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THE V1LLS 



27 



VlLL 



MlLLS 


Vai et 










ui 






o 

CO 








"s 1 * 




a 


H 




v 1 s- d- 


li. s. 


li. s 


li. s. 





SUPPLEMENTARY DfTAILS. 

Special Phases, etc. 



Column i 

Ki sixty. 



25. Riselai. 


7 




3 




0 


0.0 


3.12 


3.12 


5.0 


. O 1? i -1 1 






j 














133. Riselai.* 




















146. Riselai. 


4 




0 


0 


0 


0.0 


0-5 


° 5 


0.8 


2jt, Riselai. 














O. c, 


°-5 


0.8 


3 S 7 . Riselai. 


3 


0 


O 


0 


0 


0.0 


0. 10 


1 0 


1.0 


Rovi un 




















156. Rochestone. 


3 


■ 


1 


4 


0 


0.0 


0.1O 


1.0 


1.0 


217. Roihcsdone. 






t 


20 




33-°* 


7.O 


2.10 


10.0 


Rush den. 




















a?, Riscdcne. 


0 


0 




0 


0 


0.0 


°-5 


°-5 


0. 10 


jii. Riscdene. 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


0.1$ 


0.1$ 


0.2 


Sai.ford. 




















139. Soltlord. 




, 


5 


1 w* 

** 


: 


y 4 


4.0 


3 " 


5 0 


Salpho 




















137. Salchou.* 








5° 




0.0 


5.0 


5° 


8.0 


Sandy 




















108. Sandclc* 






16+ 






50.0 




8.0 




Segenho. 




















249. Sc jjc nc h 0 11 . 


■1 


3 




300* 


0 


0.0 


6.0 


10. 0 


16.0 


Secresdon. 




















35s. Segresdone. 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


0. 1 




0.2 


Seweu,. 




















8. Sewelle.* 


4 


0 


\ 














SllAIiNllROOK". 




















31. ScrnL-broc. 


Q 




( 




0 


0.0. 


0.6 




0.15 


32, Serncbroc. 






0 


24, 








1 .4 


3-° 


33. Scmebroc. 


2 




0 


3° 


0 


0.0 


0.6 


0. 10 


1 .0 


34. Semebioc. 


4 


O 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


°-3 


03 


°-5 


74. Scrneburg 




4 


2 


60 












152. Scrnebroc. 






0 


0 


0 


0.0 


0.2 


0.2 


0.2 


253. Sernebtoc. 


1 


T 
















275. Sernebioc* 


2 


0 


\ 


lot 


1 


1 .4 


°6 


0. 10 


2.0 


aS6. Serncbroc. 


4 


4 


2 


40 


1 


1 6.0 


2:10 


1 . 10 


3.0 


307. Scrnebroc. 








O 


0 


0.0 


0. 10 


0.5 


1 .0 


352. Sccrnebroc* 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


02 


0.2 


0. c; 


Shelton (Stodd.) 




















23. Escltoue. 


5 


3 


1 


4 


, 


3 0 


5-° 


3.0 


4.0 


Shelton (Redb.). 




















184. Esseltone. 


2 


1 


\ 


40 


0 


0.0 


1 .0 


0.15 


1 .0 


185. Ksstltone. 


2 


0 




12 


0 


0.0 


0.6 


°-3 


O.IO 


285. Esseltone.* 


0 


4 




100 


0 


0.0 


2. a 


1 .0 


2 -5 


330. Eseltone. 


1 


0 


h 


6 




0.0 


0.6 


0.6 


O-IO 


Shillington. 




















S». Sethllndone. 


5 


4 


6 


100 


1 " 


0.0 


12.0 


12.0 


12.0 


SlLSOE. 




















'04 Siuuilessou. 


3 


X 


3 


50 


0 


o-o 


1 . 10 


I . 10 


1.10 


250. Sewilessou. 


& 


4 


6 


1 00 J 


1 


2.2 


8.0 


5° 


1 1 .0 


South ill. 




















no. Sudgiuele. 




O 


z 


0 


0 


0.0 


°-3 




0.4 


129. Sudgible. 


0 


O 




100 


0 


0.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2. IO 


219. Sudgiuele. 


R 


f> 




200 


0 


0.0 


4.10 


4.0 


3° 


246. Sudgiuele. 




















-'47- Sudgiuele. 


0 


O 




0 




0.0 


o-5 


o-3 


0. 10 


262. Sudgiuele. 








60 












334- Sudgiuele. 


3 


X 


2 


0 


0.0 


j. 10 


2.0 


3-o 


STAGSnEN. 




















• 5- Stachedene. 


6 


O 


1 


40 


0 


0.0 


7.0 


9.0 


12.0 


70. Stachedene.* 




O 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


0.2 




O.IO 


'25. Stachedene. 


8 


2 




100* 


0 


0.0 


5° 


2.0 




3"3- Stachedene. 


2 


O 


0 


40 


0 


0.0 


O.IO 


O.IO 


I .0 



Risclcy, 123. 
Riseley, 271. 

Roxton, 217. 

Salford, 139. 
Salpho, 137. 
Sandy, 10S. 

Segenho, 249. 
Sewell, 8. 

Sharnbrook, 275. 



Sharnbrook, 352. 
Shelton (Stoddcn) 



* It is a berewkk of Caisot. 

* Osbert [sic]. 

* And two hundred and sixty eels. 



* And from [the] other custom [of the wood] ten 
shillings. 

* This land Ralf Tallgcbosc had in exchange for Wares 
(Ware), as say his men, and when it was taken over was 
worth eight pounds. 

* Here Eudo claims three acres of wond against Hugh de 
Heauchamp, which Ulmar held, but Ralf [Taillebosc] 
when he was Sheriff disseised him, and therefore Eudo 
refused to pay tax (dare Warras) for that wood. To 
this same the men of the Hundred witness. 

i And pasture for t\vi township's cattle. 

* And of the custom of the wood ten rams yearly. 



It lay in Odecroft Hundred T.R.E. Rut Ralf Taillebosc 
added it to the manor of Houghton with the leave of 
King William for the increment which it gave him. 
Thus say the same Ralf's men, according to what they 
heard him say. 



* As belonging to (cum) this laud the same Osbert [sic] 
claims one and a quarter virgate, which his antecessor 
held T.R.E. But after that King William came into 
England, he refused to pay rent (gablum dare) for this 
land, and Ralf Taillegebosc paid the rent, and took the 
land itself as forfeiture, and allotted it to one of his 
knights. 

* And a stew-pond for fish. 

* This land Almar's father held, and King William ren- 
dered it to him by writ. 

* Ulveva was not able to give or sell without leave of 

Borred. 



Shelton (Rcdbornst.), 2S5. * This manor was and is a member of Wootton. 



Shillington, 58. 
Silsoc, 250. 



Southill, 246. 
Southill, 247. 



Southill, 2G2. 
Stagsdcn, 70. 
Stagsden, 125. 



* Broken (fractum). 

* This half hide Hugh holds from the King, as they say. 
t Six villans and eight bordars and four serfs with seven 

teams. 

t And two shillings [due from the wood]. 

* A half hide of wood which his antecessor held. 

* This land Lewin, thane of the King, held in pledge 
T.R.E. But after King William came into England, he 
who pledged it redeemed the land, and Seiher occupied 
it against the King, as the men of the Hundred bear 
witness. 

* A half hide of wood. 

* There is land for a half team, and one ox ploughs there. 

* A park of woodland beasts is there.' 



2S 



TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VILLS 



Vlt.L 

1 


*> 

-J 
h.V. 


S 

-? 
s 

r- 




Column i 




ii 


Hi 




Stanford. 








III. 


Stanford. 


4 




4 


112. 


Stanford 








! 13°. 


Stanford. 




"2 


'J 


! 169. 


Stanforde. 


! 


O 


l\ 


> 220. 


Stanford 


■ 


O 




34°- 


Stanford.* 






2 




Stanford. 


0 


<H 


,v, 


37°- 


Stanford. 


[0 


a*] 


1 




Stanwick, 








51. 


SUii.'u ka. 


2 


2 


*i 


Staughton, Littlt.. 








*4- 


Estone.* 




3 


I 


37- 


Estone.* 


0 


A 


I 


87. 
88. 


E stone* 


0 


1 




Estonc.* 


1 


1 


I 


89. 


Estone. 


0 


r 


» 


90. 


Estone. 


0 


'i 




*45 - 


Estone.* 


0 


2 




254. 


F.stone. 


2 


3 


4 


256. 


Estonc. 


2 


0 


5 


270. 


Estone. 




*a 


1 




Steppingley. 








210. 


Stepitfclai. 


5 


0 


7 




Stevinton. 








69. 


Stiueiitone. 


3 








Stondon. 








60. 


Standotie. 


° 




5 


34°- 


Stan done. 










Stotkoi.d. 








133. 


Stotfnlt.* 




O 


15 




Stratton. 








81. 


Stratone. 


, 


>i 




242. 


Stratone.* 


r 


I 




288. 


Stratone. 


4 


O 


8 


310. 


Stratone 


0 


3i 


2 




Streatley. 








93- 


Stradlei. 


1 


O 


2 


143. 


Straillei. 


4 


t 


6 


196. 


StradlL* 


4 


■ 4 


6 


211. 


Stradlei. 


0 


o| 




364- 


Stradlei.* 


O 




i 




Studham, 








224. 


Estodham. 


6 


0 


6 




StJDDURY. 








258. 


Subberie. 


0 


E 






Sundon. 








91. 


Sonedone. 


10 


O 


16 



92. Sonedone. 

Sutton. 
109. Suttone. 

314. Sudtone. 

315. Sudtone. 

316. Sudtone- 

317. Sudtone. 

318. Sudtone. 

319. Sudtone. 

320. Sudtone. 

321. Sudtone. 
363. Sudtone.* 
365. Sudtone. 



1085 


1066 


Demesne 


Vlt.LANS 


Chief Sub-tenant 


1 

Tenant Overlord 


h.v. 


trams 


£ 
c 


teams 






tlicre 


0 



Eudo, s. of Hubert. William de Caron. 

Eudo s. of Hubert.* 7 socmen. 

Hugh de Beauchamp. 

Hugh de Beaucharap. Roger. 

William Spech. Hugh. 

Azelina Tailleb sc. Roger. 

The King. Alri'j [ wintremelc. J 

[The King, j Ordui. 



z\ Abb. Peterborough. 



Bp. of Coutances. 
Bp. of Lincoln. 
Will, de Warenne. 
Will, de Warenne. 
Will, de Warenne. 
Will, de Warenne. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. Wimund. 
The King. Hugh pincerna. 

The King. Sigar de Cioches. 

Osbern s. of Richard. Hugh Hubald. 



4 socmen. 
Will, de Caron. 



Tednc. 



William Spech. 



Count Eustace. 



William, s. of Rainald 



Ernulf de Arde. 



Hugh de Beauchamp. 



Walter Gifard. 
Walter Fleming. 
The King. 
Countess Judith. 



Fulcher of Paris. 

? 

Ralf de Insula. 
Fulcher of Paris. 



William de Ow. Walter. 

Hugh de Beauchamp. William de Locels. 

Nigel d'Albini, Pirot. 



William Spech. 
[The King. J 



The King. 



Hugh. 

reeve of the Hundred. 



Baldric from 
Robert de Todeni. 



Richard s. of Earl Prior of St. Neat. 
Gilbert. 



3 3 Eudo, s. of Hubert 

2 \\ Countess Judith 

o 1 Countess Judith. 

2 \ Countess Judith. 
3$ 1 Countess Judith. 

\\ \ Countess Judith, 

o 2 Countess Judith. 

3 1 Countess Judith. 
2 i Countess Judith. 

i£ The King, 

o [2 o] [The King.] 



A I win. 
Tore hill. 
Ahvia. 
T-evegar. 
Robert. 

Sueting & Robert. 
Turbert. 
Godwin. 
Ederic. 

Alwin [reeve.] 
Alwin [reeve.] 



Ulmar, thane of 
($h.) 1 socm., m. of 
Same 7 socmen, m. of 
4 socmen.* 

Lemar, thane of 
2 socmen. 
Same Alric. 
Same Ordui, man of 



Same 4 socmen, m. of 
Alwin Deule, m. of 
Avigi, man of 
Avigi. 

Blach, man of 
Godric, man of 
Oviet, man of 
Wig, thane of 
1 socmau (i h.) 
Wig, thane of 
Stori, man of 

1 socman [\ v.) 

Almar, man of 

2 socmen, m. of 

Adclold, thane of 



Ulmar, thane of 
5 socmen, men of 



King Edward. 

Ulmar. 

Ulmar. 

Ailniar dc Ow. 
King Edward. 



Abb. Peterborough. 



Burred. 

Bp. of Lincoln 

Aschil. 

Avigi. 

The Sheriff. 
Aschil. 

King Edward. 

King Edward. 
Earl Tosti. 



Alttric of Flictewice 
Aluric of Flictewice. 



King Edward. 



Abb. of Ramsey 
King Edward. 



(oj h.) Aschil, thane of King Edward. 

(54 n -) 7 socmen. 

(i h.) St. Alban's Abbey? 



3 socmen. 
Lewin, thane of 

Alwin, man of 



Godwin, man of 
Aschil, thane of 
(1 h.) 1 socman, m. of 
Lewin cilt and 3 other 

thanes of 
Aluric, man of. 
Ulmar priest. 



King Edward. 
Archbp. Stigand. 
King Edward. 



Alestan, King's thane. 
King Edward. 
Aschil. 

King Edward. 
Aluric parvus. 



Osulf, s. of Franc, th. of King Edward 



Prior of St. Neot. 



Alestan de Boscumbe, King Edward, 
thane of 



2 socmen. 

3 socmen. 
6 socmen. 

Same Levegar, m. of 
2 socmen. 
Edward, man of 
2 socmen. 
Ulmar, man of 
Same Ederic, m. of 
2 socmen. 
Same Alwin (3 v.) 
Edward (1 v.) 



King Edward. 

Abb. St. Albans. 

Ordui. 
The King. 



0 


i\ 


0 


4 


0 


O 


0 


«i 


0 


4 


0 


O 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


O 


0 


i 


O 


2 


H 


O 


0 


A 


0 


0 


0 




0 


J 


L> 


0 




O 


0 


I 


I* 


2 


9 


O 


0 


j 


0 


0 


0 


O 


0 
























0 


I 


0 


0 


0 


O 




1 
1 










0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


O 




3 










r 0 


2 


0 


4 


2* 


O 


2 0* 


2 


0 


6 


3 


O 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


O 




1 i 




'4 


5* 




O 


1 


3 


10 


5 


*5 


0 








0 


O 


O 


2 


0 


1 1 


\ 


0 




3 


0 


21 


12 


O 


° 


1 




1 


! • 




° 


0 


1 ,n 
L * S J 








0 


7 


1 


ID 




° 


° 


x 


0 


1 




° 


O 


1 


0 


2 


1 


° 


O 


1 


1 


7 


4 


O 


0 


2 


0 


4 


1 


3 


0 


0 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0 


2 


0 


10 


4 


0 


4.0 


4 


0 


20 


12 


0 


0 


1 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0 


1 


0 


1 


O 


0 


0 


1 


1 


O 


O 


0 


0 


0 


0 




O 


0 


0 


1 


0 


O 


O 


0 


0 


.1. 


0 


O 


O 


0 


0 


\ 


0 


O 


O 


0 


0 


1 


0 


O 


I * 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0 


t 




X 


O 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0 




0 


0 


I * 


0 



TAfiL! 7 . I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VII. LS 



29 



VlL-L 



Column t 

Stanford. 



Stanwick. 
51. Stanewlca. 

Staughton, Little. 
24. Estone.* 
37. Estone." 

87. Estone.* 

88. Estone.* 

89. Estone. 

90. Estone. 
145. Estone.* 
254. Estone. 

256. Estone. 

270. F-stone. 

Steppingley. 
210. Stepigclai. 

Stevinton. 
69. Sliuentone. 

Stondon. 
60. Standone. 
346. Standone. 

Stotfold. 
133, Stotlalt.* 



Sthatton. 
8k. Stratone. 
242. Stratone.* 
288. Stratone. 
310. Stratone. 

Streatley. 
93. Stradlei. 
143. Straillei. 

1%. Stradli.* 

211. Stradlei. 
364. Stradlei.* 

Studiiam. 
224. Estodham. 



Sudbury. 
258. Subberie. 

Sundon. 

91. Soncdone. 

92. Sonedone. 

Sutton. 

109. Suttone. 

314. Sudtone. 

515. Sudtone. 

316. Sudtone. 

1'7- Sudtone. 

118. Sudtone. 

V'j- Sudtone. 

320. Sudtone. 

321. Sudtone. 
363. Sudtone.* 
365- Sudtone. 



Mills 



Valet 





c 












0 

CO 






qui 


e3 


0 


a 




c 


s. d. 


li. s. 


Ii. s. 


li. s. 



Supplementary Details. 
Special Phases, etc. 



Stanford. 


0 


2 


4 


60* 


2 


29.0+ 


4.0 


2.0 


4.0 


Stanford 




















Stanford. 


1 


0 


ii 


0 


0 


0.0 


1 .0 


1.0 


1.0 


Stanforde. 


1 


0 


'} 


i(. 




5-° 


0.15 


0.5 


O.IO 


Stanford. 


0 


2 


1 


20 


i 


5 0 


0.15 


1.0 


1.0 


Stanford.* 


1 


0 


2 


3° 


1 


*3-4 


3 0 


1 .0 


3-° 


Stanford. 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


0.1 


0. 1 


0. i 


Stanford. 




0 


i 






0.0 


0.4 


0.4 


0.4 



if 

2 

i' 

1 

2 

O 

i 

o 

2t 



O.O 
O.O 
O-O 
O.O 
O.O. 

0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 

O.O. 



0.3 
0.8 



V 


0 


0 


0 


O 


O.O 


O.IO 


0.10 


0.5 


I 


3 




100 


O 


O.O 


0.15 


O.IO 


O. lO 


2 


0 


1 


100 


O 


O.O 


1.0 


2.0 


I.O 


2 


0 


1 


0 


O 


O.O. 


0. 10 


O.IO 


0.15 


O 


0 


0 


0 


O 


O.O 


0.2 


0.2 


0.3 


O 


0 


1 


24 


0 


O.O 


O.IO 


0. 10 


0.6 


0 


0 


0 


40 


O 


O.O 


1.10 


I .0 


1.0 


I 


1 


1 




O 


O.O 


2.0 


3.10 


2.0 


J 2 


2 


1 


60 


O 


n.o 


4.0 


3° 


4.0 


O 


1 


1 


20 


. O 


0.0 


0. 10 


O.IO 


0.12 


O 


2 


7 


100 


0 


O.O 


4.0 


2.0 


8.0 


1 [ 


2 


4 


20 


0 


0.0 


14.0 


20.0 


30.0 


O 


0 


0 




O 


0.0 


0.15 


L-o.«s] 


[o.. S ] 


3* 


2 






O 


0.0 


3° 


2.0 


4.0 


■4 


6 




0 


4 


So. of 


25.0 


12.0 


20.0 


5 


0 


2 


0 


O 


0.0 


1.8 


r.8 


1. 10 


3 


0 




0 


O 


0.0 


0. 10 


0. 10 


0.10 






4 


0 


O 


0.0 


12.0 


4.0 


5° 


5 


0 


1 


0 


O 


0.0 


0.8 


0.8 


1 .0 


3 


3 




20 


O 


0.0 


1. 10 


1.0 


2.0 


5 


1 


0 


16 


O 


0.0 


4.0 


2.0 


5.0 


4 


1 


3 


20 1 


O 


0.0 


4.0 


2 0 


6.0 


0 


0 


0 


O 


O 


0.0 


0.2 


0.2 


- 0.2 


0 


0 


0 


O 


O 


0.0 


0.5 


O.5 


0. 10 


1 


4 


0 


IOO 


O 


0.0 


4 0 


2 0 


8.0 




12 


4 


IOO 


O 


0.0 


10. 0 


8.0 


20.0 



° 



Stanford, ill. 
Stanford, 112. 
Stanford, 130. 

Stanford, 340. 
Staughton, 24. 

Staughton, 37. 
Staughton, 87. 

Staughton, 88. 



Staughton, 145. 
Staughton, 254. 
Staughton, 256. 
Stondon, 346. 
Stotfold, 133. 

Stratton, 81. 
Stratton, 242. 
Streatley, 196. 

Streatley, 364. 



Sutton, 314. 
Sutton, 316. 
Sutton, 319. 
Sutton, 363. 

Sutton, 365. 



* And [from the wood] two shillings. 
i And fifty eels. 

* The socmen were men of Ulmar, and could give their 
Und [7 acres]. Now Hugh de Beaucbamp holds it. 

* This land was held by four socmen, of whom throe were 
free, but the fourth had one hide, and could not give 
nor sell [it]. 

* This is of her marriage portion. 

+ Two villans and a bordar with one team. 

* Id right of (in) these three virgatcs .the Bishop claims 
against Sigard de Cioches twenty acres of wood, which 
lay to them T.R.K., as the men of the Hundred witness. 

* The soke was always of the Pishop. In right of (in) 
this land of the Bishopric, William de Caron claims 60 
acres between wood and plain against Hugh dc Beau- 
champ, whereof Ralf Taillebosc disseised William's 
father, who held that land T.R.E. as the men of the 
Hundred say. 

* This land Avigi, man of Aschil, the antecessor of Hugh 
de Beaucharnp, held ; he was able to sell to whom he 
would, but Aschil himself kept the soke in Cohnworth 
his manor. This land Hugh <1e Bcauchamp claims 
against William de Warenna, as to winch all who have 
[been] sworn from the sheriffwick (vice-cornitatu) bear 
witness that that land does not belong to William. 

* This land Avigi held T.R.E. , and could give to whom 
he would. Afterwards King William granted it to 
him, and by writ commenJed him to Ralf Tallcbosc in 
order that he should care for Avigi (scruaret eum) so 
long as he should live. And on the day that he died, 
he said that he was man of William de Warcnne, and 
therefore William is seised of this land. 

* The soke lay always to Culmcworiie, the manor of 
Aschil. 

* Four villans and one bordar and one serf with two 
teams. 

* On the demesne are two carucates of land, besides 
(preter) the two hides. 

" Three bordars with a half team. 

* On the day that Ralf Tallebosc died, the manor was at 
farm for thirty pounds. Of this land one hide belongs 
to the Church of St. Alban, and lay to it T.R.E. , as the 
men of the Hundred say. 

+ And four hundred eels. 

* One villan and five bordars with one team. 

* This land lies and lay to Langford, the manor of Walter 

Fleming. 

* Of this land, Pirot holds three hides of the marriage 
portion of his wife, and one hide and one third he holds 
in fee from Nigel d'Albini. 

i There L ? in the wood] a certain man has a team. 

* In Stradlei the reeve (prefectus) of the Hundred holds 
two-third.s of a virgate for the King's use; and they 
now lie to Luitone, the King's manor, but did not lie to 
it T.R.E. Bondi the Staller added them to that manor, 
and Ralf Tallgebosc found them already added to it. 

* And Lfrum the meadow] sixteen pence. 

* And [from the meadow] twelve pence. 

* Four bordars with one team. 

* This land [and five others] Ralf Talgebosc added to the 
King's service when he was Sheriff, for they were not in 
it T.R.E. Those who now have them, hold by grant 
of the King. So they say. 

" Three bordars with one team. 

t And [from the meadow] twelve pence. 



30 TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VII. LS 



VlLL 


"3 
X 

h. v. 


1 

Team-lands 


1086 


1066 


Demesne 


VlLLANS 




Tenant in Chifv 


SUD-TENANT 


Tenant 


Overlord 


h.v. 


teams 


number 


teams 


there 


1 short 


L 


t: 




Column i 








iv 








VI I 1 






K - 


sii 


Kiii 




S WINES HEAD. 




























j, k. 


Suineshefet.* 


3 


2 


4 


William de Warenne 


Eustace. 


E. Siward, later Harold. 


0 


0 


0 


7 


0 


0 














1 socman. 


















i, m 


Suineshefct. 


0 


2 


4 


Eustace the Sheriff. 


RaU. 




Furfa. 


0 








O 






Tempskord. 




























4>- 


Tamiseforde. 


1 


l l 


2 


Bp, Lincoln. 


Will, de Caron. 


Alwin Deule, m. of 


The King. 


0 


U] 




1 


D 




106. 


Tamiseforde. 


z 


1 


2 


Eudo, s. of Hubert. 




2 socmen 


I .0 


X 


1 1 


1 


1 




107. 


Tamiseforde. 


4 


1 


4 


Eudo, s. of Hubert. 


W ill dc Carun. 


3 socmen,* m. of 


Ulmar of Eton. 




2 


0 


8 


1 


O 


261. 


Taniiseforde. 


3 


0* 


2 


Richard Pungiant. 


Robert. 


3 socmen. 




0 


1 




4 


1 


O 


360. 


Tamiseforde.* 




oi 




[The King.] 


Alwin reeve. 


j socmen. 




0 




0 


3 








Thukleigk. 




























100. 


Lalcga. 


O 


I 


X 


Miles Crispin. 


I ,euric. 


Same Leuric, m. of 


Brixlric. 


0 


1 


0 


0 








Lalega. 


O 


2 


3 


Hugh de Beauchamp 


Leuiet. 


Moding, man of 


Queen Edith. 


O 






°, 


0 


O 


228. 


Lalega.* 


O 


2 


2 


Robert d' Oilgi. 


Richard Basset, 


Oviet, thane of 


King Edward. 


O 


> 


1 




0 


O 


220. 


Lalega. 


0 


I 


I 


Robert d' Oilgi. 


Salomon priest. 


Alwin, man of 


Bishop Wlwi. 


O 


1 


0 


0 






240. 


I. u hj'ii . 






J 


Walter Fleming. 


Hugh. 


I.euenot, thane of 


King Edward. 


O 


2 


0 


S 


c; 




341. 


Lalega. 


0 


2 




Walter 1' lcming. 


Raynald. 


Ordnc, man of 


Levenot. 




X 


0 


0 


1 * 


Q 




TlLLHROOK. 




























85. 


Tilebroc* 




0 


6 


Will, dc Warenna. 


(20 socmen.) 


Same 20 socmen 


of the King's soke. 


O 


6 




0 


0 


O 




Tills worth. 




























120. 


Thileworde. 


10 


0 


S 


The King. 


Ambrose from 


Leuric, s. of Osmond 


King Edward. 


O 


1 


1 


10 


6 


O 












Will. Pevere!. 


thane of 
















TlNGRITH. 




























181. 


Tlngrcl. 


2 


J 


3 


Nigel d'AIbini. 


Turgis. 


2 thanes. 




O 


1 


0 


4 


2 


O 




TODDINGTON. 




























101. 


Dodintone. 


l 5 


2 


30 


The King. 


Ernulf de Hesding. 




Wluuard Leuuet. 


* 


7 


3 


42 








TOTTERNIIOE. 




























233. 


Totencbou.* 


10 


O 


10 


Walter Fleming. 


Osbcrt. 


Levenot, thane of 


King Edward. 


O 


2 


0 


22 


4 


4 






5 


0 






[unnamed men.] 


















Totenchou,* 




3 


g 


The King. 


William chamberlain. 


Lewin , man of 


F.arl Wallef. 


3-3 


1 


0 


1 


3 






TURVEY. 




























>7- 


Torueie. 


1 


□ 


1 


Bp. Bayeux. 


Wimund from 


1 man of 


Alwold de Stiuetone. 


0 


1 


0 


0 


0 


O 












Herbert, s. of Ivo. 


















29. 


Tornai.* 


A 


0 


6 


Bp. Coutances. 


3 socmen, m. of 


King Edward. 


2.0 


3 


0 


3 


3 


0 


V- 


Torueie. 


1 


0 


2 


Count Eustace. 


Ernulf de Arde. 


Al wold , thane of 


King Edward. 


0 




i 


1 


0 


O 


151. 


Toruei. 


1 


0 


2 


Hugh de Beauchamp. Warner. 


2 socmen. 


0 


X 


0 


1 






201. 


Torneia. 


1 


o{ 
I 


>i 


Nigel d'AIbini. 


Nigel de Wast. 


Aluuard, man of 


Bishop Wluui. 


0 


t\ 


0 


0 


0 


O 


226. 


Toruei. 


2 


4i 


Robert de Todeni. 


2 soldiers. 


Osulf s. of Frane th. of 


King Edward. 




2 


0 


3 


3 


1 


*35- 


Tornei. 


X 


0 


2 


Walter Fleming. 


Hugh. 


Levenot, thane of 


King Edward. 


0 


1 


0 


n 


1* 


O 


379- 


Toruei.* 


0 


of 


1 


The King. 


Alwin priest. 


Same Alwin. 


0 


1 
4 


0 


O 


0 


O 




Wardon. 




























221. 


Ward one. 


9 


0 


9 


The King. 


William Spech. 


8 socmen. 




3-2 


X 


1 


18 


7 


O 




Wardone.* 


0 


I L 




The King. 


Ralf de Insula. 














34'- 


Wardone.* 


0 


2 


i 


Azelina Taillebosc. 


Walter monachus. 


Goding, man of 


Edric calvus. 


0 


0 


0 


O 


0 


































191. 


Wcscole. 


2 


3 




Nigel d'AIbini. 




7 socmen. 




0 


5 


1 


5 


0 


O 


37 2 - 


Wescota. 


0 


t 


i 


The King. 


Ordui. 


Same Ordui, m. of 


The King. 


0 




0 


0 




O 




Westoning. 






























Westone.* 


5 






King William. 






Earl Harold. 


2.0 






1 6t 


5 


s 




Wtl.DEN. 




























18. 


Wildene. 


5 


0 


.6 


Bp. of Bayeux. 


Herbert, s. of Ivo, and 


24 socmen. 






0 


3 


20* 


10 


3 












Hugh his nephew 




























from him. 






























(20 socmen.) 




















WlLLlNGTON. 




























132. 


Welitons. 


10 


0 


9 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 


Aschil, thane of 


King Edward. 


5.0 


3 


1 


'3 


5 


0 
















8 socmen (7 h.) 














WlLS AM STE AD. 




























29G. 


Winessaraestede.* 


3 


0 


6 


Countess Judith. 


Abbess of F.Istow. 


£ socmen. 




0 


2 


0 


1 1 


4 


0 




Woburn. 




























75. 


Woburne, 


10 


0 


54 


Walter Gifard. 


Hugh de Bolebec. 


Alric, thane of 


King Edward. 


0 


2 


2 


8 


6 


M 
















6 socmen (2 h.) 
















356. 


Wobeme.* 


0 


3 




[The King.] 


Herbert, Kg.'s reeve. 


[v. Eversholt, 356]. 


















Wotton. 




























284. 


Otonc. 


10 


0 


11 


Albert of Lorraine. 




Almar, man of 


Earl Tosti. 


2.0 


3 


O 


30 


7 


X 




Column i 




11 


ill 


It 




vi 








1 









TABLE I : SYM THESIS OF THE VILLS 



M 



VlLL 



I 




Mills 












































o 




S. d. 



Valet 



li. s. 1 









of 




Special 








i. s. 


li. s. 





SUPPLEMENTARY DETAILS. 



Column i 
SWINESKEAD. 

j Ic. Suineshefet.* 
1, m. Suineshefet." 

TEHPSFOJtD. 

41. Tamiseforde. 
106. Tnrnisforde. 
1,-7. Tamiseforde. 
261. Tamiseforde. 
360. Tamiseforde.* 

Thurleich. 
100. Lalega. 
'53- Lalega. 
22S. Lalega 
229- Lalega. 

240. Lalega. 

241. Lalega. 

TlI.LBROOK. 

85. Tilebroc* 

TlLLSWOSTH. 
120. Thlleworde. 



TlNCRITH. 

181. Tingrci. 

TonnmcTOK. 
101. Dodintone. 

TOTTEBNHOE. 
233. Totcneliou.* 

265. Tolcnchou.* 





XV 




xvii 












5 


O 


t 




0 


0.0 


2.0 






0 


O 


t 




0 


0.0 


O.6 




0.15 


0 


O 


1 


O 


2* 


40.0 


3-° 


2.0 


5-o 


2 


z 


2 


O 


1 


TO.O 


2.0 


2.0 


2 -5 


0 


6 


4 


0 


1 


12.Q 


30 


2.0 


3-o 


0 


0 


X 


O 


0 


O.O 


1. 10 


1.0 


1.0 


0 


0 


i 


O 


0 


O.O 


1 .0 


1 0 


'7 


0 


0 


0 


O 


0 


O.O 


O.IO 


0. 10 


0. 10 


4 


1 


0 


3° 


0 


CO 


1 . 10 


0.15 


1. 10 


3 


2 


0 


30 


0 


O.O 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 




0 


0 


0 


0 


O.O 


O.IO 


0. 10 


O.IO 


12 


3 


0 


150 


0 


O.O 


5° 


3° 


4.0 


4 


0 


0 


c 


0 


O.O 


1 .0 


0.10 


0.5 



150 

300 
150 



0.0 5.0 
0.0 6.0 



0.0 3.0 
0.0 25.0 



5-° 



3 10.8 8.0 
1 3.0 2.10 



10. o 

2.10 



5-0 
30.0 
16 0 



17. Torueie. 


O 


O 


1 




0 


0.0 


1 .0 


2.0 


2.0 


29. Tornai.* 


8 


1 


2 


40 


X 


20.0 


6.0 


2.0 


6.0 


72. Torueie. 


1 


0 


I 


0 


0 


0.0 


0. 10 


1 .0 


1.0 


151. Toruei. 


4 


0 


O 


0 


0 


O-O 


0. 10 


O.IO 


1.0 


201. Torncia. 


5 


0 


X 


20 


0 


0.0 


0 13 


0.13 


1 10 


226. Toruei. 


b 


2 




10 


0 


0.0 


2.0 


3° 


3 1° 


235. Toruei. 


8 


I 


I 


40 


0 


0.0 


1 . 10 


010 


2 0 


179- Toruei.* 


0 


O 


O 




0 


0-0 


0-3 


0.3 


°-3 


Wardon. 




















221. Wardone. 


4 


4 


6 


0 


1 


12.0 


6 0 


6.0 


8.0 


291. Wardone.* 




















341. Wardone.* 


1 


0 


1 


40 


0 


0.0 


0. to 


1.0 


1 .0 


Westcotts. 




















191. W'escote. 


1 1 


0 


2 


IOO* 


0 


0.0 


3° 


2 O 


G.o 


372. Wescota. 


1 


1 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


o-5 


O.5 


O.IO 


Westoninc. 




















e. Westone.* 


3 


4 




400§ 


0 


0.0 








Wilder. 




















18. Wildene. 


12 


X 


6 


6 


0 


0.0 


9.0 


12" 


20.0 


Wellington. 




















132. Wellionc. 


0 


8 


5 


40 


1 


12.0* 


7.0 


2.0 


6.0 


WlLSAMSTEAI). 














7-6 


2.8 




296. Winessamestede.* 


1 1 


x 


i 


0 


0 


0.0 


xo. 10 


W'OBURN. 




















7a. Woburne. 




4 


6 


100 


0 


0.0 


5.0 


I2.0 


15.0 


356. Woberne.* 




















WOTTON. 




















2S4. Otone. 


0 


6 


5 


400 


0 


0.0 


10. 0 


8.0 


10.15 


Column 1 


xiv 


XV 








six 


XX 


xxi 





Swineshcad, j, k. * [It is] a soke. The men of the county wilress that 

King Edward gave Swmeshefet, sake and solw. ? .o Kail 
Siward. And Earl Harold held it thus, save sfc*u they 
paid geld in the Hundred, ar.d in the army ^flrche-j. 
with them [the men of the Hundred]. 
+ Sixteen acres of meadow. 

t Grazing woodland, one league long and four -fcrlongs 
broad. 

Swineshead, I, in. * The soke was the King's. 

+ Three acres of meadow. 

X Grazing wood one league in length and one in 
breadth. 

Terupsford, 41. * And a hundred and twenty eels. 

Tempsford, 107. * One of them could not give his land without >ave of 

his lord: the other two could do what they wccSd. 
Tempsford, 261. * Of the King's fee. 

Tempsford, 360. * This land [and five others] Half Taleebosc 'licclfcl to 

the King's service when he was Siicriff, for ' hi:? were 
not 111 it T.R.E. Those who now have them, L-Jold by 
a grant of the King. So thev say. 

Thurleigh, 228. * This land the men of Eudo claim on account - of their 

lord's antecessor, all of whose lands King Wi£iam gave 
to him [sibi !J 

Thurleigh, 241. * Four bordars with one team. 

Tillbrook, S5. * This manor the very same socmen held as hoJe, it now. 

and they were so of the King's soke and sak^ :tX:it they 
could give and sell their land to whom they ma^i and 
could withdraw to another lord without lea\'s if him 
under whom they had been. This land of Tilebrrc 
Hugh de Beauchamp claims against WilSian. [de 
Warenne], and the men of the Hundred besa witness 
thereof that Ralf Tallebosc, his [Hugh's] rofece^r , 
was seised o£ it by the King, and held it. 

Tillsworth, 120. * This wood Oswi took away, and the Hundred *av* that 

(quia) it lay to this manor T.R K. 

Toddtngton, 101. * There are ten carucaies of land in demesne . . - besides 

(prefer) the ntt'jen hides and a half. 

Totcernhoc, 233. * Answered for fifteen hides T.R.K. Hut after tir.? Kinr*- 

VVilliam came into England, it answered onh tor ten 
hides. And the men who hold and held thl [other] 
five hides withheld and withhold all the King's customs 
and rent (gabluin). 

Totternhoe, 265. * William chamberlain claims as belonging to (crm) this 

manor two hides which his antecessor held TJE.E., as- 
the Hundred witnesses. But the Bishop at BSrycux 
took them away from him by force, and gave Siiera to 
Adelulf his chamberlain. 

Turvey, 29. * This land the Bishop has in exchange for Biidone, as 

his men say. 

Turvey, 235. * Eight bordars and one serf with one team. 

Turvey, 379. * The same Alwin priest held it T.R.E., and ootid make 

of it what he would. But King William .sterwards 
granted it in alms to him (sibi), for whiii he says 
mass for the soul of the King and Queen on £*.e second 
day of every week. 

Wardon, 291. * This land lies to Bicheleswade. and is then assessed 

(appreciata). And he who held it T.R.E. rauld not 
give or sell without the leave of him who held Bicheles- 
wade. 

Wardon, 341. * This is of her marriage portion. 

Westcotts, 191. * And iron for [ ? a] plough. 

Westoning, e. * This manor Earl Harold held, and it lay awS lies to 

Hiz (Hitchin). But the assessment (wan) of this 
manor lay in Bedefordscire T.R.E. in the Hundred of 
Mansheve, and the manor is there and alw&;?s was. 
And after the death of King Edward it did rrtt acquit 
itself of the King's geld, 
t 16 villans with 3 bordars have 5 teams. 
J Pasture for the cattle of the vill. 
§ And [from the wood] 3 shillings. 
Wilden, 18. * The villans have ten teams, and there might be yet 

throe. There are twenty socmen and twelve Syirdars 
and one serf. 
Willington, 132. * And a hundred eels. 

Wilshamstead, 296. * Countess Judith gave it to St. Mary of Elstow in alms, 

but the soke lay always to Camestone. 

Woburn, 356. * This land [and two o'thers] he holds in the King's ser- 

vice, which did not lie in it T.R.E., but from the time 
that Ralf Tallgebosc was Sheriff he says that he held 
them by grant of the King. 



32 TABLE I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VILLS 



VlLL 

I 


0 

to 

•b 
X 

h. v. 


1 
E 

rt 
r- 


1086 


1066 


Demesne 


VlLLANS 




Tenant in Chif.i ; 


I 
j 

Sub-tenant 




Tenant 


Overlord 


h.v. 


teams 


number 


teams 


there 


O 


there 






Column i 




ii 


iii 










vi 




vii 


viii 




* 






xiit 




WvBOSTON. 


































55- 


Wibolde stone. 


0 


1* 




Abb. Ramsey. 


Eudo dapifer. 






Abb. Ramsey- 


0 


0 


O 


0 


0 


O 




Wiboldestone. 


6 


3 


5 


Eudo, son of Hubert 


4 


thanes of 


King Edward. 


4.2 


2 


O 


S 


4 


0 


'54- 


Wiboldestone. 




0} 




Hugh de Beauchamp 


Wiraund. 


Aschil, thane of 


Kins Edward. 


0 


0 




0 


O 


O 


202. 


Wiboldestone. 4 


9 


1 


9 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Pirot. 


12 socmen. 






0 


4 


O 


1 2 


5 


O 


2 59- 


Wibolde stone. 


2 




1 
5 


Richard, s. of Gilbert 


Prior of St. Neot. 


P 


rior of St. Neot. 








0 


O 


0 


0 


O 


337- 


Wiboldestone. 


•i 


>i 


1 


Azelina Taillebosc. 


Judichel. 


Almar, man of 


Ulinar. 


■ O 


1 






0 


° 




Wvmington. 


































214. 


Wimentone. 


0 


.1 


i 


William Spech, 


Walter. 


Leuric, man of 


Borgred. 


0 


O 




0 


0 




232. 


Wimentone.* 


3 


O 


4 


Alured de Lincoln. 


Gleu. 






Godwin franpold. 


0 




I 


i 


2f 


O 


*238. 


Wimentone. 


4 




5 


Waiter Fleming. 


Osbert. 


I. ant, man of 


Levenot, King's thane. 




3 


O 


1 


I* 


O 


















1 


socman (1 h.) 


















3J9. 


Wimentone.* 


0 






Waller Fleming. 


Osbert. 




Godwin franpolt. 


0 


0 


O 


0 


O 


O 


367. 


Wimentone. 


0 


3 




The King. 


moth. 8c £ bros.* 


Lant, their father. 










O 






0 




Wiinetone. 


1 


0 


I 


The King. 


lurchill. 


Same Turchill. 






0 


1 




0 


O 


° . 




YlELDEN. 


































22. 


Giveldene. 10 


0 


'5 


Bp. of Coutances. 


Goisfrid de Trailly. 


5 


socmen (5 b.) 


Borred. 




4 


O 


, 7 * 


1 I 


O 




Barfofd Hukii. 


































308. 


Unnamed. 


2 


3 


3 


[Countess Judith.] 


Osbern. 


Clfech, steersman of 


King Edward. 


0 


2 


O 


3 


1 


O 




BlGGI.ES. HlIND. 


































203. 


Unnamed. 


0 


2 


I 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Fulcher of Paris. 


Samar, man of 


Lewin. 


0 


1 


O 


0 


O 


O 




Mansh. Hund. 


































180. 


Unnamed. 


1 


0 




Nigel d'Albini. 


Turgis. 


Suglo, man of 


Alric, s. of Coding. 


0 


l 


O 


0 . 


O 


O 




Stoi>i>. Hund. 




































Unnamed. 


0 


2 




The King. 


Turgot and mother. 


T 


urgot's f., th. of 


The King. 


0 


I 


O 


1 


O 


O 




Wiixf.y Hund. 


































28. 


Unnamed.* 


4 


0 


5 


Bp. of Coutances. 


Goisfrid de Trailly. 


Turbert, man of 


King Edward. 


0 


2 


O 


'4 


3 


O 


380. 


Unnamed. 


0 


2 


i 


The King. 


Osiet, King's reeve. 




socman * 






0 


i 


O 


0 


0 


O 










ii] 




iv 


V 




Vi 




vii 










xil 


xiii 



F 



TABLE 1 : SYNTHESIS OE THE VILLS 



33 









i 

n 




Mills 




Valet 




























V'lLL 






"5 














S 








0 
















Bordar 


Serfs 


o 
•a 
% 


j Wood : 




3 
5. d. 


ao 


3 
li. s. 


li. s. 





Special Phases, etc. 



Column i 
WVBOSTON. 

! tr. Wiboldestone. 
104. Wiboldestone. 
154. Wiboldestone. 

202. Wiboldeslane.* 
^rg, Wiboldestone. 
317. Wiboldestone. 

WYMINGTON. 

■314. Wimentone. 
23?. Wimentone." 
2-iS. Wimentone. 

ijjo. Wimentone.* 
367. Wimentone. 
3S1. Winietone. 

YtELDEN. 

22. Givelilene. 

Harford Hund. 
30S. Unnamed. 

Higgles. Hind. 

203. Unnamed. 

Mansh. Hund. 
180. Unnamed. 

Stodd. Huni). 
376. Unnamed. 

WlLT EY Hund. 
28. Unnamed.' 

jXo. Unnamed. 



0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


0.1J* 






Wylioston, 55. 


■ It is wasted, nevertheless is worth sixteen pen.ee. 


8 


3 


2 


0 


0 


0.0. 


3-° 


1.0 


10. 0 
























YVy oof- ton , 202 . 


1*1 rot holds from the King of the ice of Nip el ]d AlbmiJ. 


6 


0 


2 


0 


0 


0.0 


60 


4.0 


10. 0 






0 


0 


0 


100 


0 


0.0 


0. 1 1 


0. 1 1 


1.1 


WymingtOQ, 232 


* As belonging to (cum) these three hides Alured cl3im* 


2 


0 


h 


0 


0 


0.0 


0. 10 


°-5 


1 .10 


against \\ alte r Fleming a half hide, of which he wrong- 


















fully disseised him as the men of the 1 1 un fired bear 






















witness thereon. Of this his antecessor was seised 






















T.R.F.. and Alured himself was afterwards soiled. 


6 


1 


2 


0 


0 


0.0 


2.0 


2.10 


3° 




Again, as belonging to (cum) this lan. 1 Alured r [aims 


8 


4 


2 


0 


0 


CO 


3.0 


vo 


4.0 




against the Bishop of L'outant es wood t<>i a hundred 




















swine, which his antecessor had T.U.K., but the ttishop 




0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


0.2 


0.4 


0. 10 




wrongfully disseised him, as the men of the Hundred 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 


0.3 




0.15 




witness. 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0,0 


0.5 


o-S 


O.IO 




t One villan and 6 bordars and 3 serfs with 2 teams. 




















Wymington, 238. 


* One villan and eight bordars and four serfs with one 


1 2 


1 




20 


0 


0.0 


9.0 


5-o 


S.o 


team. 




















Wymington, 239. 


* This same land Alured of Lincoln claims against Walter 


2 


1 


1 


200 


0 


0.0 


2.0 


0. 10 


2.10 


Fleming. 




















Wymington, 367 


* L?] Of the King's gift (de do[no] Regis). 


0 


r 


1 


0 


0 


0.0 


0.7 


O- 10 


1 .10 






















Vicldcn, 22. 


* And one soldier. 


0 


2 


0 


IO 


0 


0.0 


0.15 


0. 10 


1.0 


Unnamed, 28. 


* This land the Bishop has in exchange for Illedone, as 






















his men say. 


2 


0 


0 


4 


0 


0.0 


o.to 


O.IO 


0-12 


Unnamed, 380. 


* This land one socman held T.R.E., whom King William 




















commended to the reeve with this land so that he should 






















provide him with victual and clothing so long as he 


s 


4 


4 


0 


0 


0 0 


5.0 


5-0 


5-0 




should live. 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0 


0.0 




0 3 




















II 








xxiii 



TABLE II : SYNTHESIS OI- THE HUNDREDS 











Demesne 


V 


I LI. AN S 








g 
8 


c 








Vai.k 


T 






VlI.L 


to 


M 

c 






teams 




teams 






v. 

0 






1086 




Q 


I\ . 


T.R.E. 






X 

h. v. 


c 
*J 


Socmen, 


h.v. 


there 




number 


there 


short 


D 
SQ 


Serfs 


1 
* r - 


Wood f< 


Mills 


li. t. 


% 
of 
1066 


li. 


s. 


% 

of 


li. s. 




Column i 


ii 


iii 


Iv 






vii 


viii 








xi 


in 


xiii 














115 


XX 




liarford, Great ... 


12.0 


20 


1 1 




1 1 




21 


9 






2 5 


8 


5 
S| 






9.0 


81 


5- 


10 


50 


1 1 .0 




Chawston 


10. 0 


8| 


14 








22 


6 






4 


1 


7« 


1 


7-5 


63 


S 


[0 


47 


1 1 . 10 




Colm worth 


5.0 


10 


8 




2 




12 


8 






'3 


1 




200 




5.0 


"5 


5.0 


125 


4.0 




Katou Socon 


20.0 


16 


2 


7.2 


4 




3S 


12 








8 


12 


400 


2 


15.0 


150 


i 


!.o 


So 


10.0 




Goldingtou 


10. 1 


! I 


1 j 




9 




i 7 


2 






3 


3 






1 


7 .,6 


75 


5- 


1 1 


53 


10.6 




Roxton 
Salpho 


10. 0 
S-o 


0 
s 


16 
1 1 


4-3 


3 




1 2 


6 
8 






3 


2 


4 


2 4 
5° 




7.10 
5-o 


6S 
62 


3.10 
5.0 


3i 
02 


1 I .0 

8.0 


HUNDRED OF HARFORD 


Sudbury 


0. 1 












































Wilden 


5.0 


16 






0 


3 




10 




3 


12 


1 


6 


6 




9.0 


45 


12.0 


60 


20.0 




Wyboston 


20.0 




1 j 


4.2 






21 


9 






16 


3 


43 


100 




>° 4i 


44 


5- 


iS 


26 


22.13 




Unnamed, 30S ... 


2-3 


3 






2 




3 


1 






2 


1 


1 


200 




2.0 


80 


0. 


10 


20 


2.10 




Total 


100, 1 




10 16.3 




3 


14') 


71 




3 


85 


28 


48j 1050 




77- '54 




56.9 









Astwick 


2.2 


4i 


6+ 




-1 


2 


*i • 


10 




1 




2 


3-6 


100 


2. 11 


77 


3-6 


Harford, Little . 


. 8.0 


S 






3 


... 13 


5 


6 


8 


3 




1 


7.0 


100 


5° 


71 


7° 


Biggleswade 


10.0 


10 


2 


5 2 


3 






IO 


3 


10 






17.0 


170 


'5 0 


150 


10.0 


Dunton 


10. 0 


JO 


4 


4.1 


5 


iC 


"5 • 


4 


3 




60 




9- '3 


126 


7'3 


100 


713 


Kdworth 


. 10. i£ 


10 


2 




5 


10 


5 ■ 


2 


5 


2 






9. 10 


82 


11.10 


100 


11.10 


Eyworth 


10. 0 


10 


20 


5-2 


4 


... 13 


6 


3 


0 


ro 




X 


7.10 


88 


7.10 


88 


8.10 


Holme 


■ 7-«4 


'-5 


»3 




1 2 } n 


1 12 




3 




4 






6.11 


87 


5.0 


66 


7.10 


Kenemondwkk . 


• 3-3 


4 


2 


••3 


2 


6 


2 










1 


3-o 


75 


1 . 10 


37 


4.0 


Langford 


10. 0 


[6 


1 


41 


4 


1 12 


9 


2 7 


5 


16 


16 




15.10 


'°3 


10.0 


66 


15.0 


Millo 


1 0.0 


9i 


10 


3-2 




1 12 


2 


5 


1 








7.10 


88 


7.10 


88 


8. 10 


Stratton 


7.2 


'ii. 


3 




9 


2| 12 


1 


'5 




8 






1 4 u 


178 


6.6 


78 


8.0 


Texnpsford 


. IO.O 


1 1 


'4 


1.0 




... 17 


4 


2 


7 


8* 




4 


10.10 


83 


8.0 


63 


12.12 


Unnamed, 203 . 


0.2 


1 






1 
















0.7 


23 


0.10 


33 


1 . 10 


Total 


. 100.0 


I 


77 


25-3 


6l3 


52 '32 


4«l 


2 67 


39 


64 


76 


'3 


in. 13 




88. 0 




105. 1 



HUNDRED OK 
BIGGLESWADE. 



Biddexiham 


... I0.,' 5 




1 1 




8i 




io 


2 




5 


5 


9! 




2 6.12 


100 


5.12 


84 


6.12 


Bletsoe 


... 5.0 


8 


3 




2 




■3 


6 




5 


5 




200 


1 O.O 


100 


6.0 




6.0 


Bromham 


■■■ 9-3? 


<°i 






5l 


1 


21 


4 






6 


10 


40 


2 9.O 


156 


7.0 


121 


5 1 5 


Cli.iinhalle 


5.2 


0 




2.0 


2* 




12 


3 




1 1 


5 


3 


100 


I 8.2 


114 


5-2 




7 2 


Pavciiham 


10. 0 


12 




1 .O 


2 


4 


■5 


4 


2 


5 


3 


12 




I 6.5 


5' 


8.0 


f>5 


12.5 


Putnoe 


4.0 


5 




2.0 


2 




6 


3 




4 


2 




lliO 


1 4.0 


200 


2.0 


100 


2.0 


Stagsdeu 


10. 0 


10J 


»4 


2.0 


6| 




26 


3 




16 


2 


2 


180 


12.12 


68 


11.15 


63 


18.10 


Stevinton 


... 3.0 


24 






1 


3 


10 


5 


'5 


1 1 


2 


4 


20 


I4.0 


46 


20.0 


66 


30.0 


Total 


... 57.1; 


86* 


28 


7.0 


29S 


8 


1 '3 


3° 


17 


64 


3° 


4^1 


640 


8 C6.ii 




65.9 




88.4 



HALF 11 UN DHL D OF 
BUCKLEY. 



Arlesey 


- «5 >* 


'5 


3 




5 




21 


9 


< '5 


2 


10 




3 


14'7. 


92 


14.17 


92 


i6 


O 


Campton 


.. 7.0 


6 


9 


I.ij 






7 


3i ■ 






5i 


60 




4'5 


»3 


2.15 


47 


5 


'5 


Chicksarjd 


.. 4.2 


3l 


4 




2 














70 


1 


2. 1 


72 


2.1 


72 


2 


■7 


Clifton 


• • J3-2J 


9 


7 




4l 


2 


12 


4 • 


1 


5 


«i 




2 


7.10 


60 


6-5 


5° 


1 2 


10 


Cudsand 


.. 5.2 


4l 


8 




*i 




1 


2 


4 


1 


4i 


44 




3-° 


60 


2 0 


44 


4 


IO 


Henlow 


.. 12.0 




'7 




6| 


1 


■9 


5l - 


6 


7 


■ 'i 




2 


11.5 


83 


8-5 


61 


>3 


10 


Holwell 


10. 0 


to 




4-°i 


3 




'9 


7 ■ 


5 


5 


2 




2 


9.0 


100 


9.0 


1 1 hi 


9 


0 


Meppershall 


.. 4.0 


4 


4 


5° 


3 


2 


5 


2 


4 


2 


7 


200 




6.0 


60 


6.0 


60 


10 


0 


ShilUngton 


10. 0 


'4 




2.0 


2 




27 


12 


5 


4 




100 


I 


12.0 


100 


12.0 


100 


12 


0 


Stondon 


• • 3° 


3 


5 




*i 






i • 


3 


2 


2* 






3"5 


7S 


2.15 


57 


4 


"5 


Stotfold 


.. 15.0 


"5 


7 


5.0 


3 




21 


1 2 


14 


6 


7 




4 


25.0 


125 


12.0 


60 


20 


0 


Total . 


• 99- 3» 


9&i 


64 1 


7-*i 


361 


6 


'3 2 


56 


■ 58 


34 


67! 


474 


16 


99-3 




77.18 




1 10 


>7 



HUNDRED OF CLIFTON. 



Barton 


11. 0 


1 2 




3° 


2 


1 20 


9 




7 


6 


6 


200 


I 10.0 


83 


10. 0 


83 


12.0 


Biscot 


5.0 


5 






2 


10 


3 






3 


4 




2.0 


66 


2.0 


66 


3° 


Caddingtoo 


5-° 


6 




2.0 


2 


4 ' 






4 


2 




200 


2.0 


40 


0. 10 


10 


5.0 


Cainhoe .. 


5-o 


8 


1 


2 -3 


3 


2 4 


3 




6 


5 


9 


200 


1 4.0 


66 


2.0 


33 


6.0 


Clophill 


5-o 


8 




3° 


2 


5 


6 




5 




4 


200 


3.0 


37 


1 in 


18 


8.0 


Elitton 


50 


6 




2.0 


2 


3 


2 


2 


3 


4 


0 


5° 


3.0 


60 


3° 


60 


5.0 


Gravenhur^t 


3-2 


4 


5 




2 


4 






3 


4 


4 


100 


3.0 


60 


3° 


60 


5-o 


Hawues 


5.0 


8 




2.2 


3 


14 


5 




9 


1 


1 


500 


10. 0 


Mi 


7.0 


100 


7.0 


Higham Gobion.. 


. 8.0 


1 1 


5 




4 


14 


7 




2 


5 


6 


loo 


8.0 


66 


S.o 


66 


12.0 


Pegsdon 


10. 0 


■4 


2.0 


2 


' 37 


1 1 




7 


5 


3 


60 


2 IO. O 


83 


10. 0 


83 


12.0 


Pulloxhill 


10. 0 


>3 


8 




2 


2 1 1 


9 




>3 


2 


6 


IOO 


IO. O 


77 


S.o 


01 


13.0 


Silsoe 


6.0 


'4 


3 




3 


8 


9 


2 


1 1 


5 


9 


150 


I 9.IO 


76 


6. 10 


52 


12. 10 


Streatley 


9-3i 


14I 


x 




4 


« >3 


6 


3 


12 


5 


4 


56 


Q.I? 


72 


5-7 


39 


13.12 


Sundon 


10.0 


16 




4.0 


5 


20 


12 




11 


12 


4 


IOO 


IO. O 


5° 


8.0 


40 


20.0 


Total .. 


9814 


■3'jS 


2 3 


21.1 


38 


11 164 


S3 


8 


93 


60 


66 


566 


5 94-7 




74- '7 




"34-2 


Column i 






iv 


V 


vi 




IX 


X 


xi 




xiii 


XiV 


zv xvi 


xv ii 


xviii 


xix 


IX 



HUNDRED OF FLITT. 



±815069 



TABLE II : SYNTHESIS OF THE HUNDREDS 



35 



VlLL 













K 


0) 

bo 

•a 






J 


cf 


2 


| Team 


I 


h. V. 


1 



Demesne 



VlLLANS 







r 








































3 






0 
£3 


Serfs 


(9 


Woo 


Mills 



I&S6 j O R. 


T.R.E. 


li. s. 


% 

of li. s. 
io66j 


% 

of 
1066 


1 

li. s. 



Column i 










vi 










XI 


XII 


xiti 








xviii 




XX 


Aspley Guise 


10. o 


12 






2 


1 


16 


8 


1 


4 


S 


10 


5° 


1 S.o 


80 


5-° 


5° 


10.0 


Battlcsdon 


IO.O 


IO 


9 




3 




9 


5 




1 1 




9 


6.5 


59 


6-5 


59 


10.7 


Chalgrave 


8.i 


IO 










'.i 


8 




4 


6 


8 


5° 


7.2 


1 1(. 


6.2 


100 


6.2 


Eversholt 


9.0 


IO 


5 




3 




20 


6 




1 


4 


9 


150 


6.6 


105 


5.10 


9 1 


6.0 


Harlingdou 


5-° 


in 






33 


2 


12 


5 




6 


10 


4 


41 Kl 


6.0 


66 


4.0 


44 


9.0 


Hockliffe 


10.0 


8 




5.0 


2 




'3 


6 




1 1 




4 


xoo 


8.0 


66 


8.0 


66 


12.0 


Holcote 


4.0 


3 






I 




5 


2 




8 


1 




5° 


1 3.0 


150 


1.0 


5° 


2.0 


Husborne Crawley 


10.0 


10 




2.0 


4 




6 


2 


4 


10 


3 


10 




2 3.10 


35 


3-'° 


35 


10.0 


Milton Brian 


10.0 


10 






4 


I 


10 


5 




6 


! 2 


10 


7° 


10.0 


100 


8.0 


80 


10.0 


Rotsgrave 


10.0 


9 




3.0 


4i 




3 


2 


2'j 


6 


3 


6 




3.10 


28 


6.0 


48 


12.10 


l'riestley 


2.2 


3 






2 




2 






4 




3 


60 


1.5 


27 


1. 10 


33 


4.10 


Salfor.j 


5-° 


5 






1 




12 


4 




1 


4 


5 


150 


1 4.0 


80 


3-° 


60 


5.0 


Tingnth 


2.1 


3 






l 




4 


2 




2 




3 


■5" 




40 


1 .10 


3° 


5-° 


Toddington 




j" 








3 




20 




'9 


'9 


3" 


300 


25.0 


83 


25.0 


83 


30.0 


Woburri 


IO.3 


24 
1 


6 




2 


2 


8 


6 


M 


7 


4 


6 


100 


5.0 


33 


12.0 


80 


15.0 


Unnamed, 180 ... 


I .O 






I 










2 




10 


0.15 


75 


0. 10 


5° 


1.0 


Total ... 123.1 


,58 


27 


10.0 


4» 


I3i 


■75 


81 


"I 


100 


73 


1 17 


640 


5 99- '3 




lf>. 1 7 




148.9 



HUNDRED OF MANSHEAD. 



Ampthill 
Cranfiuld 
Elstow 
Flitwick 

Houghton Conquest 

Kempston 

Lidlmgton 

Marston Moretaine 10 
Maulden 
Millbrook 
Segenho 
Shelton 
Steppingley 
Westcotts 
Wilsain stead 
Wootton 



5-o 



2.0 
2.0 



6 
18 
M 

3 

19 
18 

2\ 

20 

>5 

4 
24 

S 
M 

5 



6 300 
2 1000 

4 Go 

5 100 
8 450 
o 200 
8 400 

600 
1 70 
100 
300 
158 
too 

ion 



I 1 



4.O 
9-0 

5- ° 
2.10 

9. 10 
18.0 
So 
9. 10 

6- 3 
3° 
6.0 

3" 
4.0 

3-5 
7.6 
10.0 



100 

75 
5° 
3" 
60 
60 
66 
59 
5° 
60 
37 
84 
5° 
5° 
69 
93 



2.0 
9.0 
2.0 

3° 
8.10 
22.0 
8.0 
6.0 
6.18 
1. 10 
10.0 
2.4 
2.0 

2-5 

2 -5 
8.0 



50 

75 
20 

37 
54 
73 
66 
37 
57 



4.0 
12.0 
10.0 - 

8.0 
15.12 
30.0 
12.0 
16.0 
12.2 

5-o 
16.0 

4-5 
8.0 
6.10 
10.10 
10.15 



Total .. 


114 0% 


■55 ' 


\ 150 


5>S 


4 


222 


<)i 


9t 


107 


54 


">3i 


443 s 


6 


108.16 




05.12 




1S0. 14 


Eaton Hray 


12. 1 


20 


2.0 


4 


2 


20 


8 


6 


13 


2 


6 


300 




16.0 


80 


20.0 


100 


20.0 


Edlesborough 


10.0 




.. 5.0 


4 




10 


4 










5.10 


55 


5.10 


55 


10.0 


Gladk-y 


2.2 


1 




1 














1 


[OO 




1.0 


5° 


1 .0 


5° 


2.0 


Studliam 


. 6.0 


6 




2 




10 


4 






4 




100 




4.0 


5° 


2.0 


25 


8.0 


Tillsworth 


. 10.0 


8 








10 


6 




6 


3 


"6 


100 




6.0 


60 


4.0 


40 


10.0 


Totternhoe 


■ 21-3 


16 


- 3-3 


3 




26 




4 


6 


8 


7 


170 


4 


10. 10 


43 


12.10 


5 2 


24.0 


Total .. 


62.2 


58 • 




'4S 


3 


76 


29 


IO 


26 


1 7 


20 


77° 


5 


43 ° 




45.0 




740 



HUNDRED OF 
REDBORN STOKE. 



HALF HUNDRED OF 
STANBRIDGE. 



Bolnhurst 

Clapham 

Dean 

Elveudou 

Hanefeld 

Keysoe 

Knotting 

Melchbourne 

Milton Ernest 



4.2 

5-o 
lo.oi 
1 .1 

1 .0 
5-o 
5-o 
10.0 
.10.0V 



Newton Bromswold o. 



Oakley 

Riseley 

Segresdon 

Shelton 

Stan wic k 

Staughton 

Tillbrook 

Yielden 

Unnamed 376 



5.0 
10. o 

O.I 

50 

2.2 

9'i 
5.0 

10.0 
0.2 



>5 

'i 
■i 

5a 
5 
10 
■43 

9i 



2f 
>9l 

6 



2. t 

5° 



3-o 
3-o 



it 
8 
«i 
'i 
■J 
5 
2 

3 
6 



Ma 
0 
4 



6 
5 
»5 
8 

6 
16 



24 
4 



34 

20 1 
400 
iuO 
46 



544 



5-5 
24.0 

8.1 
0.10 
0.15 

5-a 

4.0 
8.0 

7.1 

0.1 
4.10 

S- x 

O. I 

50 

I. 10 

II. 7 

5-° 
9.0 
o. 10 



5') 

2<JO 
I23 

66 
75 
98 

'33 
'33 
75 
75 
81 

65 

5° 
125 

75 
107 
■25 
1 12 

83 



4.0 
24.0 
7. 11 
0.10 
0.15 

4.2 

3° 
5.0 
7.1 

O.I 

4.10 

5.12 

»-o 
2.10 

12.2 

5.0 

5-° 



45 

200 

"5 
6b 
75 
78 

100 
83 
75 
75 
Si 



75 
125 

«>4 
125 



8.16 
12.0 
6.11 

°"5 
1.0 

5-4 

3° 

6.0 

9.6 

o.ii 

5.10 

7.16 

0.2 

4.0 

2.0 

I O.I I 

4.0 
8.0 

0.12 



Total . 


■•99-3jV 


l6 3» 


87 14. t 


84 1 


6 


.36 


67 


■i 


'53 


37 


57 "952 


= 104.15 




94-4 




95-4\ 


Everton 


.. 5.0 


5 




2 


3 


4 






5 




1 


3.0 


60 


5.0 


100 


5° 


Hatley 


.. 9.0 


>4| 


3 


4 




16 


ioj 




1 2 




4 8 


1 12.5 


102 


10.0 


83 


12.0 


Potton 


.. 10. o£ 


'3 


4 3- 2 


4 




18 


8 




'4 


3 


12 


1 12.5 


93 


5-5 


■t" 


13.2 


Sandy 


.. 16.1 


16 


... 8.1 


3 




24 


8 


5 


6 


2 


16 ... 


2 12.0 


120 


8.0 


So 


10.0 


Sutton 


.. 9.21 


IO§ 


17 


5t 


"i 


2 


2 




18 




n| ... 


4.13 


80 


4-8 


76 


5 '5 


Total .. 


50.0 


59i 


24 14.0^ 


•8| 


3t 


64 


28j 


6 


55 


6 


44i 8 


4 44-3 




32-13 




45-"7 


Column i 


ii 






vl 








X 


xi 


xii 










XIX 


XX 



HUNDRED OF STODDEN. 



HALF HUNDRED OF 
WENSLEY. 



36 









Esi 


Demesne 


V 


II. LANS 








c 




Valet 




VlLL 


V 

to 


"2 




u 

to 


teams 




teams 












1086 


O.K. 


T.R.li. 






-6 
X 

h. v. 


Team-I; 


Socmen, 


h.v. 


tliere 


o 
•c 


X 

S 
c 


there 




Bordars 


Serfs 


Meadow 


Wood f< 


Mills 


li. s. of 

1066 


li. 5. 


% 
Of 

1066 


li. s. 




Column i 


ii 










vii 


viii 


ix 




xi 






xi\ 


XV 




zviii 


XIX 


XX 



Carlton 
Farndish 
Felmersham 
Harrold 
H in wick 
Ode II 
Fodmgton 
Radwell 
Rushdeu 
Sharribrook 
Thurleigh 
Turvey 
Wyimngton 
Unnamed 28, 381 



3- 35 
3-D 
1 1 0 
10.0 
S.o 

10.0 
4.0 
10.0 
°-3 
10 35 
5-° 
11.2J 
10.0 

4- 2 



7t 
3i 
j 1 
16 

»i 
10 
8 
61 

1 

16} 
>5 
'93 



2.0 
0.2 



6j 
3 
4 

5» 
3 
3 



•S 
1 

'7 

24 
3 2 
'4 
5 



164 
210 
no 



5.163 
2.10 

8.0 
6.0 

5-'5 
8.0 
6.0 

S-° 
0.6J 
8.19 
to. 10 

12. 6 

5.12 

5-3 



4-2? 
1. 10 
17.0 
16.0 

3'5 
13.0 
4.0 
4.10 
0.6} 
6.14 

7-5 
9.16 
6.9 
5-3 



f ' 

5° 
100 
80 
46 
72 
88 
45 
5 2 
40 
82 

57 
69 

IOO 



Total 


..1 04. 2 J 


i44i 


5° 


10.2 


07! 


•.3 


in 


5-4 « 


1 »59 


48 


57S 


814 


8 


8y.l8 




99.11 




144.0 


Eeeston 


.. 10.2 


inj 






4l 


1 


8 


4 


5 


3 


93 




1 


416 


56 


4.14 


55 


8.10 


Blunbam 


.. 5.0 


55 


8 


2 -3 


3f 




8 


2 


5 


1 


si 




2 


5-2 




4 3 


57 


7-5 


Broom 


- 5-° 


5 


7 




s ■ 




9 




5 






3° 




2.0 




? 






Cardington 


10. 0 


12 


»3 


2.2 


5 




24 


7 


9 


3 


4 


120 


1 


8.0 


IOO 


6.0 


75 


8.0 


Charlton 


10.0 


10 




5° 


2 


3 


■6 


5 


9 


2 


IO 


16 


1 


10.0 


83 


8.0 


66 


12.0 


Cople 


10. 0 


9l 


'5 




7 




7 


2 


3 


2 


4 






5.11 


9S 


3 1 


53 


5- '3 


Harrowden 


10. 0 


12 


'4 


1.2'j 


4t 




20 


7 


.. 14 


2 


4 J 


54 




7.0 


93 


5-5 


7° 


7.10 


Northill 


10. 0 




8 


4.0 


61 


s 


"3 


4 


6 


7 




300 


«* 


10.5 


80 


8.15 


08 


12.15 


Southill 


.. 8.3 


»i 


2 4 




9l 




1 1 


3 


if 






360 




S.8 


9 l 


8.3 


88 


9-4 


Stanford 


•• 93A 




'4 




7-rV 




■3 


3 • 


3 


4 




12(j 


4 


9->5 


100 


5.10 


56 


9.15 


War don 


■• 9-3* 


9i 


8 


3-2 


1 


1 


18 


7 


5 


4 


61 


4<> 


X 


0. 10 


72 


7.0 


77 


9.0 


Wellington 


.. 10.0 


9 


8 


5.0 


3 


1 


13 


5 




s 


5 


4O 


1 


7.0 


116 


2.0 


33 


6.0 


Total . 


108.355 


"7t» 


119 24.1^ 


59A 


6 


160 


49 


•■ 75 


43 


83I 


IOS6 


Hi 


84.7 




62.1 1 




95.12 



HUNDRED OF WILLEY. 



HUNDRED OF WIXAMTRE 



Lcighton 


47.0 


55 


... 47.0 






88 


47 


' 3G 


2 


43 


100 : 








Luton 


30.0 


88 




5 




9 1 


83 


... 51 


3 


4 


2050 








Ilun^hton Regis 


10,0 


-'•'1 




A 




38 


22 


12 




12 


IOO 








Sewell 


30 


2 




>1 


4 


X 




4 




4 










Total.. 


go.o 


167I 


... 47.0 


16 


I 


218 


152 


1 103 


5 


59i 


22 SO 9 






Barwortfa 


50 


3 




2 


1 


3 




4 




1 


IOO 


2.0 


... 1. 10 


3.0 


Caddington 


10.0 


10 


... 4.0 


I 


3 


22 


6 


5 


2 




IOO 


5.10 


... 6.0 .. 


6.0 


Everton 


7.0 


18 




2 




■9 


9 


. . 2 




? 


? 






IO. 0 


Farndish 


°-3 


1 










1 
















Kensworth 


10. 0 


10 


... 50 


2 


3 


8 


2 


3 ' 3 


3 




IOO 


3.10 


... 5.0 .. 


5.0 


Keysoe 


1^0 


1 










I 


7 




? 


? 








Meppcrshall 


3" 










3 




... [4] 














Pertenhall 


0.1 


"i 




















0.5 




0-5 


Poddington 


0.2 






[i] 




4 


1 
















Polehanger 


0.2 












2 


1 


2 


O.IO 


... O.IO 


1 .0 


Swineshead 


4.0 


4i 








8 




5 




7 


? .. 


2.6 






Westoning 


5° 


14 


... 2.0 


2 




x6 


5 


5 3 


4 




4OO 








Total .. 


47.1 


(-3 


... 11. 0 


IO 


7 


84 


2 4$ 


8 35 


1 1 












Easton, Hunts .. 


0.0 




























Column i 












viii 




x si 






XIV X 


V XVI 


xvii xviii x 


X XX 



TERRA 
EXTRACENTENALIS. 



TERRA FOR1NSECA. 



TERRA EXTRINSECA. 



TABLE II! : SYNTHESIS OF THB SHIRE 



3? 



Hundred 
or Half 




c 


'A 

r- 


Demesne 


VlLLANS 






' for teams 






Valet 




teams 




teams 








Hundred 


ri 






•5 












•y 
5 










1086 


O R 


T.R.E. 




X 

h. v. 


Team 


5 


X 

h. v. 


there 


short 


£ 


there 


J 


g 

M 





Meadi 


_o 

1 ? 

J 


Mills 


li. s. 


li. s. 


Ii. s. 


Column i 


ii 




iv 


v 




vii 


Vlll 




x 




xi 


xii 




xiv 


XV 


xvi 


xvii 


xviii 


Bedford 


I o 


































Barford 


IOO.I 


",t 


IIO 


10.3 


408 


3 


'4 




3 


85 


28 




1050 


7 


77-i5i 


■;■ 
s ■ 1 < J 




Biggleswade ... 


IOO.O 


"93 




2 5-3 


°4i 


5i 


'3 2 


48$ 


2 


67 


39 


64 


76 


1 ? 


1 11. 13 


88.0 


105. 1 


Buckley 


57- 1 i 


86J 


28 


7.0 


21 lS 


8 


"1 


3° 


17 


' '4 


3° 


42I 


640 


8 


66.11 


65.9 


88.4 


Cliftoii 


99-3« 


9&I 


hi 


17. 2l 


v.? 


6 


'3 2 


56 




5° 


34 


67I 


474 


16 


99-3 


77. iS 


1 10.17 


Flitt 


9 S.I;t 


'39i 


2 3 


21.1 


38 


11 


[64 


83 


s 


93 


60 


66 


1506 


5 


94-7 


74- 1 7 


'34- 2 


Manshead 


12 3 .I 


158 


2 7 


10. 0 


4' 


'3i 


'75 


81 




100 


73 


">7 


1640 


5 


99- '3 


96.17 


148-9 


Redliornstoke 


1 14.0?, 


'55 


63 


15.0 


5'i 


4 




9» 




107 


54 


'°3l 


4438 


6 


108.16 


95-12 




Staubridge 


62.2 


58 




10.3 


14I 


3 


"0 


29 




26" 


•7 


20 


77° 


5 


43-° 


45-° 


74.0 


Stodden 


99-3A 




87 


14. 1 


845 


6 


136 


67 


■i 


153 


37 


57 


'OS 2 


5 


104.15 


94-4 


95-4i 


Wensley . . 


5O.O 


598 


-'t 


14.0I 


■ S| 


3« 


64 


28J 


6 


5 5 


1, 


44 g 


8 


4 


44-3 


3 2 -'3 


45-'7 


WiUey 


104. 2j 


'443 


5° 


10.2 


6-f 


9i 


1 1 1 


5 2 4 


H 


"59 


48 


5va 


8.4 


8 


89.18 


99" 


144.0 


Wixamtree 






119 


24. 1 J 


59iV 


6 


160 


49 




75 


43 


83§ 


10S6 


11J 


84-7 


62 . 1 1 


95.12 


Total A 


II20.I,V 


'4'3iS 


672 1 


87-ii 


54 f 'i"f 


79i 


.631 


(,8(.J 


8S 


1042 


469 


77' I 


■45'4 93i '° 2 4-'i 


889.1 1 


33 2 -'9i 


Extract-ntenal 


90.0 






47.0 


16 


1 


218 


'5 2 


1 


"'3 


5 


59t 


2250 


9 


9.0 






Extrinsec 


O.Oj-S- 


































Total B 
Forinsec 


I2IO.ISJ 

47' 


1581A 
63 


672 234.1$ 

11. 0 10 


8oJ 
7 


1S50 
84 


8 3 S| 
2 48 


89 
8 


1145 

35 


474 
1 1 


830J 


16764 


102$ 1033. 


1 




Total C 


> 2 57- 2 H 


1644 it 


672 245. i$ 


57 2 tV 


87! 


'934 


8628 


97 


1180 


4S5 















Column i li iii iv v vi vii viii ix x xi xii xiii aiv xv xvi xvii xviii 



33 TABLE IV: ESTATES OF TENANTS IN CHIEF 



Folio of D B. 
Tenant is Chief 

VlLL 



Dependents 



Estate 



Demesne 



Mills 



Wood 



s. d. 



j s. d. 



Meadow 



Valei 



Q ! ~ 
s. d. I li. s. 



ANTECESSOR 



Column i 

fo. 209. 

Bedford, 1 

THE KING. 

Leighton, 2 

Leighton Ch., 3 

Luton, 4 

Luton Ch., 5 
fo. 2Q9d. 

Houghton Regis, 6 

Houghton Regis Ch. 7 

Sewell, 8 

Riscot. g 

BISHOP OF BAYEUX. 

Eaton Bmy, 10 

Eversholt, 11 

Milton lirinn, 12 

Bolnhurst, 13 

Boinhurst, 14 

Stagsden, 15 

Carlton, 16 

Turvey, 17 

Wilden. 18 

BISHOP OF COUTANCES. 

Knotting, icj 

Mekhbournc, 20 

Dean, 21 
fo. 210. 

Ylelden, 22 

Sbeltun (Stod.) 2) 

Staughton, 24 

Riseley, 25 

Bolnhurst, 26 
Newton Broniswold, 27 
Manor in Willey Hund. 28 

Turvey, 21) 

Hinwick, 30 

Sharnbrook, 31 

Sharnbrook, 32 

Sharnbrook, 33 

Sharnbrook, 34 

Rushden, 35 

BISHOP OF LINCOLN. 
Dean, 36 
Staughton. 37 

Riseley, 38 

Biddenham, 30 

Goldington, 40 

Ternpsford, 41 

fo. 2iod. 

Clifton, 42 

Chicksand, 43 

Bedford Ch. 44 

Leighton Ch., 45 

BISHOP OF DURHAM. 

Millo, 46 

Arlesey. 47 

ABBOT OF ST. EDMUND. 

Biddenham, 4S 

Kenemondvvick, 49 ... 

Blunham, 50 
ABBOT OF PETERBOROUGH. 

Stanwick, 51 
ABBOT OF RAMSEY. 

CranficUl, 52 

Barton, 53 

Pegsdon, 54 

Wyboston, 55 

Little Barford, 56 

Clifton, 57 

Shillington, 58 

Holwell, 59 

Stondon, 60 

fo. 211. 

ABBOT OF WESTMINSTER. 

Holwell, 61 

ABBOT OF THORNEY. 

Bolnhurst. 62 

ABBESS OF BARKING. 

Lidlington, 63 

CANONS OF ST. PAUL, 
LONDON. 

Caddlngton, 64 

Column i 



■ 

(i iii 


iv 




V 


V, 


,ii viii 






■ 

xi xii xiii xiv 


XV 


XVI xvii 


xviit 


— 




[14 


I O 

47.0 


5 2 


43° 


6 


2 


30.O ... 100 .... 

... ... ... 


40 






Ancient Demesne. 


1 


I J 




3 


1 


"■ 


3 






Fin YVitiiifi 
UP- \V UlV. 1. 




[27 


30.0 


82 




4 


6 


I OO.O ... 2000 IO-B 


4 






Ancient I demesne. 


1 


iS 




6 




I 


1 


IO.O ... H<J 




3.0 




Moreai presbyter. 




5° 


9.2 


22 




2 




... IOO 


12 






... 

yvocieot l 'e mesne. 


I 




0.2 


t 




i 








O. I 2 








5 


3° 






1,11 






4 

fl 


l.O 




V\aiiave, m. 01 ii. d 1 1 ri . 




1 3 


5.0 


5 




2 






4 


... 




Edwin m of Asgar stalre 




35 


12.1 


20 


2.0 


4 




... 3OO 1 .O 


6 


16.O 


80 


Alsi, m. of Qu. Edith. 


1 


5 


z.o 


2 










1.0 


66 


4 thanes. 


1 


'5 


4.0 


4 












4-0 


10. ) 


7 socmen. 


1 


2 


0.2 














O.IO 


I Of) 


Azor, man of Borred. 


2 


2 


0.2 


1 












0.10 


IOO 


same 2 socmen. 


1 


[8 


3-3 


4 












7.0 




12 socmen 


2 




1 1 


>i 












1. 65 


ss 


Same 2 soimen. 


I 




i .0 












1.0 


5" 


111. of Alwolcl de Stevington. 


I 20 


J i 


5.0 


1 6 












9.0 


75 


24 socmen. 




J 7 


5-0 


5 


3.0 


2 




4OO 


2 


4.0 


•33 


Burret. 




31 


10.0 


TO 


3-° 


3 




... IOO 


3 


8.0 


160 


Burrct & 6 socmen. 


6 


8 


40 


5 












3.0 


100 


6 socmen 


1 1 


3° 


10. 0 


'5 












9.0 


180 


Borred & 5 socmen. 


1 


22 


5-o 


6 












5.0 


125 


Ulueva under Bond. 


4 




°-3 


1 












O.IO 


IOO 


same 4 socmen, in. of Borref. 


s 


M 


6.0 


7 












... 3.12 


100 


Burred & 6 socmen. 




5 


°-3 




0.3 


( 1 a J 








0.15 




0 u (Iniun t , m . of I** g . V. d w . 


1 




0. 1 














O.I 


1 0. 1 


Alwin, m of Borred, 


1 


23 


4.0 


5 












5.0 


100 


Turbert, m. of Kg. Kdw. 








6 








30 0 ... 4 .° 


2 


6.0 




~i socmen, in. of Kg, f dw 


i . 


.) 


1 .2 














1.0 






1 




0.2 


1 












0.0 


200 


Alwin, m. of Borret. 


7 




3-o 


3 












1.4 


loo 


same 7 socmen, m. of Borred. 


X 


2 


0.2 


1 












0.6 


60 


Aluric, m. of Borred. 




4 


0.2 














0.3 


IOO 


Borred, King's thane. 


... 1 




0.2 


i 












0.5 


IOO 


Aluric, m. of Borred. 


1 


10+ 


2.0£ 


3i 












2.0 


1 33 


Cfodric, King's thane. 


1 


4 


0.2 £ 


I 












0.15 


1 S° 


Alwin Deute, m. of Bp. Line. 


1 




I.O 














0.10 


IOO 


Godnc, King's thane. 


1 


i 


I . I 


I 












2.0 


IOO 


Leuric, m. of Bp. of Lincoln. 




2 


0.2 


a 












0.6 


IOO 


Alwin Sac, m. of Bp. Line. 


1 




i.xi 


2 












3.0 


150 


Alwin Deule, m. of Kg. Edw. 


1 


5 


3-°4 


2 












1.0 


IOO 


Alwin Deule, m. of Kg. Edw. 


1 




0.2 


i 












O.I 


IOO 


Alwin Deule. 




















5.0 




[ ? Canons of St. Paul.] 




















4.0 




Bp. Wulwi. 




5 


4.2 


4 


3.2 


2 








2.0 


IOO 


Abbey of Waltham. 




'5 




8 




3 


2 


26.8 ... 


3 


7.0 


IOO 


Abbey of Waltham. 


1 


2 


0.2 


\ 












06 




Ulmar presbyter of Kg. Ed. 




6 


3-3 


4 


1.3 


2 


1 


'3-4 


1 


3.0 


200 


Earl Tostig. 




'4 


4 » 


4 


23 


2 


1 


20.0 


4 


4.0 


1' 1 


4 socmen. 




4 


2.2 


2$ 




['3 






2 


1. 10 


60 


Abb. of Peterborough. 




25 


10.0 


12 


2.0 


2 




1000 


2 


9.0 


IOO 


Abb. of Ramsey. 




33 


1 1 .□ 


I 2 


3.0 


2 


1 


2.0 ... 200 


6 


10.0 


IOO 


Abb. of Ramsey. 




4') 


10. 0 


14 


2.0 


2 


2 


27.8 ... 60 . 


3 


10.0 


100 


Abb. of Ramsey. 






0.1J 














... o.ii 




Abb. of Ramsey. 


1 


16 


5-o 


5 












4.0 


"33 


Abb. of Ramsey. 


1 




1.0 


i 












O.IO 


IOO 


same man under the Abb. 




36 


10. 0 


'4 


2.0 


2 


X 


0.0 ... 100 


6 


120 


IOO 


Abb. of Ramsey. 




I I 


3-2 


4 


1.0 








1 


4.0 


1 0< > 


Abb. of Ramsey. 






0.2 


j 




s 








... 0.15 




Abb. of Ramsey. 




l8 


6.2 


6 


... 3.0J 


2 


2 


20.0 


1 


5.0 


1 00 


Abb. of Westminster. 




M 


2.1 


5 


I 2.1 


I 




... 106 


1 


3.0 




Abb. of 1 horney. 




46 


10. 0 


1 1 


2.0 


2 




400 


8 


8.0 


IOO 


Abb. of Barking. 








6 




2 




200 




2.0 


400 


Lewin cilt. 










vii viii 






xi xii xiii xiv 


IV 


ivi zvll 


iviii 


xix 



r 



TABLE IV: ESTATES OE TENANTS IN CHIEF 



39 





Dependents 


Estate 


Demesne 


Mills 


Wood 


Meadow 


Valet 


Antecessor 


Folio of D.B. 






































Tenant in Chief 






































Vill 


c 
c 


li 

o £ 

1/2 


f 1 


X 


~o 
e 


3 

° 


1 

h.v 


| 


c 


s. d. 


UJ 


ttt) 

n u 


Q 
s. d. 




s. d. 


o 
lifs. 


6 




Column i 














viii 


ix 


X 


Ji 


lit 


liii 








XV ii 




six 



fo 



fo. 



CANONS OF ST. PAUL, 
BEDFORD, 
Biddenham, O5 
Biddenham, 66 
EUNUIN PRESBYTER. 

Harrowden, 67 
COUNT EUSTACE. 
Bromham, 68 
Stevinton, 69 

Stagsden, 70 
Pavenhain, 71 
Turvey, 72 
Odell, 73 
Sharnbiook, 74 

Walter giffard. 

Woburn, 75 
Battlesdon, 76 
21 id. 
Marston, 77 
Maulden. 78 
Dunlon, 79 
Millo, So 
Stratton, 81 
Cudsand, 82 
Canipton. 83 
WILLIAM DE WARENNE. 
\ Dean, 84 ... 
! Tillbrook, 85 
Jlanefeld, 86 
, Staughton, 87 
Staughton, 8S 
Staughton, 89 
Staughton, 90 
"WILLIAM DE OW. 
SiUldon, 91 , 92 
212. 
Streatley, 93 
Millo, 94 
Edworlh, 95 
Holme, 96 
Ailesey, 97 
Canipton, 98 
MILES CRISriN. 
Clapham, 99 
Milton Ernest, 99a ... 
Thurletgh, 100 
ERNULF DE HESDING. 
Toddington, 101 
Chalgrave, 102 
KUDO DAPIFER. 

Eaton Socon, 103 ... 
Wyboston. 104 
Chawston, 105 
Tempsford, 106 
Tempsford, 107 
Sandy, 108 
Sutton, 109 
Southill, 1 10 

2I2d. 

Stanford, 1 1 1 
Stanford. 112 
Rlunham, 113 
Reeston, 114 
Beeston, 115 
Beeston, 116 
Northill, 117 
Northill, 118 
Clifton, 119 

wteetam peverel. 

Tillsworth, 120 

Pushden 121 
HUGH DE BEAUCHAMP. 
Keysoe, 122 
Kiseley, 123 
Putnoe, 124 
Stagsden, 125 

Chainhatle, 126 

Oiainhalle, 127 
Goldington, 128 
Southill, 129 
Stanford, 130 
Cardington, 131 



fo 



2 


o-3 


1 




0. 1 


i 














2 3 


3-° 


-'4 




0 1 


9 


2 


2.2 


3 


2 


1 .0 


2 


1 2 




[5] 


1 1 


2.0 


4 


'9 


10.0 


24 


17 


t8.o] 


X 




1 .31 




5 


3-0 


4 


0 


■•3 


2 


I 2 


5.0 


s 


6 


..ii 


2 


s 


I 2 


3 


4 




4 


6 


2.0 


3 


4 


5.0 


6 




°-3 


1 


3 


0. 1 


2 


2 


I I 


1 




0.1 


i 




0.1} 


1 


43 


10. 0 


16 


8 


1.0 


2 


1 


0.2 


1 


15 


7-3j 


8 




°-3 




-3 


6.03 


6 




0.2 


I 


37 


5.0 


3° 




u 






0. 1 


1 


go 


152 


3° 








c; } 


20.0 


16 


19 


6-3 


5 


4 


I . I 






I . I 


2 


■1 


4 1 


4 


32 


16.1 


16 


1 


o-3 


1 




o.o£ 


i 


5 


4.0 


4 




o.o^d 






0. 1 


1 


7 


3-o 


3 


0 


4.0 


4 




1 .0 




4 


1.2 


4 


8 


1.2 


2 


»3 


6.2 


4l 


'9 


10. 0 


8 




0.1 


1 


16 


4-3 


5 




1.0 


2 


12 


4.0 


5 


22 


5*° 


5 


26 


S-o 


5 


2 


0.2 


X 


8 


3* 1 


3 




2.1 


3 


5 


i.oj 


<i 


18 


6.25 


8 



[2] 
[1] 

m 



(31 



10 5.0 s 



7- 2 
4-a 



1 .0 

8.1 



36.6 100 4°° 



['I 



1 10. o 

2 5O.O 



[5] 
[a] 



2.0 
2.0 



2.0 2 

... [ 3 1 

.... [ 3 ] 

.... 1>J] 

2.2 I 



2.0 

30.O IOO 

40.0 IOO 

30.0 IOO 







0.10 


100 


Leviet presbyter (al>o T.R.W,). 






0.3 


IOO 


Marwen. 




1 
I 






Ernuin's father. 








5° 


Alwold &. Leuric m. of Kg 






14.0 


70 


Adelold, King's tbaue. [Ed. 






0.2 


40 








1.5 


62 


Alwold, King's thane. 






0.10 


5° 


Alwold, King's thane. 






3.0 


60 


Alwold, King's thane. 






2.0 


IOO 


Alwold, m. of Kg. Edw. 






5.0 


41 


Alric, Kg's thane & 6 socmen. 






5.0 


I on 


7 socmen. 






2.10 


250 


2 thanes. 






2.10 


100 


Alwin, bro. of Bp. Wulwi. 






.. I.I 3 i 


100 


4 socm., nr. of Archbp. Stig. 






5.0 




10 socmen. 






1.8 


IOO 


3 socmen. 






2.0 


200 


4 socmen. 






3.0 


300 


6 socmen. 






1. 10 


IOO 


same 3 socmen. 






5.0 


IOO 


same 20 socm. of Kg's soke. 






0.10 


IOO 




100 


I 


1.0 


5° 


Avigi, m. of Anschil. 










Avigi. 






0.2 


IOO 


iilach, 111. of Avigi. 






0.10 


[ ( ,< 1 


Go^ric, in. of the Sheriff. 


IOO 


4 


10. 0 


l2 5 


Alcstan de BosLUmbe. 






1. 10 


»S° 


Godwin, m. of Ale^tan. 






0.10 


IOO 


Godmai^ m. of Alestan. 






8.0 


So 


Alcstan and 2 socmen. 






0.16 


*33 


Alueva, m. of Aschil. 






7.0 




Alcstan & 1 socman. 






0.5 


100 


Alwin, m. of Alestan. <■ 


200 06 


g 






Bricxtnc under Abu, l^amscy. 










2 socmen. 






0.10 


100 


man of Brixtric. 


300 


30 


25.0 


1 no 


Wuhvard Level. 




0.2 


IOO 


Edward wit. 


400 


12 


15.0 


187 


Ulmar of Etone. 






3.0 


300 


4 King's thanes. 






0.10 


IOO 


2 m. of King Edwaid. 




2 


2.0 


100 


2 socmen. 






3.0 


IOO 


3 socmen, m. of Ulmar. 




l6 


12.0 


150 


Ulmar de Etone. 






0.6 




2 socmen. 






0.3 




Alric. 






4.0 


200 


Ulmar & 1 socm. his m. 










same 7 socmen, m. of Ulmar. 






0.2 


60 


4 socmen. 






1. 10 


'$0 


Norman. 






2.0 


IOO 


Norman. 






0.10 


200 


Ravan, m. of Ulmar. 






1,0 


200 


Ravan, m. of Ulmar. 






3.0 


'5" 


2 socmen. 






5.0 


I2 3 


Ulmar and 3 socmen. 






6.0 


150 


Lcuric s. of Osmund. 






O.I* 


IOO 


Samar priest. 


200 


4 


5 0 


125 


Aschil and 12 socmen. 








Aschil. 


IOO 




4.0 


200 


Aschil, King's thane. 


1 00 




5.0 


*45 


2 m. of Kg. Ed., 1 m. of 










Harold. 


1 00 


3 


8.0 


1 Co 


Aschil, King's thane. 






0.2 


IOO 


Anschil, King's thane 




1 


3.0 




9 socmen. 


100 


3 


2.0 


IOO 


S socmen. 




't 


1.0 


100 


4 socmen. 


120 


3 


6.0 


120 


13 socmen. 


xiii ii* 




vi »li 


xviit 


six 



40 



TABLE IV : ESTATES OF TENANTS IN CHIEF 





DfcPEN DENTS 


Estate 


Demesne 


Mil! s 


Wood 


Meadow 


Valet 


ANTCCSiC » 


Folio op D.B. 






































Tenant in Chirp 






































VlLI 


B 
C 

-a 
c 


Socmen, So 
Small Hold. 


Villans, Bor 
and Serfs 


h. v. 




u 


X 

h. v. 


E 


Number 


s. d. 


5 


m 


s. d. 


Teams 


1 
s. d. 


o 
li. s. 


p.c. of Q.R. 





Colu.nn i 

fo. 213 

Wellington, 132 

Stotlold, 133 

Manlden, 134 

Houghton Conquest, 135 

Ha woes, 136 

Salpho, 137 

Aspley Guise, 138 ... 

Salford, 139 

Eversholt, 140 

Milton Brian, 141 

Gravcnliurst, 142 

Streatley, 143 

Higham Gobion, 144 

StaughloUj 145 

Riseley, 146 

Milton Ernest, 147 ... 

Bletsoe, 148 
fo. 213d. 

Biddenham, 149 

Bromharu, 150 

Turvey. 151 

Sharnbrook, 152 

Thurlcigh, 153 

Wyboston, 154 

Chawston, 155 

Roxton, 156 

Great Barford, 157 ... 

Great Harford, 15S ... 

Cohnworth, 159 

Great Harford, 160 ... 

(Jrcat Harford, 161 ... 

Goldington, 162 

cioldintfton, 163 

Goldington, 164 

Holme, 165 

Astwick, 106 

Astwick. 167 

Astwick, 168 

Stanford, 169 

Cople, 170 

Cople, 171 

Cople, 172 

Cople, 173 
fo. 214. 

Cople, 174 

Cople, 175 ... 
Cople, 176 
Northill, 177 
Cudsand, 17S 

NIGEL D'AL-BINI. 

Husboine Crawley, 179 
Man?head Hundred, 180 
Tingrith, 181 

Priestley, 182 

Harlingdon, 183 

Shelton (Redb.), 184 

Shelton (Redb.), 185 
Marston, r86 

Millbrook, 187 

Ampthill, rSS 

Broom, 189 

Mauldon, 190 

Westcotts, i9r 

Clophill, 192 

Cainhoe, 193 

Silsoe, 194 

Pulloxhill, 195 

fo. 2i4d. 

Streatley, 196 

Milton Ernest, 197 

Carlton. 198 

Carlton, 199 

Fadwell, 200 

Turvey, 201 

Wyboston, 202 

In Biggleswade Hund. 203.. 

Holme, 204 

Harrowden, 205 

Clifton, 206 

Henlow, 207 

Arlesey, 208 

















2 1 


10. 0 


9 






4> 


15.0 


1 5 






2 


0.2J 


1 






16 


5° 


6 






*4 


5.0 


H 




1 1 




5.0 


8 


I 






lo.o 


1 2 






'7 


S-° 


5 


I 






7- 2 


S 


X 




13 


6 0 


6 


I 




1 1 


3-2 


4 


I 




"3 


4-1 


(1 


I 




21 


8.0 


1 1 


I 




8 


0.2 






X 


4 


0.2 


i 


I 




7 


i-3i 


3 


I 




1 1 


2.2 


4 


I 




2 


1 .0 


1 


1 




27 


6.0 


0 


I 




5 


1 .0 


2 




1 




O.lJ 


I 




1 


5 


0.2 


2 




■ 




o.oj 




1 




2 


1.0 


"i 


I 




3 


I . I 


1 


I 




1 1 


3 0 


4 


I 




2 i 


S- 2 i 


1 1 


I 




26 


5.0 


10 


I 




EO 


Z.2 


2 


I 




[0 


1.3! 


3 


z 




5 


2.0 


3 






6 


3° 


3 


1 




2 


1.0 


1 




"i 








X 




5 


I . I 


4 




1 


3 


0.2 


1 




1 


3 


0.2 


i 


1 




5 


1.0 


x\ 


I 




8 


4 -° 


4 


I 




2 


I.I 


I 


I 




2 


z.o] 


1 


I 






1 .0 


1 


I 






1.0 


I 


r 






0.3 


1 




2 






8 




1 




0.2 


! 




3 


1 


2 0 


•i 






9 


5° 


5 


1 




2 


I O 




t 




6 


2.1 


3 






5 


I . 2 


2 






2S 


5-o 


10 


1 




4 


1.0 


1 




1 


2 


0.2 


1 


1 




20 


S.oJ 


10 


1 




6 


5" 


6 


z 




9 


50 


8 


1 




■4 


5.0 


5 
















16 


2 -3 


6 






f 1 


5.0 


8 






1 1 


4.0 


6 


1 




6 


2.0 


4 


2 




26 


10. 0 


'3 



50 
50 



4- IJ 

2-3 

7-'l 
i.o| 
9.1 
0.2 
I.oJ 

6.0 

2.0 

5- 2 

0.3J 



! 

3 
[>] 
[6] 

3 



xi xii 


niti 


12.0 IOO 


40 


80.0 4<rr> 






20 




200 




500 


9.4 


"5° 



.... [5] 

3D 2 
2 3 2 



IOO ... 2 

200 1.0 4 
100 2.0 8 



1.2$ I 



5° 



xi xii xtii sir 



xvii 


jviii 


xix 


7.0 


35° 


Aschil and 8 socx*/- 


25.O 


208 


Aschil; King's tttfK 


0. 10 


200 


Godwin, m. of As&ifc 


5° 


100 


7 socmen. 


id.i) 


142 


Achi, King's tbane. 


5.0 


ICO 


same 11 socmen. 


8.0 


160 


Leveva. 


4 o 


*33 


Turchil, King's liuv. 


S 0 


166 


Turgis, King's ttufl*.'.; 


6.0 


x 5° 


Auti housec. of E.i'lfcfar. 


30 


100 


5 socmen. 


4.0 


200 


Aschil & 1 socm. is to. 


8.0 


IOO 


5 socmen. 


i.xo 


»5° 


Oviet, ru. of Aschil. 


o-S 


IO' 1 


Wenot, m. of Godru.'abcuQ 


1 . 10 


IOO 




3-0 


IOO 


Aschil and 3 soaKR 


0. 10 


100 


AIsi do Brunehani. 


7.0 


140 


Alsi, m. of Qu. Exih. 


0. 10 


100 


2 socmen. 


U.2 


lL>> 


3 socmen. 


I 10 


200 


Modmg, m. of Qu Sdith. 


0.2 


IOO 


Aschil, King's lhait. 


0. id 


66 


2 socmen. 


0.10 


5° 


4 socmen, m. of Ed. 


3 0 


200 


3 socmen, m. of 1^,. Kd. 


2.0 


zoo 


3 socmen. 


5-° 


IOO 


Aschil and 8 sooeos. 


2.0 


IOO 


2 socmen. 


2.0 


200 


3 socmen. 


X.IO 


"5° 


3 socmen. 


2.0 


400 


Almar, m, of Asa&jifc 


0.15 


150 


vill in coiiimoaial*; 


o-3 




1 socman under AtJail. 


1 .0 


200 


6 socmen. 


o.ro 


200 




x.o 


100 


Ledmar, m. of E. "Iwti. 


0.15 


300 


Ailmar de Ow. 


3 0 


JOO 


3 socmen. 


0. 10 


200 


2 socmen. 


0. 10 


2uO 


2 socmen, m. of Kj? Ed. 


0.6 


IOO 


Aschil and Alestaa 


0.10 


IOO 


3 socmen. 


0.7^ 


IOO 


2 socmen. 


0.5 


1 OO 


3 socmen. 


°'S 


1 DO 


Osiet, m. of Kg. Tiw. 


1 0 


IOO 


4 socmen. 


1 10 


75 


9 thanes. 


0. 1 5 


1 50 


Suglo, m. of Alrici of Godirg 


2.0 


I 3^ 


2 thanes. 


1 .0 


IOO 


5 thanes. 


6.0 


I :,o 


4 thanes. 


1 0 


1 33 


Alward, m. of Anc s. 0: 






Goding. 


0.6 


200 


Suglo, m. of Alric s. if Godin: 


7.0 


140 


2r socmen. 


3-o 


200 


Godwin, s. of Lewn. 


4.0 


20- j 


7 socmen. 


2.0 




7 socmen. 


3-o 


»5o 


7 socmen. 


3-o 


200 


2 thanes, m. of E. TR>stE. 


30 


2 X) 


Aluric, King's thav:> 


I.XO 


1 00 


Aluric parvus, Kio£-M thane. 


10. 0 


I2 5 


8 socmen. 


4.0 


2^0 


Lewin and 3 Kg's thanes. 


1 .10 


1 00 


6 socmen. 


1.0 


200 


Golderon, m. of I-etenot. 


2.0 


200 


3 socmen. 


4.0 


100 


10 socmen. 


0.13 


IOO 


Alward, m. of Bp. Wulwi. 


6.0 


"5° 


12 socmen. 


0.7 


70 


Samar, m. of Lew^Q- 


1.0 


200 


7 socmen. 


50 


125 


14 socmen. 


0.15 


'5° 


4 socmen. 




»37 


9 socmen. 


0.17 


100 


2 socmen. 



TABLE IV: ESTATES OF TENANTS IN CHIEF 





Dependents 


Kstate 


Demesne 


Mills 


Woou 


Meadow 


Valet 


Antecessor 


Foi.io of D.L>. 






































Tenant in Chief 

VlLL 


c 
c 

u 

a 

° 


Socmen, Soldier 
Small Holdrrs 


Villans, Bordars 
and Serfs 


-a 

£ 

h. v. 


12 


Carucates 


h.v. 


Teams 


j Number 


— 
s. d. 




Pannage for 
Swine 


s. d. 


Teams 


Q 
s. d. 


CO 

o 
li. s. 


j p.c. of O.R. 





Column i 

WILLIAM SPECIE 

Holcole, 209 

Steppintflcy, 210 

Streatley , 211 

Biddenhain. 212 

Hinwick, 213 

WymirigloD, 214 
fo 215. 

Chawston, 215 

Chaws 'on, 216 ... 

Roxton, 217 

Eyworth, 218 

Southill, 2K) 

Stanford, 220 

Wardon, 221 

Beeston, 222 

Northill 223 
ROBERT DE TODENI. 

Studham 224 

Oakley, 225 

Turvey, 226 
GILBERT DE GAND. 

Edlesbornu^h, 227 ... 
ROBERT DE OILGI. 

Thurleigh, 228 

Thurleigh, 229 
RANULF PRO. OF ILGER. 

Favenham, 230 
ROBERT FAFITON. 

Flition, 231 
fo. 21 ^d. 

ALU R EI) DE LINCOLN. 

Wymingtou, 212 
WALTER FLEMING. 

loUernhoe, 233 

Milton Ernest, 234 

Turvey, 235 

Odell, 236 

Podington, 237 

Wymington, 238 

Wymington, 239 

Thurleigh, 240 

Thurleigh, 241 

Stratton, 242 

Holme, 243 

Astwick, 244 

Landlord, 245 

Southill, 246 

Southill, 247 

Henlow, 248 
fo. 216. 

WALTER BRO. OF SEIER. 

Segenho, 249 

Silsoe, 250 
HUGH FLEMING. 

Fodington, 251 

Hinwick, 252 

Sharnbrook, 253 
HUGH PINCERNA. 

Staughton, 254 

Segresdon, 255 
SIGAR DE CIOCHES. 

Staughton, 256 
GUXFRID DE CIOCHES. 

Hinwick, 257 
KICHARD, S. OF CT. 
GILBERT. 

Sudbury, 258 

Wyboston, 259 
RICHARD PUN GIANT. 

Dunton, 260 

Tempsford, 261 

Southill, 262 
WILLIAM CAMERARIUS. 

Potsgrove, 263 

Battlesdon, 264 

Totternhoe. 265 
WILLIAM LOVET. 

Husborne Crawley, 266 

Flitwick, 267 
WILLIAM. 

Farndish, 268 



1 


■4 


4.0 


3 






I 


16 


5.0 


7 










O.03 


1 






2 


10 


3 -*4 


4 






I 




1.0 


2 








1 


03 


1 






, 


19 


7-' 


7 








1 2 


0 2 


1 








14 


8.3 


H 


4-3 


2 




21 


0.0 


y 


5.2 


3 


2 


22 


5.04 


7 






I 


2 


1.0 


1 








26 


g.o 


9 


3.2 


1 






o. 3 i 


1 




m 




m 


6.2 


7 


4.0 


3 


, 


15 


6.0 


c 






2 


1; 


4.0 


s 






2 


1 1 


2. 1 


48 














5.0 






6 












1 1 


0. 1 


] 






I 


>4 


5 0 


6 








10 


5° 


6 


2.0 




1 


10 


3-° 


4 








28 












3 


2.0 


3 






1 


9 


1 .0 


2 








2.1 


5>3 


S 


2.0 


2 


I 


>5 


» 3 


5i 






1 


>3 


4.0 


5 






1 




0.2 


s 






I 


23 


3-o 


7 






I 


4 


02 


2 








3 




ii 




ri'i 




3 


1.0 


•l 




1 




0.1 


8 








24 


10.0 


16 


4.1 


4 




1 


0. 1 


1 






1 


10 


32 


38 








3' 


IO.O 


10 


4.0 


1 




18 


4 .0 










10 


2.1 










g 




3 




2 




1 2 












6 


2-3 


4 


1.0 


2 






O.I 










20 


2.0 


5 


20 2.0 


2 


1 


3 




3 










O.I 








1 




2 (>\ 


"i 








17 


8.1 


8 


4.1 


3 




4 


20 


2 










1.0 


1 




[■] 


1 




0.2 


i 








12 


63 


6 


3-3 






!0 


5.0 


5 


20 


2 




IO 


5° 




20 


2 




6 


2.0 






2 




i iT 






vii Tiii 





1 33.0 260 
I 8.0 



i 130 



36.8 20c 



2 IO-O 

1 4.0 



300 



60 





*VI tvii 


EViii 


six 




30 




Alward Pelrap, m. of Alric. 




4.0 


200 


Alniar and 2 socm., his m. 




0.2 


IOO 


Aluric, m. of Aluric parvus. 




2.0 


200 


11 socmen. 








Ulnod, m. of Ulsi s. of Borgret. 




0.2 


20 


Leunc, rn. of Bor^red. 




6.0 


'SO 


12 socmen. 




0.5 


IOO 


2 m. of Kg. Edw. 


3 


7.0 


2 So 


12 socmen. 


9 


7.0 


IOO 


20 socmen. 




4.10 


1 1 2 


16 socmen. 


■" 


0.15 


75 


Lemar, King's th.mc. 


*' 


Co 


100 


8 socmen. 


5 


O.IO 


IO> > 


Lewm c lit, King's thane. 


7 


6.0 


100 


6 socmen. 




4.0 


200 


Osulf s. of Fraue. 




4.0 


IOO 


Osulf, King'b thane. 




2.0 


6C 


Osulf. 




... 5.10 


1. m 


UH, King's thane. 




2.0 




Oviet, King's thane. 




O.IO 


IOO 


Alwin, m. of Bp. Wulwi. 




3.0 


75 


Godwin, King's thane. 


6 


3.0 


IOO 


Alwin horim, King's th'ine. 




2.0 


8. . 


Godwin I* ranpold. 




8.0 


80 


Levenot, King's thane. 




1,0 


IOO 


2 socm., m. of Bnhtric. 






3 62 


Levenot ( King's thane. 


5 


S-o 




Levenot and 1 socman. 




4.10 


180 


Levenot, King's thane. 




3-0 


1 01 1 


Lant, m. of Levenot ; 1 socm. 






5° 


Godwin Eranpalt. 




5.0 


1 66 


Levenot, King's thane. 




1.0 


200 


Ordric, m. of Levenot. 


1 


0.10 


TOO 


Lewin, King's thane. 


'9 


1.0 


I2 5 


2 socmen. 




... 0.16 


100 


Lewin, King's thane. 


16 


2.0 15.10 


'55 


Lewin and 1 socman. 




0.5 


166 


Lewin, in pledge. 




3.0 


150 


6 socmen. 


8 


6.0 


60 


Levenot and 1 socman. 




8.0 


160 


Levenot and 3 socmen. 








4 socmen. 




1. 10 




Alwold, ni. of Bp, Wulwi. 




O.IO 


200 


Leunc, m. of Abb. Ramsey. 




2.0 


57 


Wig, King's thane; 1 socman. 




0.1 


100 


Alwin, m. of E. Harold. 




4.0 


"33 


Wig, King's thane. 




1.0 


200 


2 socmen. 








Prior of St. Neot. 




0. II 


100 


Prior of St. Neot. 




8.0 


*33 


Archbp. Stigand. 




1. 10 


'5° 


3 socmen. 






Archbp. Stigand. 


1 


... 0.15 


IOO 


Morcar presbyter. 




o. S 


IOO 


Morcar presbyter. 


3 


2.10 


IOO 


Lewin, m. of E. Waltheof. 


S 


2.0 


>3i 


Grimbald, m. of Kg. Ed. 


5 


2.10 


83 


Alwin, King's thane. 


I 


2.0 


200 


3 socmen. 


IT 


xrt zvii 


xviii 


xix 



■ 



«2 



TABLE IV : ESTATES OF TENANTS IN CHIEF 



Dependents 



Estate 



Fouo o? D.B. 
Tenant in Chief 

VlLL 



o E 



C 'Si 



fo. 2i6d. 

HENRY S. OF AZOR. 

Farndish, 269 

OSBF.RN" S. OF RICHARD. 

Staughton, 270 

Riseley, 271 

Keysoc, 272 

Elvendmi, 273 

OSBERN S. OF WALTER. 
Little Rarfortl, 274 

OSBF.RN PISCAIOR. 

Sharnbrook, 275 

Carlton, 276 
TURSTIN CAMERARIUS. 

Pavenham, 277 

Himvick, 278 

Beeston, 279 

Campton, 2S0 

GILBERT, S. OF SALOMON. 

Meppershall, 281 

Felniershani, 282 

ALBF.RT OF LORRAINE. 

Cbalgrave, 2X3 

Wootlnn, 284 

Shelton (Redb.), 285 
Sharnbrook, 28b 

DAVID DF. ARGF.NTOIN. 

Riseley, 287 

fo. 217. 

RALF DF INSULA. 

Stratton, 288 

Biggleswade, 281, 

Holme, 290 

Ward on , 291 

GOZELIN BRITO. 

Potsgrove. 292 

Gladley, 293 
COUNTESS JUDITH. 

Mauldon, 294 

Houghton Conquest, 295 ... 

AYilshamslead, 296 

Elstow, 297 

Kempston, 298 

Bolnhurst, 299 

Oakley, 300 

Bletsoe, 301 

Bromham, 302 
Stagsden, 303 
Felmersham, 304 

Radwell, 305 

Harrold, 306 

Sharnbrook, 307 

fo. 2i7d. 

In Barford Hund., 308 
Potton, 309 
Stratton, 310 
Holme, 311 

Holrne, 312 

Potton, 313 

Sutton, 314 

Sutton, 315 

Sutton, 316 
Sutton, 317 

Sutton, 318 

Sutton, 319 

Sutton, 320 
Sutton, 321 

Hatley, 322 

Everton, 323 

Southill, 324 
Harrowden, 325 

Cardington, 326 

Cople, 327 

Blunham, 328 

Clifton, 329 

ADELIZ DE GRENTMAISNIL. 
Shelton (Redb.), 330 
Houghton Conquest, 331 ... 

Charlton, 332 

Milton Ernest, 333 

Column i 



2 


1 .0 


I 


I 


O.2J 


■ 


1 


0.2 


1 




O.I 


I 




I . ' 


'I 


1 1 


3-0 


3 








i 




2 


7 


2.2 


3 


3 




2 




0.2 


I 


3 








4 ° 


4 


10 


7.2 




23 


8.o| 


1 0 


26 


10.0 


1 1 


1 1 


3-0 


5 


12 




3 


4 


1.0 


1 


1 2 


4 0 


s 


20 


10.0 


10 


6 


2.0 






0.1 J 


" 


1 2 


7.2 


7S 




2.2 


i 


9 




5 


2 


0.2 


1 


23 


3-0 


6 


29 


3- 2 




38 


1 0.0 


2 a 


2 


O.z 


I 


i 


I 0 




12 


2.2 


4 


7 


2.0 


2 








6 


3 2 


1 


3 


2.2J 




10 


IO.O 


16 


2 


o-3 


1 


£ 


2.3 


3 


X 




1 


6 


o-3i 


2 


r 


0.2 


i 




0. r 


i 


34 


10.0 


1 2 


4 


1.2 


■i 


3 


I.O 


1 




0.2 


8 


3 


°3i 


1 


1 


O. I>J 


1 


4 


2.0 


2 




0 3 


X 


r 


0.2 


1 


16 


3-*i 


6i 


9 


5.0 


S 




1.0 


2 


10 


3.0 


3 


18 


3«i 


4 




O. I 






0.2 


1 




I -O 


i 


1 


0.2 


1 


21 


4-2 


6 


27 


IO. O 


10 


9 


3-« 


4 


iv 


V 


vi 



Demesne 



Wood 



1 ! > 

■2, Is. d. 



c .5 



s. d. 



s. d. I li. s. 



Valet 



Oi 



Antecessor 



VII Vlll 



I.] 



It] 



1. ij 



5 0 
40 



17) 

5- 2 3 47 ° 
15] 



3 0 3 



1 16.C 



3-i 3 ' 5-o 



1.0J 2 



— LI] 

5.0 2 r 30.0 



liit xiv 




xvi 1 v i i 


xviii 




i 


O IO 


100 














05 


100 






0.2 


100 














3.0 


I 50 


IO 




1.6 


260 




2 


1.0 


100 




3 


2.0 


IOO 






1. 10 


}tH.I 




1 


0.0 




O 


1 § 


1. 10 




200 10.0 


7 


6.0 


100 




4 


5.0 


4 l 


50 


8 


7.0 


1 ifi 


400 


<^ 


JO.o 


1 2 ^ 


100 




2.0 




4 






1 66 






0.10 


5" 




4 


12.0 


300 




10 


17.0 






1 


2.0 


Mi 




5 


2.10 


5° 


100 












30 


75 






0.10 


100 






7.6 


V4 






5.0 


250 


200 


20 


. . 1 S.o 


Si 






0.10 


2(.x) 






0.10 


IOO 






3.0 


IOO 






1.0 


200 






0.10 


1 < to 






3.0 


DO 






1.0 


200 






6.0 


37 






0.10 


200 






2.0 


41 to 






0.5 


1 00 






0.8 


IOO 






0.7 








0.5 


.100 




12 


12.0 


241 ' 






0. 10 


> 2 5 






0.8 








0.5 


50 






0.8 


IOO 






0.4 


IOO 






1.0 


IOO 






0.3 


50 






0.5 


IOO 


4 


2 


... 6.5 


130 






30 


60 






1. 10 


75 






1. 10 


15° 






2.0 


200 






... 0.2J 


IOO 






1.0 


200 






0.5 


IOO 


6 


j 


0.6 


ICO 






4.0 


>33 


16 ... 


IO 


10.0 


,2 5 






3.0 


100 








xviii 



2 socmen. 

Stori, m. of F. Tosti ; \ s* 
Alwin, m. of Stcri. 

Alwin, m. of Slori. 

Ulmar of Eton. 

Tovi huscarle of Kg. E. 
Godwin Frambolt. 

Alsi, m. of Alii. 
Godwin Frambolt. 
Godwin, m. of E. Tosti. 

3 socmen. 

Lewin cilt and 4 socmen. 
6 socmen. 

Albert of Lorraine. 
Almar, m. of E. Tosti. 
Almar, m. of E. Tosti. 
Algar, m. of Qu. Edith. 

Hoindai, m. of E. Harold. 



Archbp. Stigand 

Archbp. Stigand and 2 socmen 

Archbp. Stigand and 3 socmen. 



4 thanes. 

Wigot, Kg's huntsm. 

Alwold and 1 socman. 
Lepsi, m. of E. Tosti. 

5 socmen. 

4 socmen, m. of Kg. Edw. 
E. Guert and 2 thanes. 
Almar, King's thane. 
Godwin, m. of E. Harold. 
Leveva, m. of Kg. Ed. 
Godwin i m. of E. Harold. 

2 socmen, m. of Kg. Ed. 
Alii, King's thane. 

Tovi huscarle of Kg. Ed. 

3 King's thanes. 
Oviet, m. of Kg. Edw. 

Ulfech, Kg's steersman. 
Earl Tosti. 

Alwin, m. of Kg. Ed. 
Alwin, m. of Kg. Ed. 
Godwin, m. of Kg. Ed. 
E. Tosti and 4 socmen. 
3 socmen. 

6 socmen. 

same Levegar, m. of Kg. Ed 
2 socmen. 

Edward, m. of Abb. St. Alb 

2 socmen. 

Ulmar, m. of Ordui. 

same Ederic, m. of Kg. Edw 

Earl Tosti. 

Earl Tosti. 

Tuffa, m. of E. Waltheof. 
Azelin, m. of E. Tosti. 
Azelin, m. of E. Tosti. 
Wulwin, m. of Kg. Edw. 
man of King Edward. 
Uluric, ni. of Kg. Edw. 

Godwin, m. of E. Guert. 

3 socmen. 

King Edward (E. Tosti). 
Godwin, m. of Borret. 

xtx 



TABLE IV: ESTATES OV TENANTS IN C.ilEF 



Fouo of D.B 
Tenant in Chief 

Viil 



Dependents 



Estate 



-a u 



Demesne 



Wood 



Meadow 



Valet 



a 

5. d. 



Oi 



Antecessor 



Column 1 

fo. 218. 

AZELINA TAILLEBOIS. 

Battlesden, 334 

Hocklifte, 315 

Cainhoe, 336 

Wyboston, 337 

Eyworth, 33H 

Hatley, 330 

Stanford, 340 

Wardon, 341 

Ilcnlow, 34.2 

Hcnlow, 343 

Chicksand, 344 

Chicksand, 345 

Stondon, 346 
BURGESSES OF BEDFORD 

Biddenham, 347 

Biddenham, 348 

Biddenham, 349 

Biddenhain, 3^0 
? KING'S SERVICE. 

Hinwick, 351 

Sharnbrook, 352 

Beeston, 353 

Ilcnlow, 354 

Ailesey, 355 
fo. 2i8d. 

KING'S REEVES AND 
ALMSMEN. 

F.versholt, Woburn, and 
Potsgrove, 356 ... 

Potsgrove, 357 

Priestley, 35N 

Maulden, 350 

Tempsford , 360 

Edworth, 361 

Holme, 36.2 

Sutton,. 363 

Streatley. 364 

Sutton, 365 

Carlton, 366 

Wyrnington, 367 

Goldington, 368 

Stanford, 369 

Stanford, 370 

Beeston, 371 

Westcotts, 372 

Dean, 373 

Dean, 374 

Hanefeld, 375 

In Stodden Hund., 376 

Milton Ernest, 377 

Bromham, 378 

Turvey, 379 

In Willey Hund., 380 

Wyrnington, 381 
FORINSEC LANDS. 
ROBERT I)E TODENI. 



iii iv 




vl 


vii 






x xi 


iii 


xiii 


xiv 


XV » 


vi * vii 


xviii 


xix 


3 




1 s 






i ' 1 










I 


1 .0 


IOO 


Anscbil and Alwin, socm. 


24 


10. 0 


8 




5.0 


2 










4 


8.0 


11 11 


Anschill. 


4 


1.0 


2 


















1 .0 


200 


Uluric, Kg's socman. 


3 


■ .■1 




















0.10 


20O 


Almar, m. of Ulmar. 


1 


I -O 


X 


















0.10 


IOO 


same Brodo. 


13 


5 'i 


8 




I I 


Z 


1 1S.0 




4 




2 


6.0 




Ulmar and 2 socmen. 


3 


2.0 


2 


















3.0 


300 


2 socmen. 




0.2 


s 


















O.IO 


So 


Coding, m. of Edric calvus. 


6 


'•3 


2 


















I. TO 


'5° 


Anschill. 


3 


I .0 


1 


















1.3 


100 


2 socmen, m. of Anschill. 


3 


3° 


2 


















1.0 


IOO 


4 socmen. 




1 .0 


I 


















1 .0 


100 


Sueteman, m. of Ulmer, 


5 


2.2 


*s 


















3.0 


150 


Ulmar and 5 socm, his m. 


1 


0.1 


i 


















0.2 


IOO 


same Osgar. 




i.o| 




















0.10 


IOO 


same Godwin (partly). 


3 


i.oj 


I 


















0.10 


100 


same Ordui (partly). 


1 


o.o§ 


1 


















0.1 


IOO 


same Ulmar. 


1 1 


0.2 


1 


















0.5 


100 


father of tenant. 


1 


o.oj 


i 


















0.2 


40 


father of tenant. 


1 


0 3 


i 


















O.S 


1 o< 1 


same tenant. 


1 


0 1 


i 


















0.2 


100 


same tenant. 


1 


0 oj 



























Barworth, a 


X 


1 7 


5.0 


3 


ST. PAUL, LONDON. 










Kensworth, b 




14 


10. 0 


10 


Caddington, c 




29 


10. 0 


10 


GILBERT S. OF SALOMON. 










Meppershall, d 




7 


3-i 




THE KING. 










Westoningj e 




23 


5.0 


<4 


ROBERT DE OLGI. 










Polehanger, f 


I 


4 


0.2 


1 


BISHOP OF LINCOLN. 










Fertenhall, g, h 






0.1 


1 


WILLIAM DE WARENNA. 










Keysoe, i 




* 7 


o-3 


I 


Swineshead, j, k 


I 


1 12 


3-2 


4 


EUSTACE, SHERIFF. 










Swineshead, 1, m 


I 




0.2 


t 


KING'S THANES. 










Keysoe, n 


I 




O. I 


i 


RAN'ULF bro. of ilger. 










Evcrton, 0 




21 


7.0 


18 


WILLIAM PEVEREL. 










Farndish, p 




2 


o-3 


1 


Podington, q 




4 


0.2 




Column i 


11 


iii tr 




vl 



I 


1 


2. 1 




0.6 


3° 


5 socmen. 


I 




0.2 


1 ( 


°-5 


I CO 


Oswi, m. of E. Tosti. 


I 


1 


1 .0 




0.5 


5° 


4 thanes. 


I 




0.2 


i 


°-3 


IOO 


2 socmen of Kg. Edw. 


I 


3 


. r>i 




1.0 


IOO 


C socmen. 


I 


2 




2 ... — ... ... 


1. 10 


IOO 


Brantmg, tri. of Kg. Edw. 




2 


1.2 


it 


1.0 


IOO 


Aluric and Lemar, bedells. 






O.lJ 




0.4 


IOO 


2 socmen. 


I 




o.o| 


i 


0.5 


IOO 


Ulmar presbyter. 


I 


3 


1.0 


[2] 


1.0 


IOO 


Alwin and Edward. 


I 


5 


°-3l 




O.IO 


375 


same m. and Alii. 


6 


°3 




0-3 


father of tenant?. 


1 




0.2 


1 z z. z :::: 


0.5 


too 


same tenant. 


1 




o.oj 


Tff -■• ■■• 


O.I 


IOO 


same tenant. 


1 




[0.2 J] 




0.4 


IOO 


same tenant, Kg's man. 


t 


2 


0.1 i 


i ... z. z.\ 


0. I 


25 


Dot. 


1 


2 


O.I 


t 


°-5 


IOO 


same tenant, Kg's man. 


11 




'■3i 


3t 


X.XO 


IOO 


same tenants. 


1 




o.o£ 




O.I 


IOO 


same tenant. 






0. 1 


"i z. :::: ::: 

1 ... .... ... ... 


0.5 


100 


same tenant. 


2 


3 


0.2 


O.IO 


IOO 


father of tenant. 


1 




o.o£ 


i 


O.I 


100 


father of tenant. 


X 




o.x| 


X 


O.IO 




same tenant. 


1 




o.o3 


8 


°-3 


IOO 


same tenant. 






0.2 


t 


0.3 


100 


1 socman. 


1 




1 .0 


1 


°-5 


IOO 


same tenant. 



5-o 2 
4.0 1 



1(H) 2 0 

100 2.0 



4<xj 3.0 7 



3.10 
5.10 



O.IO IOO 

o.s 
2.0 

0.6 

0.1J ... 



Osulf s. of Frane. 

Lewin cilt from Kg. Edw. 
Lewin from Kg. Edw. 

Lewin thane of Kg. Edw. 

Earl Harold. 

Aluric m. of E. Waltheof. 

Alwin [Deule]. 

Allic 

Furfa. 

same Alwin. 
Ingewar. 



Til viil ix 



44 TAltLE V : SYNTHESIS OF THE ESTATES OF TENANTS IN CHIEF 





DEPENDENTS 


Estate 


Demesne 




Mills 




Wood 


Meadow 


ESTATK 


Demesne 


Tenant 






rd 




























O 










1 




in Chief 


re 
£ 


"o 

f "3 




be 


c 


1 


ft 






« I 






.21 








00 

0 




to 








CC 
Oi 










£ 


| 




!2 
X 


£ 


1 


> j 




§ £ 
c •- 




E 


C , 








c 

rt 

Q 


7; t 




i> 








o 6 
tr. it. 


> , 


h. v. 






h. v. 


V 

t- 


\ * 


s d 

s. u. | 


w 


CO J 

a. uo 


s. d. 




S. d. 


,■ 
11. 


s. 


d. 


ii. 


s. c 




li. s. 


a. 


Column i 


ii 


iii 


iv 


v 




viii 


ix 




xi 


iii 


xiii 


xiv 




ivi 




svn 




xviii 




• 

XIX 




SI 


BISHOP OF BAYEUX. 


5 


25 


go 


29.1 


5 oj 


2.0 


4 








300 


1.0 


(, 




40 


6 


8 


2 


18 


6 


16.0 


So 


BISHOP OF COUTANCES ... 


5 


29 


■73 


56.1 


70 


8-3 


9i 


1 


20.0 




560 


H 




48 


2 


0 


5 


12 


6 


18.15 


>3<> 


BISHOP OF LINCOLN 


8 




2 S 


10.2} 


..| 


















l8 


12 


0 


1 


1 


2 


BISHOP OF DURHAM 






20 


12. 23 


12 


3- 2 


3 




26 8 






3 




9 


0 


0 


1 


S 


4 


9.0 


IOO 


ABBOT OF ST. EDMUND 




1 


22 


8.2 


85 ... 


4.2 


4 




3 .3 4 






5 




7 


6 


0 




1 7 


0 


7.0 


'57 


ABBOT OF PETERBORO' 






4 


2.2 


2j ... 




(1) 




"* 






2 




1 


10 


0 




5 


0 


1. 10 


60 


ABBOT OF RAMSF.Y 


3 




170 


51.15 


02 


10.0 


9i 


■4 


29. H 




1360 


18 




5° 


6 


4 


5 


2 


9 


45- '5 


IOO 


ABBOT OF WESTMINSTER ... 






18 


6.2 


6 




2 




20.0 






1 




5 


0 


0 




»3 




5.0 


IOO 


AUdUJ y)y LriUK.iih.3i 






1 4 


2. 1 


5 ' 


2.1 


I 








106 






3 


0 


0 




4 


6 


3.0 


150 


ABBESS OF BARKING 






4" 


lO. () 


11 


2.0 


2 








400 


8 




8 


0 


0 


1 


O 


0 


S.o 


100 


ST. PAUL, LONDON 






7 


5° 


6 


2.0 


2 








200 






2 


0 


0 




IO 


0 


2.0 


400 


ST. PAUL, BEDFORD 




2 


2 


1 0 


'8 ... 


















0 


'J 


0 




2 


0 






ERNUIN PRESBYTER 








1 ,0 


1 




$ 








4 


1 




0 


10 






2 


0 


0. 10 


200 


EARL EUSTACE 


6 


I 


5° 


'4-34 


40 


















2 1 


7 


0 


1 


9 


8 






WALTER GIFFARD 


9 




S5 


39°1 


55 


















2* 


' 


4 


1 


18 


2 






WILLIAM DE WARENNE ... 




-4 


'5 


9-3i 


14? - 




4. 








IOO 


2 




9 


2 


0 




>9 


8 


2.2 


87 


WILLIAM DE OW 


2 


5 


9> 


26.3J 


34 


4.0 


4! 








100 


4 




2S 


1 


O 


2 


»3 


7 


10. 10 


I I 2 


MILES CRISPIN 






37 


.s-m 


3' 


IO 


50 


8 


' 


40.0 




2< K) 


0 I, 


t. 




24 


10 


O 




10 


9 


24.0 




ERNULF DE HESDING 






80 




30 


IO 




7 








300 


3° 




25 


2 


0 


i 


1 1 


2 


25.2 


IOO 


EV'DO DAPIFER 


9 


1 1 


171 




658 ... 


21 1 


1 ' 


5 


9O.U 


IOO 


400 


33 




51 


1 


O 


7 


4 


.> 


32.10 


,67 


WILLTAM EEVEREL 


i 


1 


"9 


10. 1 


8| ... 










«•■■ 








6 


1 


4 




0 


6 




HUOn DE HhAULllAMr 


3° 


24 


528 


I73-3J. 


215J 


2I.O 


39 


1 1 


2 43 4 


goo 


1630 


100 


4't 




169 


17 


6 


17 


, 


7 


85.12 


'5« 


NICEL D'ALBINI 


->4 


i 


282 


I06. 2$ 


1 36 


7. j A 


1 )j 


1 


6 < 1 


'" 


850 


3-0 


20 




Si 


>3 


0 


10 


3 


2 


20.0 


165 


WILLIAM SPECH 


10 


2 


1 60 


62. 2 J 


60| ... 


<7-3 


9t 


.ii 


66.0 


21H) 


220 


*5l 




47 


14 


0 


6 


5 


1 


26.10 


.36 


ROBERT DE TODENI 


5 




4' 


12.1 


iS{ 
















10 


0 


0 


1 


4 


6 




GILBERT DE GAND 




10 


I O.O 




5.0 


4 














5 


1 < 1 


0 


1 


0 


0 


5.10 


1,» 


ROBERT DE OILGI 


i 


2 


7 


°3 


3 . ••■ 


















2 


10 


0 




1 


6 




RANULF BRO. OF ILGER ... 


X 




>4 


5-0 


6 


















3 


0 


0 




10 


0 






ROBERT FAFITON. 






10 


5° 


6 


2.0 


2 








50 






3 


0 


0 




10 


0 


30 


IOO 


ALURED DE LINCOLN. 


i 




10 


P 


4 
















2 


0 


0 




6 


< 






WALTER FLEMING. 


lO 


1 


•59 


4 1 - ' 3 


t'll 


(. 1 


7 


3 


°34 


200 


76 


23J 


2.0 


50 


3 


0 


■1 


c 


[O 


22.0 


1 10 


WALTER BRO. OF SEIER ... 


I 




49 


14.0 


20 


4.0 


1 








300 


8 




'4 


0 


0 


1 


8 


0 


6.0 


60 


HUGH FLEMING 




1 


20 


4.1J 


t-'l ... 


0.2 


1 














i 


10 


0 




8 


8 


t " 


I2 5 


HUGH PINCERNA 






6 


3-° 


4 


1.0 


2 








200 


1 




2 


1 


0 




6 


0 


2. 1 


78 


SIGAR DE CTOCMES 






20 


2.0 


5 


2 


2.0 


2 








60 






4 


0 


0 




4 


0 


4.0 


'33 


GUNFR1D DF. CIOCHES 


1 




3 


'■3 


3 


















1 


0 


0 




3 


6 




RICHARD S. OF E. GILBERT 


I 






2.1* 


I 


















0 


1 1 






4 


<> 






RICHARD PUNGIANT 


I 




21 


lo. I 


IO 


4-> 


3 








60 






9 


10 


0 


1 


O 


C 


8.0 


■3! 


WILLIAM CAMERARIUS 


I 




1 2 


S.i 


7l •■ 


3 3 


2 


1 


3-0 




20 


4 




3 


10 


0 




1<> 


6 


3 5 


1 1 ^ 1 


WILLIAM LOVET 






20 


10.0 


12 


4.0 


4 


3 


140 




100 


10 




4 


10 


0 




0 


0 


4.10 


10S 


WILLIAM 






6 


J.O 


2| ... 




2 










1 




2 


0 


0 




4 


0 


2.0 


200 


HENRY S. OF AZOR . ... 






2 


1.0 






1 










t 




O 


1 < . 


0 




2 


0 


0. 10 


1 CO 


OSBERN S. OF RICHARD ... 


4 






1 2i 
- 2 3 


3? 




















7 






5 


3 






OSBERN S. OF WALTER 






1 1 


3.0 


3 




2 










1 






0 


0 




1. 


O 


3.0 


150 


OSBERN PISCATOR 






9 


i-3i 


3 




2 


1 


1.4 




10 


A 
61 




2 


(. 


0 




3 


9 


2.6 


180 


TURSTIN CAMERARIUS ... 






'3 


6.2J 


7 


3-'"i 


.3 








20 




5 


0 


0 




'3 


4 


5.0 


166 


GILBERT S. OF SALOMON... 






21 


11.2 


12 


9.0 


6 








200 


10. 0 






1 1 


0 


0 


1 


3 




1 1 .0 


70 


ALBERT OF LORRAINE ... 








23.0H 




3° 


4.0 


9 




160 




590 


18 




2 1 


10 


0 


2 


6 


(1 


21.10 


>5 2 


DAVID DE ARGENTOIN ... 






4 


1 .0 






0 












0 


10 


0 




2 


0 


0.10 


5° 


RALF DE INSULA 






3* 


16.1J 


23 


5-2 


' S 


2 


47.0 






1 5 




3 1 


0 




1 


12 


9 


31.0 


182 


GOZELIN BR1TO 






12 


10. 0 


SJ ... 


3-o 


31 


1 


16.0 




IOO 


6 




3 


10 


0 




0 




3.10 


75 


COUNTESS JUDITH 


22 


15 


-74 




■■81 ... 


6.2J 


9 


2 


10. 0 




204 


14 




83 


if, 


6 


S 


1 1 


! 


36.5 


150 


ADELIZ DE GRENTMESNTL. 


2 




5S 


18.1 


20J 


5.0 


*l 


1 


30.0 




22 


'"J 




17 


6 


0 


1 


16 


6 


IO.6 


112 


AZELINA TA1I.LFBOIS 


9 


3 


bb 


32.0 


3 2f ... 


6.1 


5 


j 


18.0 




I04 


3-0 


7 




2.S 


3 


0 


3 


4 


0 


I5.0 


106 


BURGESSES OF BEDFORD... 


2 


2 


3 


2.2,? 5 


2| 




















3 


0 




5 


3 




? KING'S SERVICE 




5 


i 


'•3i 


1 J 


















O 


14 


0 




3 


7 






KING'S SERVICE 


8 


33 


26 


19.05 


2o;s 


















IO 


'5 


0 




8 


3 






Column i 
















1 














I VI 








XIX 





TABLE VI : SUMMARY OF PRIMARY TENANCIES, 1086 





































1 




Villans 
and 


bordm s 
serfs 






Team- 


and] 




Vi 


let 




Danegclc 


at j/- 






































e = 


































number 




b.v. 


p.c. 


number 


p.c. 


ii. 


s. 


d. 




Ii. 


s. 


d. 


Column 1 




Hi 


iv 




vi 




viii 














iii 




Bedford Town 










I.O 




















O 


Royal Land .. 


3 




339 


9-7 


95 .0 


7.8 


1725 


IO,8 




0 


0 


7-7 


9 


IO 


O 


Church Land 


21 


57 


591 


17.0 


1*163™ 


1 6. 1 


247? 


'5-6 


194 


6 


0 


16.2 


■9 


'3 


0 


Baron Land 


■51 


Q4 


2508 


72.3 


8 88.3JJ 


73-3 


1 136 


71 8 


824 


3 


4 


73-2 


88 


'7 


IO 


Burgess Land 


2 


2 


3 




"A 


0.1 


2? 


01 


1 


3 


0 






5 


3 


King's service 


8 


38 


=7 


0.7 


20.3? 


1.6 


"A 


i-3 


11 


9 


0 


1.6 


2 


1 


10 


Tottcmhoe 










5° 


0.4 
















10 


0 


Total 


185 


191 


346S 


997 


12 10.13 j 


99-3 


■58o|i 


99.6 


1033 


I 


1 


98.7 


121 


0 


8 


Column i 














viii 






c 













TABLE VII : SYNTHESIS OF ESTATE!) OF SUB-TENANTS, 1086 









Estate 
















Uniihbtenan't 


VlLL 


o 

l/l 

c in 

= T3 


bo 

X 


•a 

ti 

s 


c 
E 






> C 


h. v. 


o 


Q 



Mills 


Woou 


Meadow 


Valet 


















1 




Texaxt 


Number 


s. d. 




! '% 

1 1 s. d. 




V 

s. d. 


i "3 

li. s. 


@ 

s. d. 


IN 
ClIlEP 



Acaid de I»ri 


Aspley Guise, 13S 


25 


10.0 


12 


2 


Adclulf cam. of Bp. Odo ... 


1 otternhoc, 2G5 








Alruar 


Sharnbrook, 352 




0.0} 


"t 


O 


Alric (T.R.E.) 


Henlow, 354 




0. 1 




(i) 


Alric 


Southill, 247 




O.I 


i 


(t) 


Alric (T.R.E.) 


Stanford, 369 




o.oj 


i's 


1 ff 


Alnc VVintremelc (T.R.E.)... 


Goldington, 36S 




0.2 


i 


(t) 


Alutic presbyter 


Riseley, 14b 


4 


0.2 


1 


Is) 


Alwin 


Sutton, log 


1 


°-3 


1 


l»l 


Alwin 


Sutton, 31^ 


3 


1.0 


1 




Alwin 


Sutton, 363 




o.i* 






Alwin (T.R.E.) 


Sutton, }6s 


3 


I .O 


M 


I 


Alwin 


Beeston, 371 


2 


0. i£ 


s 




Alwin 


Clifton, 329 




1 .0 


t 


(1) 


Alwin presbyter (T.R.E.) ... 


Turvey, 379 




0.03 


i 


(?) 


Alwin reeve 


Tempsford, 360 


3 


1 .ol 


I 


(■) 


Alwin, King's reeve 


Edvtorth, 361 


2 


2.2 


2 


a) 


Alwin, King's reeve 


Holme, jij2 


2 


1.2 


ii 


(0 


Alwold 


Rushdcn, 35 




0.2 


B 


5 


Ambrose 


Tillsworth, 120 


19 


10. 0 


s 


I 


Anschetil presbyter 


Great Harford, ibo 


ro 


1.2 


2 




Ansfrid, ( anon 


Biddenham, 66 




". 1 


i 


(«') 


Ansgot of Rochester 


Evershult, 11 


5 


1 .0 


2 


(1) 


Ansgot of Rochester 


Milton Brian, 12 


15 


4.0 


4 


I 



5° 



Richard and 



Baldric 

basset, see 
William. 

Bedford, Canons of 

Bernard 
( Bernard 
[ Bernard 

Blossevilc, see Gilbert. 

Bolebec, see Hugh. 

Branting 

Brodo (T.R.E.) 

Broilg, see Osbert. 

Burnard 

Caron, see William. 
Chelbert (also T.R.E.) 
Chetel 

Crispin, see Milo. 



Froissart 
Fulbert 
Fulcher 
Fulcher 
Fulcher 
Fulcher 
Fulcher 



see William. 



parisiacensis 
parisiacensis 
parisiacensis 
de parisio ... 
[de parisio] 



/ Geoffrey de Traillgi 
^ Geoffrey de Tralgi 
Germund (rear) 
Gilbert de Blossevile 
Gilbert [s. of Salomon] 
Gleu 
/ Godfrey 
Godfrey 



Studliam, 224 



see St Paul. 



Cople, 174 
Ey worth, 33S 

Arlescy. 97 



Carlton, 366 
Carlton, 198 



Go 



Carlton, 199 


5 


..oi 


>i 


Astwick, 166 


S 


I . I 


2f 


Henlow, 343 


3 


I 0 


1 



1 r.o 

23 6.0J 



5 °-3i 



■ (0 



1 (') 
■ (■) 



(■) 



Domnic 


Blunham, 113 




O. t 


I 


(?) 


Ederic (T.R.E.) 


Sutton, 321 




0.2 


s 


(1) 


Edward 


Hinwick, 351 




0.2 


s 


(?) 


r Elstow, Abbess of 


Moulded, 294 


0 


5-«i 


s 


2 


Elstow, Abbess of 


Wilshamstead, 296 


»3 


30 


6 


2 


| Elstow, Abbess of 


Elstow, 297 


2X 


3-2 


7 


2 


Engeler 


Stondon, 346 


5 


2.2 


=t 


2 


Erfast 


Shelton (Kedb.), 184 


4 


I.O 


I 


(>) 


Erfast 


Marston, 186 


2>> 


8.oj 


U) 


3 


Erfast 


Henlow, 207 


'3 


4-3 


58 


2 


Erfast 


Arlesey, 20S 




o-3i 


I 


(■) 


Ernald 


Houghton Conquest, 331 


21 


4 2 


6 


2 


Emuin presbyter 


Biddenham, 39 


I 


1 . r 


I 

>i 


(f) 


Emulf de Arde 


Bromham, 68 




1 2 


Ernulf de Arde 


Stevington, 6g 


2 3 


3° 


24 


I 


Ernulf de Arde 


Pavenham, 71 


2 


2.2 


3 


O 


Ernulf de Arde 


Turvey, 72 


2 


1 0 


2 


I 


Ernulf de Arde 


Odell, 73 


12 


4.2} 




I 


Eudo dapifer 


Wyboston, 55 




0.15 






Eudo dapifer (mesne) 


Lit. Barford, 56 


16 


5-° 


5 





Campton, 98 




0.2 


s 




Stratton, Si 


6 


t.l* 


2 


I 


In Biggies. Hundr., 203 ... 


! 


0.2 




(0 


Kolme, 204 


3 


i.o\ 


2 


(2) 


Stratton, 310 


6 


0-3i 


2 




Kolme, 311 


1 


0.2 


1 


It) 


Yielden, 22 


30 


to.o 


■5 


4 


In Willey Hand., 28 


23 


4.0 


5 


2 


Cudsand, 82 


5 


3 2 


3 


1 


Harrold, 306 


10 


100 


16 


1 


Felmersham, 304 ... 


6 


3-2 


3 


1 


Wymlngton. 232 


10 


3° 


4 




Dean, 36 


10 


2.0l 


3l 


2 


Riseley, 38 


2 


l.O 


T 


to 


ii 


iii 









5° 
3<» 



3° 
24.0 



25.0 



1 00 

6o 



40 

JOO 



225 



36.8 200 
10.0 



4" 

200 



8.0 


l60 


60.O 


0.2 


40 


O.9 


0.2 


IOO 


1.6 


0.5 


1 66 


1.6 






1 > 4 


0.5 


IOO 


3° 


°s 


IOO 


30 


0.6 


200 


4.6 


0.8 




6.0 


0.4 


IOO 


23 


i 0 


IOO 


6.0 


( 1 . i 


2 S 


2-3 


0.5 


100 


6.0 


°-3 






1 o 


100 


1. 10 


1 .10 


IOO 


■S-o 


1 .0 


IOO 


9.0 


°S 


] DO 


3-° 


6.0 


15° 


60.0 


2.0 


IOO 


9.0 


°-3 




I 6 


1 o 




6.0 


4.0 


IOO 


24.0 


4 0 


200 


36.0 


2. 


2i.'0 


o-g 


I O 






1 3 


OO 


6 0 


0.10 


IOO 


6 0 




00 


6 0 


7.0 


IOO 


37° 


0. 10 


175 


5-3 




200 


8.0 


0.2 


66 


1.6 


0.5 


IOO 


3-o 


o-S 


ICO 


3-o 


3° 


75 


3*-3 


7.6 


324 


18.0 


5.0 


250 


21 .0 


3° 


ISO 


.5 0 




I 33 


6.0 


7.0 


14 j 


48.9 


5. 10 


*37 


28 6 


0.17 




S-° 


4.0 


1 (3 


27.0 






T ft 
7° 




5° 


'1 0 


14 


70 


18.0 


t-S 


62 


15.0 


0. 10 


50 


6.0 


30 


60 


27.6 


O.I} 




23 


4.0 


! 33 


30.0 


°S 


100 


30 


1.8 


IOO 


8-3 


0.7 


70 


3-o 


1.0 


200 


6.9 


0.8 


IOO 


5-3 


°-7 


IOO 


3-0 


9.0 


180 


60.0 


S-o 


IOO 


24.0 


2.0 


200 


21.0 


6.0 


37 


60.0 


30 


60 


21.0 


2.0 


80 


18.0 


2.0 


■33 


12.9 


O.IO 


100 


6.0 


siv 


IV 





Hugh de lieauchamp. 

? King's service. 
? King's service. 
Walter Fleming, 
King's service. 
King's service. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Eudo dapifer. 
Countess J udith. 
King's service. 
King's service. 
King's service. 
Countess Judith. 
King's service. 
King's service. 
King's service. 
King's service. 
Bishop of Coutances. 
William Pcvcrel. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
St. Raul, Bedford. 
Bp. of Bayeux. 
Bp. of Bayeux. 



Robert de Todeni. 



Nigel d'Albini. 
Hu^h de Beauchamp. 
Azchna Taillcbois. 



Hugh de Beauchamp. 
/zclina Taillcbois. 

William de Ow, 



King's service. 
Nigel d'Albini. 



Eudo dapifer. 

Countess Judith. 
? King's service. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 
Azclina Taillebois. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Adeliz de Grentmaisnil. 
Bishop of Lincoln. 
Count Eustace. 
Count Eustace. 
Count Eustace. 
Count Eustace. 
Count Eustace. 
Abbot of Ramsey. 
Abbot of Ramsey. 



William de Ow. 
Walter Giffard. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 

Bp. of Coutances. 
Bp of Coutances. 
Walter Giffard. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith 
Alured de Lincoln. 
Bp. of Lincoln. 
Bp. of Lincoln. 



-16 



TABLE VII : SYNTHESIS OF ESTATES OF SUB-TENANTS, 1086 



Undertenant 



Column i 

Godmund (T.R.E.) 

Godwin 

Godwin englishman 
Godwin burgenMs (T.R.E.) 
Godwin Pere de Hedetord 

(T.R.E.) 

Gonfrid 

Gros, see William. 
Herbert, King's reeve 



Herbert, s. of Ivo ... 
Herbert s. of Tvo (mesne) 
Herbert s. of Ivo (mesne) 
Herbert s. of Ivo (mesne) 
Hugh 

Hugh [dc Beauchamp ?] 

Hugh „ 

Hugh „ 

Hugh „ 

Hugh „ 

Hugh „ 

Hugh „ 

Hugh „ 

Hugh „ 

Hugh ., 

Hugh 

Hugh [Fleming?] 

Hugh 

Hugh 

Hugh 

Hugh 

Hugh 

Hugh de Bolebec 
Hugh de Bolebec 
Hugh de Bolebec 
Hugh Hubald 
Hugh Hubald 
Hugh Hubald 
Hugh Hubald 
Hugh n. of Herbt. ... 

8. of Ivo (rear). 
Huuifrey 

Ivo, dap. of H. de Grentm 
Ivo Tarllebuis 
lvri, see Acard. 

Judichel 

Langetot, see Ralf. 
Lant, w. and sons of 
Ledmar (T.R.E.) ... 
Leuric (T.R.E.) 
Levegar (T.R.E.) 
Leviet 

Lewin (T.R.E.) 
Liboret (jorntly) 
Lincoln, Dp. of 
Lincoln, Bp. of 
Lincoln, Bp. of 
Lincoln, Bp. of 
Locels, see William. 

Malet 

Milo Crispin 
Mortuing 



Nigel d'Albini's Concubine 
Nigel de Wast 
Nigel de Wast 
Nigel de Wast 
Nigel de Wast 
Nigel de Wast 
Norman (T.R.E.) 
Norman 



Vili. 



rt 



Estate 




Mills 


j Wood 


Meadow 


j VAi.tr 


§ 




' Hidage 


C 

B 
H 


a 

a 

1 
Q 


i 

j Number 


s d. 5 


1 ^ 


1 \ 
s. d. j 


I 
re 


i 

Q 

s. d. 


j s 

CO 

2 

li. , 


*o 

a*. 


s. d. 


Tenant 

IN 

Chief 



Becston, 353 
Sutton, 320 
Stagsden, 70 
Biddenham, 348 

Dean, 374 
Cople, 172 



Eversholt, Woburp, and 

Potsgtove, 35C 
Stagsden, 15 
Carlton, it) 
Tnrvcy, 17 
Wild en, iS 
Streatley, 21 1 
Stanford, 220 
Houghton Conquest, 295 
Bolnhurst. 299 
Bromham, 302 
Stagsden, 303 
Southill, 324 
Cardington, 32G ... 
Cople, 327 
Radwell, 305 
Sharnbrook 307 
Pot ton, 300 
Podington, 237 
Turvey, 235 
Thurleigh, 240 
Astwick, 244 
Henlow, 248 
Silsoe, 250 
Woburn, 7$ 
Mars ton, 77 
Maulden, 78 
Staughton, 270 
Ri.se.ley, 271 

Hlvendon, 273 
Wilden, iS 

Sharnbrook, 33 

Milton Ernest, 333 

Goldmgton, 40 



Wyboston, 337 



Wymington, 367 
Astwick, 168 
Thurleigh, 100 
Sutton, 316 
Thurleigh, 153 
Clifton, 57 
Cople, 176 
Bedford, 1 
Leigh ton Ch., 3 
Bedford Ch., 44 
Leighton Ch.. 45 



Rusbden, 121 
Oakley, 300 
Holme, 165 

Silsoe, iq4 
Millbrook, 187 
Ampthill. 1S8 

Broom, 189 
Radwell, 200 
Turvey, 201 
Beeston, 115 
Cople, 173 



Hi 


iv 


v 


vi 




0. 3 


a 


(J) 




°-3 


1 






0 1 




J 




I -OJ 




{ 1 J 




0 o l 






"2* 


l ,1 j 


1 


1 1 ) 


I 


2.1 






1 6 


3-3 


4 






1.1 


>3 






1.0 


1 




»3 


5° 


1 6 






o.o§ 


i 






1.0 


1 


(0 


2 


0.2 


1 


(«) 


2 


0.2 


1 


(I) 




2.0 


2 


(2) 


4 


1 0 


1 


(1) 


? 


1 .0 


2 


U) 


18 


J.lJ 


4 


(4) 




0. 1 






3 


2.2\ 




\ ' 6 » 


2 


°-3 


l 


(0 


I 


o.oj 


1 


(l) 


■5 


'■3 


Si 


2 


9 


1.0 


2 




23 


3.0 




2 


1 


0. 1 


§ 


(1) 


10 


3-3 






1 8 


4.0 


10 


2 


19 


10 U 


*4 


2 


1 1 


■•3* 


3 


I 


5 


3.0 


4 


2 


1 


0.25 


1 


(1) 


1 


0.2 


3 






0 1 


i 






1 . 1 


'1 




1 J 


5.0 


10 


0 










9 


3 1 


4 




2 


0 2 


J 


(1) 


3 


1.1) 


1 


(«) 




°-3 


1 




3 


0.2 


1 


* 

(i) 




O.I 


1 


1 




0.2 


1 


(1) 


5 


* 


2 


(2) 






4 

8 


l e 1 




0.2J 


1 


(8) 




1 .0 






Z2 


4.0 


3 


I 




0.1 


i 


(1) 


3 


1 0 




C) 




O.I 


3k 


(I) 


6 


2.0 


4 


1 


6 


5.0 


6 


2 


9 


5° 


S 


2 


•4 




5 


(5) 


'5 


7.14 


S 




5 


I.O* 


■1 


(•I) 


6 


4.0 


4 






1 .0 




(2) 



13.0 

J4 o 
2.2 



40 

60 



4" 
15,, 



loo 

1 G. 1 

300 

5° 



30 
4" 



If 

6 
6 
3 
t 



5° 
100 
300 

30 



iiv 


»v 


Xvl 


0.5 


100 


4.6 


°-3 


5° 


A 6 

4- u 






1.6 


0. 10 


100 


f j 4 


0 1 


100 


0.9 


0 10 






0.6 


3° 


I3.6 


7.0 


77 


22.6 


1 .6^ 


88 


7.6 


1.0 


5° 


6.0 


9.0 


75 


30-0 


0.2 


1 <>> | 


1.0 


0.15 


75 


6.0 


0. 10 


100 


30 


O- 10 


200 


3° 


1.0 


200 


1 2.0 


0. 10 


100 


6.0 


l.IO 


75 


6.0 


2.0 


200 


20.0 


0.2} 


1 00 


1.6 




200 


15.9 


0. 10 


200 


A <> 


o-5 


100 


0.(> 


4.10 


1 80 


10.6 


1 .10 


300 


6.0 


s •> 


166 


jS.o 


0.16 


100 


1 b 


3° 


'5° 


21.0 


8.0 


1 fx > 


24.0 


5° 


4i 


60.0 


2. 10 


250 


1 '-3 


2.10 


IOO 


18,0 


0.10 


100 


! y 


o.s 


!UO 


J.O 


0.2 


JUO 


1.6 


O.IO 


100 


7.6 


9.0 


75 


}0 0 


0 6 


60 


3-° 


30 


100 


19.6 


0.6 


100 


3-0 






8.3 


03 




4 0 


1.0 


IIV) 


3° 


0.10 


100 


1 6 


o-5 


5° 


3° 


1.10 


200 


3° 


0. 10 


100 


6.0 


0.5 


100 


3 9 






Co 


4.0 




24.0 


5.0 






4.0 






0.1 5 


1 cx-j 


1.6 


0. ro 


III.) 


6.0 


°-3 




1.6 


1. 10 


100 


120 


3° 


200 


30 0 


4.0 


200 


30.0 


2.0 




30.0 


4.0 


100 


44 , 


0.13 


100 


6.9 


2.0 


100 


24 0 


0.6 


100 


6.0 



xvil 

? King's service. 
Countess Judith. 
Count Eustace. 
Burgesses of Bedford 

King's service. 
Hugh de Beauchamp, 



King's service. 
Bp of Bayeux. 
Bp. of Bavcux. 
Bp. of Bayeux. 
Bp. of Bayeux. 
William Spech. 
William Spech. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 
Walter Fleming. 
Walter Fleming. 
Walter Fleming. 
Walter Fleming. 
Walter Fleming. 
Walter bro. of Seier. 
Walter Giffard. 
Walter Giffard. 
Waltci Giffard. 
Osbcro. s. ol Richard. 
Osbcrn s. of Kichaul. 
Osbern s. ot Richard. 
Osbern s. of Richard. 
Bp. of Bayeux. 

Bp. of Coutances. 

Adeliz de Grentmaisnil. 
Bp. of Lincoln. 



Azelina Taillebois. 



King's service. 
Hugh de Beauchamp 
Milo Crispin. 
Countess Judith. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Abb. of Ramsey. 
Hugh de Beauchamp 



The King. 



William Peverel. 
Countess Judith. 
Hugh de Beauchamp 

Nigel d'Albini. 

Nigel d'Albmi. 

Nigel d'Albini. 

Nigel d'Albini. 

Nigel d'Albini. 

Nigel d'Albini. 

Eudo dapifer. 

Hugh de Beauchamp 



Ordui (T.R.E.) 
Ordui (T.R.E.) 
Ordui de Bedeford 
Ordui burgensis (T.R.E.) 

Column i 



Stanford, 370 
Westcotts, 372 
Biddenham, 48 
Biddenham, 349 



o.r 
0.2 
l.oj 



(2) 
I 
(J) 
(<) 



1 


0.4 


100 


1 4 




0.5 


11HJ 


1.6 


i 


0.6 


too 


30 


I 


O.I" 


100 


7.0 



King's service. 
King's service. 
Abb. of St. Edmund 
Burgesses of Bedford- 



SYNTHESIS OF ESTATES OH SUB-TEN AN .'3, 1086 



47 



Undertenant 



VlLL 



Column i 

sbert de Broilg 

sbern de Broilg 

sbern 

sbern f_s. of Walter] (rear 

isbern 

sbert 

sbert 

sbert 

sgar de Bedcford (T.R.E. 

|siet (T.R.E.) 

siet, King's reeve 
Ismund, Canon 

Iris, see Eulcber. 
assaquam, see Ralf. 

irot 

irot 

irot 

irot 

alf 

all 

alf de Langetot 

alf de Langetut 

alf de Langetot (mesne) .. 

alf de Langetot 

alf Passaquam 

alf (jointly) 

anulf bro. of Uger 
aynald 

fainald 

layaald 

ticbard 

fichard Basset 

tichard Talebot 
fobert s. of Rozeliu 
obert 

:it s. of Nigel 
obert 

obert 

obert 

obert 

.obert 

Robert (jointly) 

Rochester, see Ansgot. 

foger 

Roger 

Roger (jointly) 

Roger presbyter (jointly) .. 

Roger s. of Teodric 

Holland 

Ros, see Serlo. 
&iwalo 
lualon 
tualon 

luallon (jointly) 

Baiet (T.R.E.) 

St. Edmund, Abb. of 
St. Neot, Prior of (T.R.E.).. 
St. Neot, Prior of (T.R.E.).. 
fit. Nicholas of Angers 

Bt. Paul, Bedford 

Salomon presbyter 

Serlo de Ros 

Serlo de Ros 

Serlo de Ros (jointly) 

itefan 

iueting (jointly) 



Taillebois, see Ivo. 
"aissel, see Wimund. 
alebot, see Richard, 
i'edric 
1'edbald 
Tetbald 
Tetbaud 
Torch il 

Tovi presbyter 
Trailli, see Geoffrey, 
l'urbert 

Turchil (T.R.E.) 



Bletsoe, 14S 

Sharnbrook, 152 
Bletsoe, 501 
Little Barford, 56 
In Barford Hund.. 
Totternhoe, 233 
Wymington, 23S 
Wymington, 239 
Biddenham. 347 
Bromharn, 378 
In Willey Hund., 
Biddenham, 65 



30S 



380 



Bceston, 1 1 6 
Northill, 117 
Streatley, 196 
Wybostou, 202 

Northill, 118 
Evcrsholt, 140 

Dunton, 79 
ftlillo, 80 
Cudsand, 82 
Campion, 83 
Holcote, 209 
Biddcnhani, 212 
Everton, 323 
Cople, 171 
Milton Ernest, 234 
Thurleigh, 241 
Goldington, 163 
Thurleigh, 228 
Battlesden, 76 
Sharnbrook, 74 
Sharnbrook, 253 
Pavenhani, 230 
Cople, 170 
Cople, 175 
Battlesden, 2C4 
Ternpsford, 261 
Sutton, 317 
Sutton, 318 

Stanford, 169 
Stanford, 340 
Pulloxhill, 195 
Cople, 176 
GoMington, 162 
Beeston, 114 

Chawston, 155 
Roxton, 156 
Great Barford, 157 
Pulloxhill, 195 

Hanefeld, 375 
Blunham, 32S 
Sudbury, 258 
Wyboston, 259 
Henlow, 207 
Harrov.den, 325 
Thurleigh, 229 
Biddenham, 149 
Bromham, 150 
Biddenham, 212 
Shelton (Redb.), 
Sutton, 318 



Staughton, 90 
Eaton Socon, 103 
Hinwick, 257 
tit. Barford, 161 
Sutton, 314 
Bolnhurst, 13 

Sutton, 319 
Wymington, 381 



Estate 











1 1 


2.2 


4 






0.lj 


§ 




12 


2.2 


4 


1 


10 


5.O 


5 


I 


6 


2-3 


3 


2 


28 


10. 0 


10 


J 


'3 


4.0 


5 


3 




0.2 


4 


0 




O.I 


a 






°' 1 3 


1 


(o 




0.2 


i 


(1) 


2 


O.3 


1 


(') 




I O 


J 


(1) 


4 


12 




(1) 




4-'$ 


0 


2 


18 


9* 1 


q 


4 


8 


1.2 


2 




'9 


7.2 


8 


2 


6 


< 3 


2 








5 


(si 


5 


3- 2 


3 




4 


4.2-i 


4 


I 


14 


4 0 


3 


I 


id 


3 .4 


4 


2 


9 


5° 


5 


(2) 


2 


1.1 


1 


(0 


3 


2.0 


3 


I 


4 


0.2 


2 


I 


6 


3-° 


3 


2 


6 


0.2 


2 


(0 


17 


[8.0] 


8 




1 1 


2.0 


4 


2 




0.2J 


I 


(0 




50 


6 




8 


4.0 


4 


2 




°-3 


1 


I 




0.2 


i 




4 


2.0 


2 


I 


3 


°-3i 


1 


1 


1 


0.14 


i 


(f) 


5 


1 .0 




('3) 


3 


2.0 


2 


I 


26 


10.0 


»3 


2 




0.2$ 


1 


(1) 


5 


2.0 


J 


2 


7 


3° 


3 




2 


1 0 


1 




3 


1 , 1 


1 




1 1 


3° 


4 


3 


2(1 




1 3 






0. 1 


I 


(J) 




0 2 


1 


(t) 




0 1 








2.0i 


"t 


0 




°-3 








3-° 


3 




1 


0.1 


1 


(l) 


2 


x.o 


1 


(') 


2- 


6.0 


6 


2 


10 


3 .2j 


4 


2 


2 


0.2 


9 


(1) 


1 


o.ii 


1 


(J) 




o.ii 


1 


I 


3 


'3 


3 


I 


10 


1 3i 


3 


2 


4 


1.2 


«l 


(■) 


2 


0.2 


I 


(0 


4 


2.0 


2 


1 




1 .0 


I 


(1) 











e 


Mills 


Wood 


Meadow 


Valet 






















D 

c 




3 

re 












0 
6 














Q 




a 






1 Q 




s. d. 




1J5 


s. d. 


H 


s. d. 


li. s, 





^ 10. o 
I 12.0 



5° 
13-4 



20.0 
10 o 



© i 



Tenant 

in 
Chief 













100 


1 


30 


IOO 


15.0 






0.2 


IOO 


2 -3 


1 00 




3.0 


IOO 


15.0 




2 


4.0 


J 33 


30.0 


200 


1 


2.0 


400 


16.6 


150 


4 


S.o 


So 


60.0 




2 


3.0 


IOO 


24.0 






0.2 


5° 


30 






0.2 


100 


1.6 




'* 


O.IO 




2.6 






0.3 


100 


3 0 




1 


O.IO 


IOO 


4.6 






0 10 


200 


6.0 




i* 


10 


200 




20 


3 


4.0 


200 


20.0 




2 


6.0 


'5° 


55 .6 


! 04 ' 


2 


3.0 


>5° 


9.0 


IOO 


8 


5.0 


1 66 


45° 






... 1 .13s 


IOO 


10 ') 






5.0 


100 


30.0 






2.0 


200 


21.0 


40 


4 


3.0 


300 


27.4 


5° 




3.0 


300 


24.0 




4 


2.0 


200 


21 .9 




1 


3.0 


60 


30.0 




1 


O.IO 


200 


7.6 




2 


1 .0 


too 


12.0 






1.0 


200 


3-0 




2 


2.0 


400 


18.0 


3° 




2.0 


IOO 


3-o 


60 


8 


5.0 


IOO 


48.0 


2 


2.0 


100 


12. o 






O.IO 


200 


3 4 




6 


3.0 


75 


30.0 


IOO 


1 


j.O 


300 


12.0 






0.74 


ioo 


4.6 






0.5 


IOO 


3.0 




1 


1 . 10 


'50 


12.0 




1 


0.8 


IOO 


5-3 




1 


0.4 


IOO 


2 -3 


16 


... .j 


... 0.15 


300 


6.0 


30 


2 


3.0 


300 


12.0 


100 


6 


10. 0 


"5 


60.0 




i 


0.5 


I 1 K3 


3-9 




1 


1. 10 


I S° 


12.0 




3 


1. 10 


x 5° 


18.0 


60 


i 


O.IO 


66 


Co 


4 


I 


O.IO 


5° 


7-6 




2 


3.0 


200 


18.0 




6 


10. 0 


125 


60.0 






0.5 


IOO 


t.6 




I 


r.o 


200 


3° 










1.6 


IOO 




O.II 


IOO 


12.9 










4.6 




2 


1 . 10 


150 


iS 0 






O.IO 


IOO 


1.6 






O.IO 


IOO 


6.0 


40 


6 


7.0 


1 40 


36 0 




4 


2.0 


200 


21.9 


I 2 


i 


0.6 


200 


3° 




I 


0.4 


IOO 


2 -3 


-4 


I 


0.10 


IOO 


1. 10 






1.0 


200 


10.6 




I 


2.0 


200 


1 1 .0 




... 1} 


1.4 O.IO 


> 2 5 


9.0 


3° 


i 


O.IO 


IOO 


3.0 




2 


1.0 


IOO 


12.0 






0.5 


IOO 


6.0 













Hugh de Beauchanip. 
Hugh de Beauchanip. 
Countess Judith. 
Eudo fr. Abb. Ramsey. 
Countess Judith. 
Walter Fleming. 
Walter Fleming. 
Walter Fleming. 
Burgesses of Bedford. 
King's service. 
King's service. 
St. Paul. Bedford, 



Eudo dapifer. 

Eudo dapifer. 

Nigel d'Albiui. 

Nigel d'Albini. 

Eudo dapifer. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Walter Giffard. 
Walter Giffard. 
Walter Giftard. 
Walter Giffard. 
William Spech. 
William Spech. 
Countess Juclith. 
Hugh de Beauchanip. 
Walter Fleming. 
Walter Fleming. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Robert d'Oilli. 
Walter Giffard. 
Count Eustace. 
Hugh Fleming. 
Kanulf bro. of Ilger. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
William came ran us. 
Richard Pungiaat. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 

Hugh de Beauchamp 
Azelina Taillebois. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Eudo dapifer. 

Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Nigel d'Albini. 

King's service. 
Countess Judith. 
Richard s. of E. Gilbert. 
Richard s. of E. Gilbert. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Countess Judith. 
Robert d'Oilli. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
William Spech. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Countess Judith. 



William de Warenne. 

Gunfrid de Cioches. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Countess Judith. 
Bp. of Bayeux. 

Countess Judith. 
KiDg's service. 

xvii 



48 



TABLE VII : SYNTHESIS OF ESTATES OF SUB-TENANTS, 1086 









Estate 






Mills 


Wood 


Meadow 


Vai.et 










•c 






























Undertenant 


Vill 


1^ 

> « 


4) 
M 

■a 

h. V. 


j 1 eam-lands 


Demesne tea 


Number 


V 

p 

s. d, 


■3 


c 
CO 


1 

Q 
s. d 


Teams 


s. d. 


o 

CO 

o 
li. s. 


a 
o 

0 
6°- 


c 

a 

© 

s. d. 


Tenant 

IN 

Chief 



Column i 


ii 










Turgis 


Husbornc Crawley, 179... 


9 


5° 


5 
1 


2 


Turgis 


In Mansh. Flund., 180 ... 


2 


I .O 


(0 


Turgis 


Tingnth, 1S1 


6 


2.1 


3 




Turgis 


Priestley, 1S2 


5 


I 2 


2 




Turgis 


Milton Ernest, 197 


7 


2.3 


4 


Turgis englishman ... 


Nharubrook, 31 


1 


0.2 




(0 


Turgot, and mother 


In Stoddcn Hund., 376 ... 


3 


0.2 




(') 


Turstin 


Cainhoe, 336 


4 


I.O 


2 


1 


Turstia 


Hinwick, 30 


4 


1.2 


2 


I 



1 50 
40 



4 

100 



1. 10 


75 


3O.O 


0 15 


»5° 


6.0 


2.0 


133 


136 


1.0 


100 


9.0 


1 . 10 


100 


16.6 


0.6 


200 


3° 


O.IO 


100 


3° 


1.0 


200 


b 0 


I 0 




9.0 



SVlt 

Nigel d'Albini. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Nigel d'Albini. 
Bishop of Coutances. 
King's service. 
Azelina Ta:llebois. 
Bp. of Coutances. 



Ulmar burpensis (T.R.E.) 
Ulsi, King's prebendary 
Uluiic 

(Walter monachus 
Walter 
Walter 
Walter 
Walter 
1 Walter [ ? Fleming] 
l Walter [? Fleming] 
Warner 

Wast, see Nigel. 
Wenelinc 
Widrus 

William Basset 
I William camerarius 
\ William camerarius 

William de Carou . 

William de Caron . 

William dc Caron . 

William de Caron . 

William de Carun . 

William de Caron . 

William de Caron . 

William de Caron . 

William de Caron . 
j- W illiam dap. of the Bp. 
( William dap. of the Bp. 
1 William Froissart 
\ William Froissart 

William Gros 
/William de Locels ... 
\ William de Locels ... 
/William s. of Rainald 
{ William s. of Rainward 

Wimund 

Wimund 

Wimund de Taissel ... 
Wimund de Taissel ... 
Wimund (rear) 



NOT NAMED. 



6 Englishmen 

and 
2 Frenchmen 
2 Frenchmen 
2 soldiers 
2 soldiers 
2 soldiers 
2 men of Ctess. J. 
2 socmen 

2 socmen (rear) 
4 socmen 

7 socmen 

3 socmen 

2 socmen 
7 socmen 
11 socmen 

3 socmen 
3 socmen 



i 



FORINSEC LAND. 



Alwin 
Baldric 

Eustace (Sheriff) 

Martel 

Ralf 

William de Warenne 



144 



Biddenham, 350 
Atlesey, 355 
Holme, 96 

Warden, 341 
Chirksand, 345 
Northill, 177 
Goldmgton, 164 
Streatley, 93 
Hinwick, 213 
Wymtngton, 214 
Turvey, 151 

Astwick, 167 
Henlow, 342 
Milton Ernest, 147 
Luton Ch., 5 
Houghton Regis Ch 
Staughton, 37 
Tempsford, 41 
Clifton, 42 
Chickvand, 43 
Tempsford, 107 
Soutiull, 110 
Stanford, in 
Clifton, 1 19 
Clifton, 206 
Shtlton (Stod.), 23 
Newton, 27 
Milton Brian 141 
Gravenhurst, 142 
Chawston, 216 
Streatley, 143 
Hicham Gobion 
Steppingley, 210 
Chawston, 215 
Staughton, 145 
Wvboston, 154 
Gt. Harford, 158 
Colmworth, 159 
Turvey, 17 



Riseley, 25 

Southill, 219 
Edworth, 95 

Oakley, 225 
Turvey, 226 
Holme, 312 
Bolnhurst, 14 
Carlton, 16 
Staughton, 24 
Sharnbrook, 32 
Dean, 84 

Miltou Ernest, 99a 
Stanford, 112 
Salpho, 137 
Cudsand, 178 
Chicksand, 344 



Keysoe, n. 
Barworth, a 
Swineshead, j, k 
Polehanger, f 
Swineshead, 1, m 
Pertenhall, g, h 



O Q* 
0.03 
0.3 



(0 



! 


0.2 


8 


0 




1 0 


1 


(') 




0.2 


i 


('.) 


2 


1.0 


I 


(■) 


8 


1.0 


2 


I 




1 .0 


2 


i 




0.3 


I 




5 


1 .0 


2 


1 


3 


0.2 


1 


(-) 


(. 


■■3 


2 


U) 


7 


1.3J 


3 


2 


iS 


5.0 


6 






0.2 


I 


(!) 


4 


0.2J 


1 


(0 




1 . 1 1 


2 




5 


3-°i 


2 


I 




0.2 


i 




'4 


4' 


4 






0.2 


i 


(li 


5 


4 0 


4 


2 




6.2 


4t 


2 




2.0 


'1 


1 


22 


5.0 


6 


2 




O.I 






l 3 


6.0 


6 


3 


1 1 


3.2 


4 




2 


0.2 


1 


(1) 


»3 


4-' 


6 




21 


8.0 


1 1 


4 


id 


5-0 


7 


•i 


'9 


7- 1 


7 




8 


0.2 


3 


(3) 




0.0^ 






-'3 




1 1 


5 


2b 


5.0 


10 


2 




1 .0 


1 


1 



■4 


6.0 


7 


(7) 


22 




7 


4 


15 


7-3* 


8 


3 


'5 


4.0 


8 


3 


1 1 


2. 1 


4l 






O.I 


i 


m 


2 


0.2 




(0 




1.1 


•i 


(■t) 




03 


1 


(o 




3° 


3 


(!) 


6 


2.0 


3 


(3) 












"■"ii 








5.0 


8 


(8) 


X 


2.0 


•I 


(J») 




3 ° 


2 


(') 


X 


O.I 


i 




7 


5° 


3 


2 


X2 


3-2 


4 


(0 


4 


0.2 


1 
1 


X 


0.2 






0. 1 


i 





2 4O.O I20 



2 29.O 50 
2 4OO I50 



26.0 







O.I 


100 


O I 


Burgesses of Bedford. 










O.I 


? King's service. 






0.16 


* 3 i 


4 6 


William de Ow. 


40 


J 


O.IO 


5<-> 


3° 


Azelina Taillebois. 


50 


1 


1.0 


1 00 


U.O 


Azelina Taillebois. 


i 


0.5 


IOO 


30 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 




J 


0.15 


150 


6.0 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 


20 




X.IO 


'5° 


6.0 


William de Ow. 






O.IO 


1 OO 


6.0 


William Spech. 






0.2 


20 


4.0 


William Spech. 






O.IO 


100 


6.0 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 






O.IO 


200 


3-° 


Hugh dc Beauchamp. 




2 


I.IO 


'5° 


10.6 


Azelina Taillebois. 




2 


I.IO 


100 


"■3 


Hugh de BcaiKhamp 


5° 




3.0 




30.0 








O.I2 




3-o 


The King. 


100 




0.15 


J 5° 


3-9 


Bp. of Lincoln. 






3.0 


15° 


8-7 


Bp. of Lincoln. 




2 


1.0 


IOO 


18.9 


Bp. of Lincoln. 






o.i 


UK) 


3-o 


Bp. of Lincoln. 




4 


3.0 


IOO 


25.6 


Eudo dapifer. 




i 


0.3 




3-° 


Eudo dapifer. 


60 


2.0 4 


4.0 


200 


24.0 


Eudo dapifer. 




- 4l 


5.0 


13 5 


39-° 


Kudo dapifer. 




1 


0.15 


T 5° 


1 2.0 


Nigel d'Albmi. 




1 


5.0 


«5 


30.0 


Bp. of Coutiinces. 






O.I 


IOO 


1.6 


Bp. of Coutances. 


40 


6 


6.0 


■5« 


36.0 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 


roo 


4 


3.0 


IOO 


21.0 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 




1 


0.5 


IOO 


3° 


William Spech. 


16 




4.0 


200 


2^6 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 


100 


... 6 


8.0 


IOO 


48.0 


Hu^h de Beauchamp. 


1 00 


7 


4.0 


200 


30.0 


William Spech. 


IO 


7 


60 


150 


43-6 


William Spech. 


4" 




I.IO 


150 


3° 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 






0.2 


1 00 


0.9 


Hugh de Beauchamp 




1 


2.0 


200 


34 0 


Hugh de Beauchamp 


200 




50 


100 


30.0 


Hugh de Beauchamp. 




1.0 


50 


6.0 


Bp. of Bayeux. 


200 


3 


.. 3.12 


IOO 


36.0 


Bp. of Coutances. 


200 


7 


4.10 


I t 2 


3°-9 


William Spech. 




2 


8.0 


80 


47-3 


William de Ow. 



4.0 

2.0 

0.5 

O.IO 

1.6I 

O. IO 

1.4 

I.IO 



1.0 

I.O 



1 00 

66 

IOO 
IOO 

88 

in.) 
IOO 
COO 



IOO 

10.) 

IOO 



o Robert dc Todeni. 
6 Robert de Todeni. 
6 Countess Judith, 
o Bp. of Bayeux. 
6 Bp. of Bayeux. 
6 Bp. of Coutances, 
o Bp. of Coutances. 
o William de Warenne. 
9 Miles Crispin. 
4 Eudo (Hugh de Beauchaff. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Azelina Taillebois. 



.. o.ii 

2.0 133 
2.0 

O.IO 100 

0.6 
0.5 



King's service. 
30.0 Robert de Todeni. 

William de Warenne. 
Robert de Oilgi. 
Eustace the Sheriff. 
Bp. of Lincoln. 



TABLE VIII: ESTATES OF SAXON HOLDERS (SOCMEN OMITTED) 
(The entries under each name arc not in strict alphabetical order.) 



Saxon Holder. 



Hidage. 
h. v. 



Successor. 



Ailmar, see Almar 

Albert of Lorraine (T.R.W.) ... 

(/Elfstan or Ealhstan) 

Alestan de Boscumbe, King's 
thane 

Alestan de Boscumbe 

Alestan de Boscumbe 

Alestan, King's thane: God- 
win, man of 

Alestan: Codniar, man of 

Alestan de Boscumbe: 2 soc- 
men, men of 

Alestan de Boscumbe : 1 soc- 
man, man of 

Alestan : Alwin, man of 

Alestan 

(^Elfliatd). 
Alfleda (from the King) 

(iEUgar) 
Algar, man of Qu. Edith 
Algar, Earl : Auti house-carl 
of 

Alii, King's thane 
Alii, King's thane 

Alii : Alsi, man and bro. of ... 

( J J Elfma?r or jEthelmasr) 
Almar, man of Anschil 
Almar, man of Aluric of Flit- 
wick 

Almar, man of E. Tosti 
. Almar, man of E. Tosti 
Almar, King's thane 
Almar, man of Ulmar 
Almar, father of 

Almar (Ailmar) de Ow 

(/Etheliic or .Elfric). 
I Alric (also T.R.W.), 
Alric 

Alric (also T.R.W.) 
Alric, King's thane 
Alric, s. of Goding: Suglo, 
man of 

Alric, s. of Coding : Alward, 
man of 

Alric : Alward belrap, man of 
Alric Wintremelc (also T.R.W.) 

(vElfsige or /Ethelsige) 
Alsi, man of Qu. Edith 

Alsi of Bromham, man of Qu. 
Edith 

Alsi, man of Qu. Edith 

Alsi, man of Alii his brother ... 

(.-Elfgifu) 
Alueva, ' man ' of Aschil 

(^Elfric) 
Aluric, King's thane 
Aluric parvus, King's thane 
Aluric parvus : Aluric, man of 
Aluric, man of Aluric parvus... 
Aluric, bedell (jointly) 
Aluric, man of Borred 
Aluric, man of Borred 
Aluric of Flitwick : Almar, 
man of 

(iElfweard) 
Alward Belrap, man of Alric... 
Alward, man of Alric s. of 
Goding 

Alward, man of Bp. Wulwi ... 

(/Elf wine) 
Alwin Deule, man of Kg. Ed- 
ward 

Alwin Deule, man of Kg. Ed- 
ward 
Alwin Deule 

Alwin Deule, man of Bp. of 
Lincoln 

Alwin, man of Earl Harold ... 
Alwin, man of Stori 

Alwin, man of Stori 

.Column i 



Chalgrave, 2S3. 



%.o\ Albert of Lorraine 



Sundon, 91. 


10.0 


William 


de 


Ow. 


Edworth, 95. 


7-3* 


William 


de 


Ow. 


Arlcsey, 97. 


6.o§ 


William 


de 


Ow. 


Streatley, 93. 


1 .0 


William 


de 


Ow. 


Millo, 94. 


0.2 


William 


de 


Ow. 


Edworth, 95. 


1 .2 


William 


de 


Ow. 


Arlesey, 97. 


0.2J 


William 


de 


Ow. 


Campton, 98. 


0.2 


William 


de 


Ow. 


Cople, 173. 


O.I 


Hugh 


de 


Beau 



Bolnhurst, 62. 

Sharnbrook, 286. 

Milton Brian, 141. 
Felmersham, 304. 
Carlton, 366. 

Pavenham, 277. 

Goldington, 163. 

Sfeppingley, 210. 
Wootton. 284. 
Shelton (Redb) 285. 
Bolnhurst, 299. 
Wyboston, 337. 
Sharnbrook, 352. 

Stanford, r6g. 

Henlow, 3S4. 
Southill, 1 10. 
Stanford, 369. 
Woburn, 75. 

Manshead Hun- 
dred, 180. 

Shelton (Redb.) 184. 
Holcotc 209. 
Goldington, 368. 

Bromtiam, 150. 

Biddenham, 149. 

Eaton Bray, ro. 
Pavenliaru, 277. 

Holme, 96. 

Cninhoe, 193. 
Silsoe, 194. 
Streatley, 2ir. 
Streatley, 211. 
Holme, 362. 
Sharnbrook, 33. 
Rushden, 35. 



champ. 

2.1 Abbot of Thorney 
2.o$ Albert of Lorraine 

6,0 William Froissart. 

3.2 Ccuntess Judith. 
0.2% Chelbert (wrong- 
fully). 

2.2 Turstin Chamber- 
lain. 

3.0 Hugh de Beau- 
champ. 

5.0 William Spech. 
10. o Albert of Lorraine 

3.0 Albert of Lorraine 

0.2 Countess Judith. 

1. 1 J Azelina Taillebois. 

o.oi Almar ( ? King's 
service). 

r.o Hugh de Beau- 
champ, 

o. 1 ? King's service, 

o oj Eudo dapifer. 

0.0$ King's service. 

10. o Walter Giffard. 

1.0 Nigel d'Albini. 



z.o Nigel d'Albini. 
4.0 William Spech. 
0.2 King's service. 

6.0 Hugh de Beau- 
champ. 

1.0 Hugh de Beau- 
champ. 
12. 1 Bp. of Bayeux. 

2.2 Turstin 

camerarius. 
0.3 William de Ow. 

4.0 Nigel d'Albini. 

2.0 Nigel d'Albini. 

o.oj William Spech. 

o.o$ William Spech. 

1.2 King's service. 

0.2 Bp. of Coutances. 

0.2 Bp. of Coutances. 



Steppingley, 210. 


5° 


William Spech. 


Hoi cote, 209. 


4.0 


William Spech. 


Shelton (Redb.) 184. 


1 .0 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Turvey, 201. 


i.oi 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Tempsford, 41. 


I. if 


Bp. of Lincoln. 


Clifton, 42. 


3-°4 


Bp. of Lincoln. 


Chicksand, 43. 


0.2. 


Bp. of Lincoln. 


Staughton, 37. 


0.2i 


Bp. of Lincoln. 


Segresdon, 255. 


o.z 


Hugh pincerna. 


Riseley, 271. 


0.2 


Osbern s. of 




Richard. 


Elvendon, 273. 


I.I 


Osbern s. of 




Richard. 



Saxon Hot der. 



Hidage. 
h. v. 



Successor. 



Column 1 

/ Alwin Horim, King's thane... 
I Alwin, King's thane 

Alwin presbyter (also T.R.W.) 
f Alwin, man of Borred 
1 Alwin, man, of Borred 

Alwin Sac, man of Bp. of 
Lincoln 

Alwin, man of Bp. Wulwi ... 

Alwin, bro. of Bp. Wulwi ... 

Alwin, man of Alestan 
/ Alwin, man of Kg. Edward... 
I Alwin, man of Kg. Edward... 

Alwin, socman, (jointly) 

Alwin (T.R.W.) 

(iEthelweald). 
Alwold, man of Kg. Edward 

(jointly) 
Adelold, King's thane 
Alwold, King's thane 
Alwold, King's thane 
Alwold, King's thane 
Alwold, man of Kg. Edward... 
Alwold, King's thane 
Alwold of Stevinton : man of 
Alwold, man of Bp. Wulwi... 

(Anschctil, Anscytel) 
Aschil, King's thane 

Aschil 

Aschil, King's thane 
Aschil, King's thane 
Anschil, King's thane 
Aschil, King's thane 
Aschil, King's thane 
Achi, King's thane 
Aschil, King's thane 
Aschil 

Aschil, King's thane 

Achi, King's thane 

Aschil 

Anschill 
Anschill 

Aschil: Avigi, man of 

Aschil: Alueva, man of 
Aschil: Godwin, man of 

Aschil : 1 socman, man of ... 

Aschil: Oviet, man of 

Aschil : Almar, man of 

Aschill : 1 socman, man of ... 

Anschill: 2 socmen, men of ... 
Anschill: socman (jointly) ... 
Asgar staller -. Edwin, man of 
Auti, house carl of E. Algar... 

I Avigi, man of Aschil 

I Avigi 

I Avigi : Blach, man of 

( Azelin, man of E. Tosti 
\ Azelin, man, of E. Tosti 
fAtser) 
Azor, man of Bored 



Barking, Abbess of (T.R.W.) 
Bedeford, see Godwin, Ordui, 

Osgar, UlmaT 
Belrap, see Alward 

Column i 







Flitton, 231. 


5-o 


Flitwick, 267. 


5-° 


Turvey, 379. 


o.ojj 


Sharnbrook 31. 


0.2 


Newton, 27. 


0. 1 


Goldington, 40. 


0.2 


Thurleigh, 229. 


0.1 


Maulden, 78. 


3-0 


Campton, 98. 


0.2 


Stratton, 310. 


0.3* 


Holme, 31 r. 


0.2 


Battlesdcn, 334.' 


1.2 


Sutton. 365. 


0-3 



Bromham, 68. 
Stevington, 69. 
Pavenliarn, 71. 
Turvey, 72. 
OJell, 73. 
Sharnbrook 74. 
Maulden, 294. 
Turvey, 17. 
Hinwick, 252. 



Keysoe, 122. 

Riseley, 123. 

Putnoe, 124. 

Chainlialle, 126. 

Putnoe, 127. 

Wellington, 132. 

Stolfold, 133. 

Hawneg, 136. 

Streatley, 143. 

Blctsoe, 148. 

Wyboston, 154. 

Colni worth, 159. 

Cople, 173. 

Henlow, 342. 
HocklifTe, 335. 
Staughton, 87. 

Holme, 96. 
Maulden, 134. 

Streatley 143. 

Staughton, 145. 

Goldington, 163. 

Holme, 165. 

Henlow, 343. 
Battlesden, 334. 
Riscot, 9. 

Milton Brian, 141. 

Staughton 87. 

Staughton, 88. 

Staughton, 89. 

Harrowden, 325. 
Cardington, 326. 

Bolnhurst, 13. 
Lldllngton, 63. 



Robert Fafiton. 
William Lovet. 
Alwin presbyter. 
Bp. of Coutances. 



Bp. of Lincoln. 
Robert d'Oilli. 
Waller Giffard. 
William de Ow. 
Countess Judith. 
Countess Judith. 
Azelina Taillebois. 
King's service. 



1.2 Count Eustace. 

3.0 Count Eustace. 

2.2 Count Eustace. 

1.0 Count Eustace. 

4.2§ Count Eustace. 

2.0 Count Eustace. 

5-i£ Countess Judith 

1.0 Bp. of Bayeux. 

1.2 Hugh Fleming. 



Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 
champ. 
4.0 Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
5.0 Hugh de Beau 
champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Azelina Taillebois. 
Azelina Tailleboi 
claimed by H. de 

Beauchainp. 
William de Ow. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Hugh de Beau 

champ. 
Azelina Taillebois 
Azelina Taillebois 
The King. 
Hugh de Beau 
champ. 
William de 

Warenne. 
William de 

Warenne 
William de 

Warenne. 
30 Countess Judith. 
3.1J Countess Judith. 



0.2 Bp. of Bayeux. 



10.0 Abbess of Barking 



so 



TABLE VIII : ESTATES OF SAXON HOLDERS (SOCMEN OMITTED) 



Saxon Holder. 



Hidage. 
b. v. 



(Biaec) 
Blach, man of Avigi 

Bondi the staller 



Burrct 
Burret 
Boned 
Burred 
Borred, 
Bored : 
B or ret : 
Borret : 
Burred . 
Burred : 
Boned : 
Borret : 
Borred : 
Borred : 
Borred : 
Borgred 
Borret : 



(Borgred) 



King's thane 
Azor, man of 

6 socmen, men of 
Uhieva, under 

4 socmen, men of 

6 socmen, men. of 
Alwin, man of 

Alwin, man of 

7 socmen men of 
Aluric, man of 
Aluric, man of 

: Leuric, man of 
Godwin, jnan of 



Staughton, 89. 
Streatlcy 364. 



Knotting, 19. 5 

Melchbourne, 20. 10 

Ylelden, 22. 10 

Riscley, 25. G 

Sharnbrook, 34. o 
Bolnhurst, 13. 

Dean, 21. 4 

Shelton (Stod.) 23. 5 

Staughton 24. o 

Riseley, 25. 4 

Newton, 27. o 

Sharnbrook, 31. o 

Sharnbrook, 32. 3 

Sharnbrook, 33. o 

Rushden, 35. o 

Wymington, 214. o 

Milton Ernest, 333. 3 



Boscumbe, see Alestan 

Branting, man of Kg. Edward Ed worth, 361. 



(Beorhtric) 
Bricxtric, King's thane {under 

Ramsey) 
Bricxtric: Leuric, man of 
Bi ictric : 2 socmen, men of ... 
Brodo (also T.R.W.) 
Brunehain, see Alst 



Canterbury : see Stigand 

(Ceolbeorht) 
Chelbert, man of Qu. Edith 
(also T.R.W.) 

Dcre, see Godwin 
Dorchester, see YVulwi 
Dot 



Clapham, 99. 
Thurleigh, 100. 
Milton Ernest, 
Eyworth, 338. 



Carlton, 366. 



Beeston 371. 



(Eadric) 
Ederic, man of Kg. E. (T.R.W.) 
Edric calvus : Coding, man of 

(Eadgyth). 
Edith, Queen,: man of 



Sutton, 321. 
Wardon, 341. 



Edward, King (ancient 

demesne) 

Edward, King (ancient 

demesne) 

Edward, King (ancient 

demesne) 

Edward, King (escheat) 

Edward, King (escheat) 

Edward, King : men of 



Sewell, S. 
Eaton Kray, 10. 
Brombaru, 150. 

Thurleigh, 153. 

Sharnbrook, 280. 
Carlton, 366. 

I.eighton, 2. 

Luton 4. 

Houghton Regis, 6. 
Potton, 313. 
Charlton, 332. 

Stagsden, 15. 
Bolnhurst, 26. 
In Willey Hund., 
28. 

Tiirvey, 29. 
Tempsford, 41. 
Clifton, 42. 
Harrowden, 67. 
Chawston, 105. 
Stagsden, 125. 

Roxton, 156. 

Gt. Barford, 157. 

Cople, 172. 

NorthiU, 177. 

Chawston, 216. 
Hnsborne Craw- 
ley, 266. 



William de 

Warenne. 



Bp. of Coutances. 
bp. of Coutances. 
Bp. of Coutances. 
Bp. of Coutances. 
Bp. of Coutances. 
Bp. of Bayeux. 
Bp. of Coutances. 
Bp. oi Coutances. 
Bp. of Coutances. 
Bp. of Coutances. 
Bp. of Coutances. 
Bp. of Coutances. 
Bp. of Coutances. 
Bp. of Coutances. 
Bp. of Coutances. 
William Spech. 
Adeliz de 

Grentmaisnil. 



2.2 King's service. 



5.0 
o.r 
2.0 



Milo Crispin. 
Milo Crispin. 
Walter Fleming, 
Azelina Taillebois. 



0.1 King's service. 



0.1J King's service. 



0.2 
0.2 



Countess Judith. 
Azelina Taillebois. 



3.0 The King. 
12. 1 Bp. of Bayeux. 

6.0 Hugh de Beau- 
champ. 

0.2 Hugh de Beau- 
chamD. 

2.oJ Albert of Lorraine 

o.i King's service. 

26.0 King William. 

25.0 King William. 

10. o King William. 

10. o Countess Judith. 

10.0 Adeliz de 

Grentmaisnil. 

3.3 Bp. of Bayeux. 

0.3 Bp. of Coutances. 

4.0 Bp. of Coutances. 

4.0 Bp. of Coutances. 

1 . 1 £ Bp. of Lincoln. 
3.o£ Bp. of Lincoln. 

1.0 Ernuin presbyter. 

1.1 Fudo dapifer. 

5.0 Hugh de Beau- 

champ. 

1.1 Hugh de Beau- 

champ. 

3.0 Hugh de Beau- 
champ. 

1.0J Hugh de Beau- 
champ. 

0.2 Hugh de Beau- 
chainp. 

0.2 William Spech. 

^.o William Lovet. 



Saxon Holder. 



Hidage. 
h. v. 



Column i 

Edward, King : men of 



Edward, man of Abb. of St. 

Alban 
Edward 

Edward : father of 
Edward wit [ ? Wulward 

lewet] 

(E ad wine) 

Edwin, man of Asgar staller... Biscot, 9. 



Elste-w, 297. 
Bletsoe, 301. 
Stagsden, 303. 
Sharnbrook, 307. 
Stratton, 310. 
Holme, 311. 
Holme, 312. 
Sutton, 316. 
Sutton, 321. 
Coijle 327. 
Blunham, 328. 
Clifton, 329. 
Mauldcn, 359. 
Edworth, 361. 
Goldington, 308. 

Sutton, 31S. 
Sutton, 365. 
Hinwick, 351 . 
Chal grave. 102. 



(Earn wine) 

Ernuin presbyter : father of 
Etone, see Ulmar 



Fuglo, see Suglo 

(Godgifu) 

Goda, Ctss. : Samar, priest, 
m. of 

Goding, man of Edric calvus 

(Godmaer) 

Godmar, man of Alestan 
Godmund (also T.R.W.) 
Godmund (Gudmunt), m. of 

Kg. Ed. 
Godric, King's thane 
Godric, King's thane 
Godric, the Sheriff : Wenot, 

man of 

Godric, man of the Sheriff f"? 



Godwin, man of Alestan 

Godwin, man of Aschil 

Godwin, s. of Lewin 

Godwin, man of E. Guert 

Godwin, King's thane 

Godwin, man of E. Harold 

Godwin, man of E. Harold 

Godwin, man of Borret 



Harrowden, 67. 



2 Countess Judith. 

2 Countess Judith. 

0 Countess Judith. 

3 Countess Judith. 
3J Countess Judith. 
2 Countess Judith. 

1 Countess Judith. 

2 Countess Judith. 
2 Countess Judith. 

1 Countess Judith. 

2 Countess Judith. 

0 Countess Judith, 
2 King's service. 
2 King's service. 

2 King's service. 

i£ Countess Judith. 

1 King's service. 

2 ? King's service, 
oj Ernulf de 

Hesding. 



5.0 The King. 



l.o Ernuin p r esby ter. 



Godwin Franpold 
Godwin Franpalt 
Godwin Frambolt, 

thane 
Godwin Frambnllt, 

thane 



King's 
King's 



Godwin, man of King Ed- 
ward 

Godwin, man of E. Tosti ... 

Godwin de Bedeford (T.R.W.) 

Godwin Dere de Bedeford 
(T.R.W.) 

Golderon, man of Levenot 
(Grimbeald) 

Grimbald, man of Kg. Ed- 
ward 

Gudmunt, see Godmund 

(Gyrth) 
Guert, Earl 

Guert, Earl : Godwin, man of 
Column i 





0. 1 


William Peverel. 


Rushden, 121. 


0.2 


Azelina Taillebois, 


Wardon, 341. 






Millo, Q4. 


0.2 


William de Ow. 


Beeston 353. 


o-3 


? King's service. 


Bolnhurst, 26. 


0.3 


Bp. of Coutances. 


Dean, 36. 


2.0J 


Bp. of Lincoln. 


Riseley, 38. 


i ,0 


Hp. of Lincoln. 


Riseley, 146. 


0.2 


Hugh de Beau- 




champ. 


Staughton, 90. 


O.lJ 


William de 




Warenne. 


Streatley, 93. 


1.0 


William de Ow. 


Maulden, 134. 


0.2^ 


Hugh de Beau- 




champ. 


Millhrook, 187. 


5-° 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Shelton (Redb.) 330. 


o.a 


Adeliz de 




Grentmaisnil. 


Pavenham. 230. 


5-° 


Ranulf bro, of 




Ilger. 


Oakley, 300. 


1.0 


Countess Judith. 


Bromham, 302. 


2.0 


Countess Judith. 


Milton Ernest, 


3- 1 


Adeliz de 


333- 




Grentmaisnil. 


Wymington 232. 


3° 


Alured de Lincoln. 


Wymington, 239. 


0.2 


Walter Fleming. 


Carlton, 276. 


i.i* 


Osbern hsher. 


Hinwick, 278. 


'■3 


Turstin 




chamberlain. 


Holme, 312. 


0.1 


Countess Judith. 


Beeston, 279. 


0.2 


Turstin 






chamberlain. 


Biddenham, 348. 


0.2 


Burgesses of 




Bedford. 


Dean, 374. 


0.2 


King's service. 


Carlton, 198. 


1.1J 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Husborne Craw- 


5° 


William Lovet. 


ley, 266. 





Kempston, 298. 
Shelton (Redb.) 
330. 



10.0 Countess Judith. 
0.2 Adeliz de 

Grentmaisnil. 



TABLE VIII : ESTATES OF SAXON HOLDERS (SOCMEN OMITTED) 



51 



Saxon Holder. 


Vjll. 


Hidage. Successor. 


Saxon Holder. 


Vill. 


Hidage. 


Successor. 






b. v. , 






h. ». 





Column 1 


II - 


ill 


iv 


Harold, Earl : men of (jointly) 


Stagsden, 135. 


5.0 


Hugh de Beau- 








champ. 


ii ii ii 


Segresdon, 355. 


0. 1 


Hugh pincerna 




Kiseley, 287. 


1.0 


David de 








Argectoin. 




Oakley, 300. 


1.0 


Countess Judith. 


Homdai, man of E. Harold ... 


Bromham, 302. 


2.0 


Countess Judith. 


Riseley, 2S7. 


1.0 


David de 






Argentoin. 


Horim, see Alwin 









Lant, man of Levenot Kg's 

thane 
Lant 

(Leodmar). 
Ledmar, man of E. Tosti 
(T.R.W.) 

(I-eofmacr). 
Lemar, King's thane 
, Letnar, bedel] (jointly) 
(Leofsige) 
Lepsi, man of E. Tosti 

(Leofgar) 
Levegar, man of Kg. Edward 
(T.R.W.) 

(Leofnoth) 

Levenot, King's thane 

Levenot, King's thane 

Levenot, King's thane 

Levenot, King's thane 

Levenot, King's thane 

Levenot, King's thane 

Levenot, King's thane 

Levenot : Golderon, man of ... 
Levenot, King's thane : l.ant, 

man of 
Levenot : Ordric, man of 

(Leofgifu) 
Leveva, commended to E. 
Walthcof 

Leveva, man of Kg. Edward 

(Leofgeat) 
Leviet presbyter (T.R.W.) ... 

(Leofric) 
Leuric, man of Bp. of ' Lin- 
coln ' 

Leuric, man of Kg. Edward 

(jointly) 
Learic, man of Brihctric 

(T.R.W.) 
Leuric, s. of Osmund, King's 

thane 

Leuric, man of Borgred 
Learic, man of Abb. of Ram- 
sey 

Lewct, sec Wulward 

(Leofwine) 
Lewio, cilt 

Lcwin cilt (& 3 Kg.'s thanes) 
Lewin cilt, King's thane 
Lewin, King's thane 
Lewin, King's thane 
Lewin, King's thane 
Lewin, King's thane (in 

pledge) 
Lewin cilt, King's thane 

Lewin, man of Earl Waltheof 

Lewin: Samar, man of 

Lewin (T.R.W.) 
Lincoln, Bp. of : see Wulwi... 
Lorraine, Lotharensis, see 
Albert 



(Mzrwen) 

Marwen 

Moding, man of Qu. Edith ... 
Column t 



Wymington, 238. 


4.0 


Walter Fleming. 


^fVyinington, 3^7* 


0.3 


King 3 service. 


Astwick, 168. 


0.3 


Hugh de Beau- 






champ. 


Stanford, 220. 


1.0 


William Spech. 


Holme, 362. 


t.o 


King's service. 


Houghton Con- 


0.2 


Countess Judith. 


quest, 295. 






Sutton, 316. 


0.2 


Countess Judith. 


Totlernhoe 233. 


X5.0 


Walter Fleming. 


1'itrvev, 235. 




Walter Fleming. 


Odell. 236. 




Walter Fleming. 


Podin^ton, 237. 


'3 


Walter Fleming. 


Thurleigh, 240. 


3.0 


Walter Fleming. 


Scgenbo, 249. 


10.0 


Waller bro. of 




Seiher. 


Silsoe, 250. 


4.0 


Walter, bro. of 




Seiher. 


Carlton, 198. 


l.l) 


Nigel d'Albini. 


Wymington; 238. 


4.0 


Walter Fleming. 


Thurleigh, 241. 


0.2 


Walter Fleming. 


Aspley Guise, 138. 


10.0 


Hugh de Beau- 




champ. 


Bletsoe, 301. 


3.3 


Countess Judith. 


Biddenham, 65. 


0-3 


Leviet, then St. 


Paul. Bedford. 


Biddenham, 39. 


1.1 


Bp. of Lincoln. 


Bromham, 68. 


1.3 


Count Eustace. 


Thurleigh, 100. 


O.I 


Milo Crispin. 


Tlllswortli, 120. 


TO.O 


William Teverel. 


Wymington. 214. 


0 3 


William Spech. 


Sharnbrook, 253. 


0.2J 


Hugh Fleming. 



Caddlngton, 64. 
Streatlcy, 196. 
Beeston, 222. 
Stratton, 242. - 
Astwick, 244. 
Langford. 24s. 

Southill, 247. 
Meppershall, 281. 

Totternhoe, 2(15. 

In Bigglesw. 

Hund. 203. 
Clifton, 57. 



Biddenham, 66. 
Thurleigh, 153. 



5.0 St. Paul, London. 

4.1^ Nieel d'Albini. 

°-3i William Spech. 

i.t Walter Fleming. 

0.1 Walter Fleming. 

io.o Walter Fleming. 

o 1 Walter Fleming. 

7.0 Gilbert s. of 

Salomon. 

6.3 William 

camerarius. 

0.2 Nigel d'Albini. 

1.0 Abb. of Ramsey. 



0.1 St. Paul. Bedford. 
0.3 Hugh de Beau- 
champ. 
Ill l» 



(Morkere) 

Morcar presbyter ... . Luton, 5. 

Morcar presbyter de Luitone Potsgrove, 263. 
MorcaT presbyter 



Norman 

Norman (also T.R.W.) 



Ordric, man of I>evenot 

(Ordwig)) 
Ordui de Bedeford (T.R.W.) 
Ordui, burgess of Bedford 

(T.R.W.) 
Ordui, man of Ks. Edward 

(T.R.W.) 
Ordui man of Kg. Edward 

(T.R.W.) 
Ordui : man of 
Osgar de Bedeford (T.R.W.) 

(Osgeat) 
Osiet, man of King Edward 

Osiet (T.R.W.) 

(Oswulf). 
Osulf s. of Frane, King's 

thane 
Osulf, King's thane 
Osulf, King's thane 

(Oswig) 
Oswi, man of E. Tosti 
Oviet, man of Aschil 

Oviet, King's thane 

Oviet, man of Kg. Edward ... 

Ow, see Almar 



Peterborough, Abbot of 



Ramsey, Abbot of (T.R.W.) .. 



„ „ „ : tenant of 

„ „ (T.R.W.) ... 

„ „ (T.R.W.) ... 

„ „ (T.R.W.) ... 

„ „ „ : tenant of 

fRafan) 
Ravan, man of Ulmar of Eton 
Ravan, man of Omar of Eton 



(Sa??eat) 
Saiet (also T.R.W.) 
St. Alban, Abbot of 

St. Alban, man of Abbot of ... 
St. N'eot, Prior cf (T.R.W.) 



(Ssemier) 
Samar presbyter, m. of Ctess. 
Goda 

Samar, man of I-ewrn 

Starcher, Kine's thane 
Stigand, archbishop (of Can- 
terbury] 



Battlesdcn, 264. 



Hceston, 114. 
Beeston, 115. 



Thurleigh, 241. 

Biddenham, 48. 

Biddenham, 349. 

Stanford, 370. 

Westcotts, 372. 
Sutton, 320. 
Biddenham, 347. 

Northill, 177. 
Brombarn, 378. 



Stndham, 224. 
Oakley, 325. 
Turvey, 220. 



Potsgrove, 357. 
Staughton, 145. 

Thurleigh, 228. 
Sharnbrook, 307. 



Stanwick, 51. 



Cranfleld, 52. 
Barton, 53. 
Pegsdon, 54. 

Wyboston, 55. 
Lit. Barford; 56. 
Clifton, 57. 
Shillington, 5$. 
H dwell. 59. 
Stondon, 60. 
Clapbara, 99. 



5.0 William 

camerarius. 
1.0 William 

camerarius. 
0.2 William 

camerarius. 



3.0 Eudo dapifer. 
4 0 Eudo dapifer. 



0.2 Walter Fleming. 

0.2 Abb. of St. 

Edmund. 
o.2\ Burgesses of 

Bedford. 
[o.2i] King's service. 

0.1 King's service. 
0.3 Countess Judith. 
0.1 Burgesses of 

Bedford. 

o.a Hngh de Bean- 
champ, 
o. i| King's service. 



6.0 Robert de Todeni. 

4.0 Robert de Todeni. 

2.1 Robert de Todeni. 



0.3 King's service. 
0.2 Hugh de Beau- 
champ. 
0.2 Robert d' Oilgi. 
0.3 Countess Judith. 



2.2 Abbot of 

Peterborough. 



10.0 Abb 1 of Ramsey, 

ti.o ,, ,, ,, 

10.0 ,, 

o.il 

5.0 

I.O ,i ,1 11 

10.0 ,, ,, II 

3-3 .. ., 

0.2 ., II 

5.0 Milo Crispin. 



Beeston, 


16. 


1.0 


Eudo dnpifer. 


Northill, 


17. 


1.3 


Eudo dapifer. 


Hanefeld, 


375- 


r>. I 


King's service. 


Stotfold, 


3i 


1.0 


Hugh de Beau- 






champ. 


Sutton, 31 


8. 


o.ii 


Countess Judith. 


Sudbury, 


, S 3. 


0. 1 


Richard s. of 






Gilbert. 


Wyboston 


359. 


3.0* 


Richard s. of 


Gilbert. 



men of 



,, : 4 socmen. 



Rushden, 121. 


0. 1 


William Peverel. 


In Biggl. Hund. 


0.2 


Nigel d'Albini. 


203. 






I.eighton, 2. 


7.0 


The King. 


Dnnton, 260. 


S.i 


Richard Pnngiant 


Southill, 262. 




Richard Pureiant 


Stralton. 2SS. 


40 


Ralf de fnriila 


Riggleswade. 2S9. 


10. 0 


Ralf de Insula. 


Holme, 290. 


2.0 


Ralf de Insula. 


Dunton, 79. 


'-3 


Walter Giffard. 


II 


Ul 


Iv. 



S2 



TABLE VIII ! ESTATES OF SAXON HOLDERS (SOCMEN OMITTED) 



Saxon Holder. 



Column i 

Stori, man of E. Tosti 

Stori : Alwin, man of 

Stori : Alwin, man of 

(Swetman) 
Sueteman, man of Ulmar 
Suglo, m. of Alric s. of Cod- 
ing 

Suglo, man of Alric s. of God- 
ing (Fuglo) 



Thorney, Abbot of (T.R.W.)... 

(Tostig) 

Tobti, Earl [of Hunts, and 
Northants. ] 

Tosti, Earl (escheat to Kg. 
Ed. 1065) 

Tosti, Earl (escheat with Pot- 
ton) 

Tosti, Earl (escheat with Pot- 
ton) 

Tosti, Earl (escheat to Kg. 
Edw. 1065) 

Tosti, Earl : Ledmar man of 

Tosti : 2 thanes, men of Earl 
Tosti : Stori, man of 

Tosti : Almar, man of 
Tosti : Almar, man of 

Tosti : Lepsi, man of 

Tosti : Azelin, man of 
Tosti : Azelin, man of 
Tosti : Oswi, man of 

(Tofig). 

Tovi, huscarle of Kg. Edward 
, Tovi, huscarle of Kg. Edward 
Tuffa, man of Earl Waltheof... 

(Thurheorht) 
Turbert, man of Kg. Edward 

(Thurcytel) 
Turchil, King's thane 

Turchil (also T.R.W.) 

(Thurgis) 
Turgis, King's thane 

(Thurgod) 
Turgot : father of, King's 
thane 



Ulf, King's thane 

(Ulfac) 
Ulfechj King's steersman 

(Ulfmaer). 
Ulmar de Etone, King's thane 
Ulmar de Etone, King's thane 
Ulmar de Etone, King's thane 
Ulmar de Etone 
Ulmar de Etone, King's thane 

Ulmar, King's thane 
Ulmar de Etone, King's thane 
Ulmar de Etone : 3 socmen, 
men of 

Ulmar de Etone : 1 socman, 
man of 

Ulmar : 7 socmen, men of ... 
Ulmar de Etone : Ravan, man 
of 

Ulmar de Etone : Ravan, man 
of 

Ulmar : Almar, man of 
Ulmar King's thane : 2 soc- 
men, men of 
Ulmer de Etone : Sueteman, 
man of 

Ulmar de Etone : 5 socmen, 
men of 

Column i 



Staughton, 270. 
Riseley, 271. 
Elvendon, 273. 



Chlcksand 



Hi 



In Mans. Hund. 
1 So. 

Shelton (Redb.) 
1*5. 



Bolnhurst, 62 

Potton, 309. 

Potton, 313. 

Hatley 322. 

Everton, 323. 

Charlton, 332. 

Astwick, 16S. 

Clophill, 192. 
Staughton, 270. 

Wootton, 284. 
Shelton (Redb.) 
285. 

Houghton Con- 
quest, 295. 
Harrowden, 325. 
Cardington, 326. 
Potsgrove, 357. 

Shnrnhrook, 275. 
Radwell, 305. 
Southill, 324. 

Id Willey Hnnd., 

28. 

Saliord, 139. 
VVymington, 381. 
Eversholt, 140. 



In Stodden Hund., 
376. 

Edlesborough, 22^ 

In Barf. Hund., 
308. 



Hidage. 
h v. 



o.2\ Osbern s of 

Richard. 
0.2 Osbern s. of 

Richard. 
1.1 Osbern s. of 

Richard. 

1 .0 Azelina Taillebois. 
1 .0 Nigel d' Albini. 
0.2 Nigel d' Albini. 



2.1 Abbot of Thorney. 

0.2 Countess Judith. 

10. o Countess Judith. 

3.2$ Countess Judith. 

5.0 Countess Judith. 

10. o Adeliz de 

Grentmaisnil. 

0.2 Hugh de Beau- 
champ. 

5.0 Nigel d' Albini. 

o.2j Osbern s. of 

Richard. 

10. o Alhert of Lorraine 

3.0 Albert of Lorraine 

0.2 Countess Judith. 

3.0 Countess Judith. 

3.1^ Countess Judith. 

0.2 King's service. 

0.2 Osbern fisherman. 

2.2$ Countess Judith. 

1.0 Countess Judith. 

4.0 Bp. of Coutances. 



5.0 Hugh de Beau- 
champ. 
1.0 Kind's service. 

7.2 Hugh de Beau- 
champ. 



0.2 King's service. 

10. o Gilbert of Gand. 
2.3 Cnuntess Judith. 



Saxon Holder. 



Hidage. Successor. 
h. v. 



Eaton Socon, 103. 


20.0 


Eudo dapifer. 


Sandy, 108. 


16. r 


En do dapifer. 


Stanford, 1 1 1 . 


4.0 


Eudo dapifer. 


Clifton, 119. 


6.2 


Eudo dapifer. 


Lit. Barford, 274 


3-° 


Osbern s. of 






Walter. 


Hatley, 339. 


5.1I 


Azelina Taillebois. 


Stondon, 346. 


2.2 


Azelina Taillebois. 


Tempsford, 107. 


4.1 


Eudo dapifer. 


Stanford, m. 


02 


Eudo dapifer. 


Stanford, 112. 


0.O3V 


Eudo dapifer. 


Beeston, 116. 


1 .0 


Eudo dapifer. 


Northill, 117. 


1. a 


Eudo dapifer. 


Wyboston, 337. 


x.tl 


Azelina Taillebois. 


Hatley, 339. 


0.2J 


Azelina Taillebois. 


Chicksand, 345. 


r.o 


Azelina Taillebois. 


Stondon, 346. 


2.2 


Azelina Taillebois. 



Ulmar do Bedeford (T.R.W.) 

Ulmar presbyter of Kg. Ed- 
ward 

Ulmar presbyter 
Ulmar, man of Ordui 

(Ulfnod) 
Uhiod, man of L'lsi s. of 
Borgret 

(Wulfsige) 
Ulsi s. of Borgret : Ulnod, 

man of 
Ulueva (under Borret) 

(Ulfric) 

/ Uluric, man of Kg. F.dward 
I Uluric, King's socman 



(VVselrafen) 
Walrave, man of Qu. Kditli ... 
( Waltham, Canons of 
i Waltham, Canons of 
' Waltheof : Karl 
Waltheof : Leveva, com 
mended to Earl 

Waltheof, Karl : Tuffa, man of 
Waltheof, Earl : Eewin, man 

°f 

Wenot, man of Codric the 
sheriff 

Wenesi camerarius 
Westminster, Abbot of 
(T.R.W.) 

Wig, King's thane 
Wig, King's thane 

(Wigod) 
VVigot, King's huntsman 
Wintremelr, see Alric 
Wit, see Edward 

(Wulfweard) 
Wulward le wet 

(Wulfwig). 
Wulwi, Bishop [of Dorchester 
and Eincoln] 
Lincoln : Alwin Deule, man 

of Bp. of 
Lincoln: I.euric, man of 
Bp. of 

Lincoln : Alwin Sac, man of 
Bp. of 

Wulwi : Alward, man of Bp. 
Wulwi : Alwin, man of Bp. ... 
Wulwi : Alwold, man of Bp. 
Wulwi : bro. of Bishop, see 
Alwin. 

(Wulfwine) 
Wulwin, m. of Kg. Edward ... 



UNNAMED MEN (not being 
thanes or socmen) 

r man of Alwold de Stevin- 
ton 

2 men of Kg. Edward 

2 men of Kg. Edward and 

1 man of Earl Harold 

men of the vill in common 

2 men of Kg. Edward 
1 man of Kg Fdward 
a bedell's father 



Biddenham, 350 




o-°3 


Burgesses of 








Bedford 


Biddenham, 48. 




0.2 


Abbot of St. 








Edmund \ 


Streatley, 364. 




o.cf 


King's service. 


Sutton, 320. 




°-3 


Countess Judith. 


Hinwick, 213. 




x.o 


William Spech. 






1.0 


W illiani Spech. 


ounion ( ziiou ( 


2 3- 


5.0 


Hp, of Coutances. 


Clifton, 329. 




1.0 


Countess Judith. 


Cainho, 330 






Azelina 1 aillebois. 


Sewell, X. 




3.o 


The King. 


Millo, 46. 




4.2 


Bp. of Durham. 


Arlesey, 47. 




Sol 


Bp. of Durham. 


Kenemondwick. 


49- 


3 3 


Abb. of St. 






E cbiiuiid 


Aspley Guise, 




10.0 


Hugh de Beau 


Southill, 324. 




champ. 




I 0 


Countess Judith. 


Totternhoe, 2O5 




6-3 


William 








camerarius 


Riseley, 146. 




0.2 


Hugh de Beau- 


Leigh ton, 2. 






champ. 




10.0 


The King. 


Hohvell, 61. 




6.2 


Abb of 








Westminster. 


Staughton, 254. 




2 -3 


Hugh pincerna. 


Staughton, 256. 




2.0 


Sigar de Cioches. 


Gladley, 293. 




2.2 


Cozelin Brito. 


Toddington, 101 




15.0 


Ernulf de 








Hesding. 


Leighton, 3. 




4.0 


Bishop of Lincoln. 


Staughton, 37. 




0.2} 


Bishop of Lincoln. 


Biddenham, 39. 




1 . 1 


Bishop of Lincoln. 


Goldington, 40. 




0.2 


Bishop of Lincoln. 


Turvey, 201. 




i.oj 


Nigel d' Albini. 


Thurleigh, 229. 




0. 1 


Robert d' Oilli. 


Hinwick, 252. 




1 2 


Hugh Fleming. 


Cople, 327. 




0.1 


Countess Judith. 



UNNAMED KING'S 

THANES. 



3 and Lewin cilt. 
3 



Turvey, 17. 
Chawston, 105. 

Stagsden, 125. 

Goldington, 164. 

Chawston, 216. 
Blunham. 328. 
Milton Ernest, 37 



Wyboston, 104. 
Streatley, 196. 
Marrold, 306. 



1.0 Bp. of Bayeux. 
x.i Eudo dapifer. 

5.0 Hu gh de Beau- 
champ. 

r.o Hugh de Beau- 
champ. 

0.2 William Spech. 

0.2 Countess Judith. 

0.0} King's service. 



6.3 Eudo dapifer. 
4.1$ Nigel d' Albini. 
co.o Countess Judith. 



TABLE IX: SOC-LAND, 1060 AND 1086 



53 




Hid- ! £ 






Notes to T.R.E. 


h. v. 1 [J 





Co' 


i ti 




iii 


iv 


7 


Ampthill, i83 ... 




5-° 




i 


Arlesey, 97 




0.2 3 




2 


20S ... 




o-3* 




6 


Astwick, 166 ... 




1 . 1 




3 


Barfoid, Gt., 1^7 




3-o 




3 






5-*l 




2 


„ I6C . 




1.2 




3 






«-3l 




7 


Battlcsdon, 76 




I8.0] 




2 


334 




1.2 




I I 


Biddcnhani, 212 




3-2J 




2 


Biggleswade, 289 . 




0.2 




3 


BIrtsoe, 14S ... 




03 




4 


Blunham, 50 ... 




4.1 




4 


"3 




0.1 






Bolnh'.irst, 14 ... 




0.2 


2* 


7 


Broom, i3q ... 




5.0 




i 


Cainhoe, 336 ... 




1 .0 




6 


Campton, 83 ... 




4.2! 




3 


280 




>-3l 




■3 


Cardmgton, 131 




6.23 






Carlton, 16 ... 




I.I 


1' 


3 


199 ... 




1.0^ 




2 


Chavvslon, 155 




1.0 




12 


215 




7' 




4 


Chicksand, 344 




3-o 


3 


3 


Clifton, nq ... 




1.0} 




4 


,1 206 




2.0 




S 


Colmworth, 159, 




? 




3 


Coplo, 170 




40 




2 


17' 




1 . 1 

i.oi 




2 


172 •■■ 






3 


174 




1 .0 




2 


175 — 




0.3 




3 


„ 176 . 




0.2} 




4 


Cudsand, 82 ... 




3-2 




4 


,78 




2.0 


3 


6 


Dean, 21 




4 ■<• 


b 


3 


„ 84 ... . 




2.0 


3* 


1 1 


» 373 




<-3i 


1 1 * 


4 


Dun ton, 79 ... 




'•3 




2 


Eaton Socon , 1 03 




? 


?2 


2 


Kdworth, 9c; ... 




1.2 




4 


Elstow. 297 ... 




3 * 




5 


Kvcrsholt, Wf.burn, and Potsgrave, 






35 6 




2.1 




20 


Eyworth, 218 




9.0 




3 


Farndish, 268 




20 




2 


,, 269 




1 . 0 




6 


Felmersham, 2S2 




7-2 






Goldington, 12S 




3-« 




3 


162 .. 




2.0 




5 


Gravenhurst, 142 




>- 2 




'4 
I 


Harrowden, 20c; 




6.0 




Hatley (Wrestf), 322 




0. 1 




2 


(Cock.), 339 .. 




0.2j 




9 


Henlow, 207 




5- 2 




6 


„ 248 




3- 2 




2 


343 




1 .0 




5 


Higham Crobion, 144 




8.0 




2 


Hinwick, 257 




13 




I 


Holme, 165 




n. I 




7 


204 




I.oJ 




2 


243 




I.O 




3 


290 




0.2 




7 


Houghton Conquest, 


135 


5.O 




3 




33- 


4 = 




2 


Kenemondwick, 49 .. 




3-3 




Col. 


1 ii 









m. of .Alt-stan. 



m. of Kg. Edw. 



socm. of Kg. Edw. 



m. of Kg. Edw. 



§ 138, m. of Borgred. 
§ 13 s - 

m. of Stigand. 

m. of Alcstan. 

§ 138, in. of Kg. Edw. 

socm. of Kg. Edw. 



m. of Ulmar. 
m. of Anschil. 
Under Anschil. 



Col.i ii 

12 Keysoe, 122 

1 Langford, 245 

21 Marston, 1S6 ... 

1 Maxddon, 294 ... 

* ■ • 359 

6 Melch bourne 20 
4 M eppcrsliall, 2S1 
? Millbrook, 1S7 

10 Millo, 80 

7 Milton Brian, 12 

2 Milton Ernest, 99a 
6 „ „ 197 

2 » 2 34 

2 Northill, 118 ... 
6 ,, 223 

1 Odell, 236 

4 Podington, 251 

4 Potton, 313 ... 

8 Pulloxhill, 195 

10 Radwell, 200 ... 

6 Riscley, 25 ... 
4 Roxton, 156 ... 

12 217 ... 

11 Salpho, 137 

1 Stgenho, 249 ... 

7 Sharnbrook, 32 

3 152 
3 Silsoe, 250 

8 SouthiIl/129 ... 

l6 2If) ... 

12 Stagsden, 1 c; ... 

2 *- 3°3 
1 Stanford, 



1 1 1 

„ 112 

130 

340 

Staughton, 24 
2 54 
11 270 
Stcppingley, 210 
Stondon 346 
Stotfold, 133 ... 
Stralton, Si ... 
Strcatley, 143 
Sutton, 109 ... 



3 »• 3»4 
6 >> 3'5 
2 „ 3'7 
2 »> 3^9 
2 ,> 363 

2 lempsford, 106 

3 •* >°7 
3 », 261 

6 360 
20 Tillbrook, 85 ... 

3 Turvey, 29 ... 
2 151 

8 Wardon, 221 ... 

7 Westcotts, 191 
24 Wilden, 18 

8 Willington, 132 

8 Wilshamstead, 29 

6 Woburn, 75 ... 

12 Wyboston, 202 

1 Wymington, 238 

5 Yielden, 22 

1 Unnamed, 380 

Col. i ii 



) 1 1 








3* 3 
















o.og 








oo£ 








0.2 




socm. of Kg. Ed 










■) 








5-° 








4.0 








°-°3 ii 








2-3 












m 


of Brihtric 


12 








6 2 








0. 2 
















t! 








10.0 
















4.0 




in 


of Borgred. 






TTl 


of Kg. Edw. 


°-3 






5.0 


■ ; , 






0.2 










7* 


m 


of Borgred. 


0 3 1 

0. 15 








0.2 








2.1 








S-o$ 








3-3 




in. 


of Kg. Edw. 


1.0 




in . 


of Kg. Edw. 


0.2 




m, 


of Ulmar. 


0.0^ 


7 


in 


of Ulmar. 


i.o| 






■38- 


2.0 








°-3 


4* 


m 


of Borgred. 


0.2 








o.o£ 












in 


of ? Almar. 






m. 


of Ulmar. 


5*2 

1.1} 








1.0 




m. 


of Am.cb.il. 



0.3 

1.2 

I .O 

o-3l 
2.0 
o.i{ 



5.0 

4" 
1 .0 
9.0 

2 - 3 
50 
7.0. 

3- o 
2.0 
r,.i 
1 u 
5.0 
0.2 



§ 138, 111. of Ulmar. 



5 138. 

m. of Kg. Edw. 



5 138- 



TABLE X : THANE LAND, 1066 



TABLE XI : SUMMARY OF TENANCIES, 1066 




Col. i 




iii 




4 


Eversholt, 1 i 


1.0 


1 1 


2 


Marston, 77 


»-3i 


18 


9 


Husborne Crawley, 179 ... 


5-0 


5° 


2 


Tingrith, 181... 


2.1 


too 


9 


Priestley, 182, 358 


2.2 


100 


4 


Harlingdon, 183 ... . ... 


5-° 


100 


2 


Clophill, 192 


5.0 


100 


4 


Potsgrove, 292 


7.2 


7.5 


2 


Kempston, 298 


2.3I 


38 


Col. 1 


ii 


iii 





Column i 

lioyal Land 
Church Land ... 
Nobles and Officers 
King's Thanes ... 

Other persons : 
Thanes 
Socmen 
Burgesses ... 
Of unknown status 



Total 



60.3 
434-3 



33-° 
-351-3 



'34-2 



HlOAGE 



4 'I 

35-* 



2-7 

29 o 



60.2 
'33 3 



520.J 

1 .'in I 



4-9 
10 i) 



99.2 



54 



TABLE XII : WATER NULLS 



Stream 



Vii.i. 





Mills 








1 u 
v 1 -H 

c > 

1 |s.d. 


C 




I Stream 




I eel -re 







Column i 

I. OUSEL RIVER. 



I. A. Salford Brook, a. 



II. OUSE RIVER. 



IT. A. Sharn Crook. 
II. Ouse River 



II. B. Ravensd'-n Brook : 
II. C. Elstow Brook. 
II. Ouse River 



III. IVEL RIVER. 



III. A. Hiz River. 



III. Ivel River 



Totternhoe 233 
Totternhoe, 265 
Leighton, 2 
Glad Icy 293 
Hushorne Crawley 266 
Holcote, 209 
Salford 130 
Aspley Guise 138 

Turvey 217 
Carlton iyq 
H arrold 306 
Odcll 230 
Felmersham 304 
Sharnbrook 275 
Sharnbrook, 286 
Bleisoe 148, 301 
Radwell 200 
Milton Ernest 333 
Pavenham 71 
Oakley 225 
Clapbam 99 
Bromham 150 
Bromham 302 
Biddenhatn 39 
Biddenham 212 
Kcmpston, 298 
Bedford 
Goldington 128 
Cardington 131 
Putnoo 124 
Chainhalle 126 
Elstow 297 
Willing ton 132 
Great Barford 157 
Great Barford 160 
[Confluence with Ivel 
River.] 
Rcxton 217 
Chawston 215 
Little Barford, 56 
Eaton Socon 103 



Stotfold 133 
, Astwick 168 
Astwick 244 
Hoi well 61 
Arlesey 47 
Arlesey 97 
Henlow 207 
Hen low 248 
Langford 245 



10.8 

3-0 
30.0 
16.0 
10.0 
5-4 
9.4 
10.0 



2m. O 

13-4 

36.8 

J6.8 
1 0.0 
» 4 
16.0 
20.0 
10.0 
20.0 
20.0 
26.0 
40.0 
20.0 
40.0 
25.0 

TO.O 

S-o 

30.0 
40.0 
30.0 
40.0 



33 o 
13-4 
12.0 
36.6 



... W. 

... Grange Mill, W. 

... ' Mill Farm ' 

... W 

... w 

... ' Mill Farm * 

... \V 

... ' Mill Holme ' 

200 W 

200 W 

... ' PinchmiU' 

... W 

... Stoke Mill. \V. 

... W 

... 1 Mill Lane.' 

200 ' Mill Bridge. 1 

100 1 one workin g 



... W 

1 Duck Mill ' 
100 ' Priory Mill ' 
100 

100 Castle Mill. W. 
100 



125 
1 00 



Column i 
Bi. Shillington 
Brook. 



III. B2. Flit Brook, a 



100 W. 

80 



one working 



Mill Lane ' 



400 two working 

} one working 



III. B. Shefford Brook 



III. Ivel River 



III. C. Sutton Bro^k. 



III. Ivel Rivet 



III. D. NorthiH Brook. 
III. Ivel River 



IV. TILL BROOK. 



V. RHF.E RIVER. 



VI. LEA RIVER. 



VlLL 



Mills 












c 




> 




3 
c 


s.d. 


a.' 



Pegsdon 54 


2 


27 .8 


Shillington ^8 


1 


0.0 


Barton 53 






Harlington 






Campton 83 


1 


3-3 


Millbrool: 187 


2 


6.0 


Am pt hi 11 






Flitwick 






Maulden 294 


1 


3° 


Todditigton 






Elitwick 267 


j 


4.0 


Pulloxhill 






Silsoe 250 


1 


2.2 


("ainhoe 193 


r 


6.0 


Chicksand 345 


r 


10.0 


C-iidsanu 82 


0 




Stanford in 


2 


29. 0 


Stanford 169, 220 


z 


IO. O 


Stanford 340 


1 


■3-4 


Clifton 1 19 




40.0 


Biggleswade 2S9 


2 


47.O 


NorthiH r 1 7 




14.0 


Northill 223 


5 


13.0 


Pottou 313 




5-0 


Keneniondwick 49 


1 


13-4 


Sandy 108 




50.0 


Beeston 1 15 


1 


30.0 


Wardon 2^1 


1 


I2.0 


Charlton 332 


1 


3O.0 


Blunhani ^0 


1 


20.0 


Tempsford 41 


2 


40.0 


Tempsford 10G 




JO.O 


Tempsford 107 


z 


12.0 


Shelton 23 


I 




Keysoe 122 


X 


2.0 


Eyworth 218 


I 


8.0 


? 1 1 alley 339 


I 


18.O 


Luton 4 


6 


IOO. O 


Luton 5 


z 


lO.O 


Luton 







(fractus), \V 
W. 

not in D.B. 
W. 

not in D.M. 
not in D.B. \v 
•W. 

' Mill Farm 

Not in I). 11 
VV. 

not in D.U. VV. 
W. 



5° 



' A mill can be 
made there" 

ont' working 



150 two working 

... \V. 

1 probably two 
'■ moieties of ont- 

■■• I null 

... 1 Watennill 

Bridge.' 

... W. 



VV. 

w. 



one working 



me working 

New Mill.' Not 
in D.B. 



§ 37—41 



PART III 



PART III. ANALYTICAL. 



THE FISCAL AREAS. 

THE SHIRE 

§ 37. D. B. and the Shire Moot. —On the 
shire as an administrative organisation, our D.B. un- 
fortunately throws no light. There is but one refer- 
ence to it, that ' all who have taken oath for the shire 
(omnes qui iurauerunt de uicecomitatu) bear witness 
(Staughton 87), — but the reference is interesting. It 
rightly names Bedfordshire as a uicecomitatus or 
sheriffwick, not as a comitatus or county, for there was 
no Earl of this shire, and therefore properly speaking 
no ' County '. It also implies that the returns from the 
Hundred Moots were considered, perhaps amended, in 
full Shire Moot, a fact which we should not otherwise 
have known." In the D.B. of co. Hunts., the revision of 
these returns by the Shire Moot form an appendix 
(D.B., i, folia 208. 208a), but in Bedfordshire any such 
corrections as may have been made in Shire Moot 
seem to have been incorporated in the general text. 

§ 38. The "County Hidage."— The remark- 
able document known by this name, referred by Dr. 
Liebermann to the xith century, has been assigned by 
Mr. Turner" recently, and with great probability to the 
later years of King Alfred's reign. It has come down 
to us in four manuscripts, the ligures of which are not 
always in agreement together; but while one manu- 
script credits Bedfordshire with onlv 1000 hides, the 
other three assign 1200 hides to this county. The total 
B of our Table III, column, ii, which includes all the 
hidated land then intrinsec to the county, amounts to 
1210I1. isov., an extraordinarily close approxima- 
tion. Now if Mr. Turner's dating is correct, we are 
met by the fact that the assessment of the county as a 
whole had not been varied for two hundred years. The 
allotment of the assessment to the land may have been 
varied by alterations in the Hundreds or by readjust- 
ment of the hidation of the vills, but the total number of 
assessable units remained the same. 

§ 39. The D. B. Vicecomitatus and the 
Modern County. — An attempt to calculate the effect 
of alterations in the County boundary since D.B. 
proved to be unexpectedly difficult. No special record 
of the lands lost and gained seems to have been kept 
officially until recently ; and the Census returns of the 
acreage in the parishes concerned appear to have been 
loosely computed rather than accurately measured. 
Yet the readjustment and simplification of county and 
parish boundaries involve questions of great historical 
interest, which, when one seeks the reason for the 
present-day detachment of outlying parts of parishes, 
sometimes seem to reach back to pre-Conquest time. 
In such questions lies an interesting field for research, 
apparently hardly touched as yet, but their discussion 
would be out of place here ; the most that can be offered 
at the moment is a provisional list of the more obvious 
gains and losses to the County area since 1086. From 
North East clockwise these are: 



a. For the relations between Sheriff, Shire Moot, and Hundred Moot 
in this matter, compare D.B., i, 141 (Stuterehele). 

b. Turner : Hunts Fines, pp. lxxiii — Ixxvi. Compare Maitland : D.B., 
455-460. 



In, 



Swincshead* 

Meppershall b 

Westoningc 

Caddington 

Kensworth 

Studhain 

Aspley Heath" 

I'odinton 0 

!• arndish' 



In. 

Tillbruok" 

Holwell>> 

Shilliugton 

Studhain 

Houghton Regis 

Whipsnadc 

Kdlesboro' 1 

Kushden 

Newton 

Stanwick 



GAINS. 

From. 
Hunts. 
Herts. 



Bucks. 
Northauts 



LOSSES. 

To. 
Hunts. 
Herts. 



Bucks. 
Northants. 



Acreage. 
'354 
circa goo 
1027 
2095 
2 553 

I44y 

circa 490 
... say to 
circa 177 

10705 acres. 

Acreage. 
1GS3 
circa 590 

37 
150 
150 
t(j8 

...say 1S0.0 
. . say 420*= 



a. Whole parish 

b. Measured on 

c. Whole parish. 

d. Measured on 6" O.S 

e. At D.B. 2 virgates. 



5097 acres, 
f. Measured on Awaid Map. 
O.S., ed. 1853. g. Whole parish. 

h. Whole parish. 

i. Half of present total acreage, 
k. At D.B., 3 hides 2 virgates. 



The net gain is therefore about 5608 acres since the 
date of D.B. — The official total acreage to-day is 302942 
acres, and the D.B. acreage was therefore approxi- 
mately 297334 acres, on which the net gain is only 1.8 
per cent. 

THE HUNDRED. 

§ 40. The Antiquity and Meaning of the 
Hundred. — The Hundred is one of the oldest, per- 
haps the oldest, of all English political institutions; 
the shire is comparatively modem. Its duties were 
detailed by an ordinance of King Edgar (959-975), 
and its reorganisation is attributed to King Alfred 
853-901), but its germ can be traced back through the 
ordinances of Prankish kings to the Teutonic tribes de- 
scribed by Tacitus about A.D. 99. With its history and 
development, its judicial police and military duties, we 
need not deal here. So far as D.B. is concerned, we 
find it (i) as an area, collectively responsible for an 
assessment to Danegeld, divided into a (theoretical) 
hundred hides (§ 45) between which the assessment 
was shared proportionately; and (ii) as having a moot or 
court, where the men of that area met together and bore 
witness on oath to such matters as the value, extent and 
ownership of land, and the numbers of men and beasts 
upon it; the record is full of their testimony in Hundred 
moot, for example, on fo. 211b of D.B. we find three 
instances (77, 84, 85). 

§ 41. The Bedfordshire Hundreds. — At the 

date of D.B. the County contained 

(a) nine Hundreds with much the same names as at 
present, assessed on their hidage for Danegeld, 

Barford Flitt Stodden 

Biggleswade Manshead Willey 
Clifton Redbornestoke Wixamtree 

(b) three Half Hundreds assessed on hidage, Buchelai, 
later fused with Willey, here called Buckley; Stan- 
burge, later fused with Manshead, the modern 
Stanbridge : Weneslai, later fused with Biggleswade, 
here called Wenslcy : 

(c) certain Royal lands, assessed on hidage, but (with 
the exception of Biscot) not included in any Hun- 
dred (terra extracentenalis) : 



£6 



PAKT III 



(d) Bedford town, not assessed on hidage (except one 
hide) but answering as a Half Hundred for naval 
and military levies (§ 72): 

(e) the terra forinseca (schedule to Table I), assessed on 
hidage, but not credited to Bedfordshire. 

The county was further credited with the scrap of 
terra extrinseca which paid its geld in Bedfordshire, but 
lay in Huntingdonshire (see also p. 7, note a). 

There is mention also (Sewell 8) of a lost Hundred 
of Odecroft (§ 46) the disappearance of which may date 
from the shrievalty of the masterful Ralf Taillcbosc; it 
has been suggested that its name is perhaps perpetuated 
in Woodcraft Manor in Luton*. It would seem that 
Hundreds were to some extent unstable; Huntingdon- 
shire similarly has a lost Hundred of Cresswelle (Gidd- 
ing 137; D.B. i, fo. 707), and new Hundreds were 
formed even after the Conquest". 

§ 42. Names of the Hundreds. — The fol- 
lowing are the chief variants in the spelling of the 
Hundreds : — 

Barford — Bereforde. 

Biggleswade — Bichelesuuorde, Bicheleswade. 
Buckley — Bochelai, Buchelai. 
Clifton — Cliftone, Clistone. 
Flitt — Flichtham. 
Manshead — Manesheue. 

Redbornstoke — Radeburnesoca, Radebernestoch ', 
Radborgestoc', Ratborgestou, Ratborgestoche, 
Ratbernestoche. 

Stanbridge — Stanburge. 

Stodden— Stodcne, Stodden. 

Wenslcy — Weneslai. 

Willey— Wilga, Wilge. 

Wixamtree — Wichestanestou, Wichestauestou, Wich- 
enestanestou. 

Many of these names are taken, as is common in 
other counties, from places of importance within their 
limits (Barford, Biggleswade, Clifton, Flitton), or from 
a well known mark (Stanbridge c ) — presumably the 
meeting-places of the Hundred. The remainder re- 
quire a study which they have not yet received. 

§ 43. The omission of the Hundred heading. — 

As a rule, the name of the Hundred in which 
it lies precedes the entry of each holding or series of 
holdings. Occasionally, however, the scribe of D.B. 
has failed to record this, so that parts of some vills ap- 
pear to be in another Hundred from that in which 
they lie to-day, or from that in which the rest of the vill 
then lay. While it was perfectly possible for a holding 
to ' lie to ' or be assessed in some other Hundred than 
the rest of the vill of which it formed part, still there is 
no reason to suppose that this was intended in the in- 
stances given below, if we may judge from the sums of 
the hides in the vills and Hundreds concerned : the 
omissions of the Hundred heading appear to have been 
due to error or accident rather than to design." In the 
list below, the first column gives the name of the hold- 
ing, and its number in the serial order of D.B. ; the 

a. V.C.H. iii, 391, note 56; compare V.C.H., ii, 354. 

b. Eyton : Domesday of Somerset, i, 19. 

c. The land of the vi'J which took its name from the Stone Bridge does 
not appear to have lain in the Hundred of Stanbridge. but in I.eighton. 



second, the Hundred in which it now lies, or that in 
which the rest of the vill then lay; the third, the Fion- 
dred (if recorded) to which it appears to belong in the 
text of D.B. 



Biddenham, 212. 
Bolnhurst, 62. 
Broom, 1S9 (in margin) 
Carnpton, S3. 
Chawston, 105. 
Cudsand, 82. 
Eaton Socon, 103. 
Goldington, 128. 
Gravenhurst, 142. 
Higham (iobion, 144. 
Hinwiek, 278. 
Milton Ernest, 197. 
Oakley, 225. 
Potion, 309. 
Streatley, 143. 
Sutton, 303. 
Wyboston, 104. 



Buckley. 

Stodden. 

Wixamtree. 

Clifton. 

Barford. 

Clifton. 

Barford. 

Barford. 

Mitt. 

Elitt. 

Willey. 

Stodden. 

Stoddeu. 

Wensley. 

Mitt. 

Wensley. 

Barford. 



Flitt. 

Without heading. 

Redburustoke. 

Biggleswade. 

Without heading. 

Biggleswade. 

Without heading. 

Buckley. 

Manshead. 

Manshead. 

Buckley. 

Flitt. 

Stanbridge. 
Barford. 
Manshead. 
Biggleswade. 
Without heading. 



These seventeen entries have been assigned in the 
tables to the Hundred shown alongside of them in the 
second column. 

Special difficulty is presented by entries 124-128, owing to the scattamj 
nature of Buckley Half Hundred, to the dubious meaning of ' iacet 11' 
(§ 12), and to the neglect of the usual order of the Hundreds shown by the 
D.B. compiler when dealing with the fief of Hugh de Beauchamp (§ 4-4). 
Baring'' assigns the entries as follows : — 

Buckley Half Hundred (heading in D.B.). 

Putnoe 124 4 h. ov. 

plus Chainhalle 127 ... ... ... ub. 2V. 

plus Goldington 12S (pars) ... ... oh. iv. 

Stagsden 125 th. ov. 

Barford Hundred (heading inserted by Baring). 

Chainhalle 126 ... ... ... ... th. ov. 

Goldington 128 (pars) ... ... ... jh. ov. 

On the five-hide theory (§ 53), this gives a neat result. Goldington 
receives loh. in all. Stagsden fob., Chainhalle ^h., und Putnoe 4h. -jv. 
But unfortunately this is not what D.B. says. 

If the virgates which Mr. Baring assigns to Putnoe lay physically in 
l'utnoe, they should according to the usual practice have been retu'rrfi 
under Putnoe: but the point of the entries as they stand in D.B. seem* 
to be that these lands lay physically in the territories of Chainhalle at* 
Goldington, but were appurtenant to (lay to) the manor of Putnoe, exactlr 
as in the instances of the phrase ' iacet in ' quoted in S 12, c. As to th* 
question of the omission of the Hundredal heading of Barford — with th* 
addition! of the }h. iv. of Goldington 12S, and the omission of the 5I1. ,2*. 
of Chainhalle, Barford Hundred reaches a total of looh. iv. ; but by tbt 
inclusion of Chainhalle, Buckley becomes 57I1. ijv. ; they caunot both bt 
brought to the neat theoretical numbers of 100 and 50. The point is cot 
supremely important, and is probably incapable of a certain decision. In 
the tables and maps the heading of Buckley has been taken to cover Chaaa- 
halle, but the 3b.. iv. have been placed with the rest of Goldington in Barford 
Hundred. Chainhalle (if representing Ravensden : S 50), Goldington, znd 
Putnoe all touch one another, and the oddments lay probably on the line of 
contact; Baring's neat numbers may be regarded as a relic of a former 
arrangement under earlier holders. ' The point lies in the fact that its 
acquirement by a manor in another Hundred could in a sense remove hnd 
out of its proper Hundred into the other, because its soke would then lie to 
the Court of the new Hundred or its lord's court in that Hundred. 

§ 44. Order of the Hundreds. — The Hun- 
dreds are generally recorded in the same order on each 
fief; this appears' to be 



1. Manshead. 

2. Stanbridge. 

3. Redbornstoke. 

4. Stodden. 



5. Buckley. 

6. Flitt. 

7- Willey. 

8. Barford. 



9. Biggleswade. 

10. Wensley. 

11. Wixamtree. 

12. Clifton. 



but on the fief of Hugh de Beauchamp this succession is 
imperfectly observed. It has been suggested that it re- 
presents the order in which the Hundreds were sur- 
veyed, but it need not mean anv more than the order in 
which the D.B. scribe happened to pick up the rolls, or 
that in which the returns happened to be delivered to the 
Royal officials. At any rate a glance at Map I. will 
show that the succession is far from indicating an 
orderly geographical circuit of the county. 

d. This is no mere speculation. In some counties the Hundreds are 
rarely mentioned, for example, in Oxfordshire. In other cases they are 
omitted occasionally, accidentally, or deliberately (to save parchment). 

e. Baring : Domesday Tables, 178. 

f. V.C.H. , i, 217-218. 



§ 45-50 



PART III 



57 



§ 45. The Hundred Hides. — It has been 
already said that the Hundred at the time of D.B. was 
assessed for taxation at a round number of 100 hides; 
similarly a Half Hundred should show 50 hides. The 
aim of this arrangement appears to have been simplicity 
of calculation for the Treasury : " at the normal Dane- 
geld rate of two shillings on the hide, an assessment of 
fifty hides would represent ,£5, one hundred hides £ 10, 
and so on*." The second column of Table II shows 
that in many cases the approximation to the theoretical 
number in this county was very close; Barford Biggles- 
wade Clifton Flitt Stodden and Wensley have reckoned 
up their lands and apportioned their assessment with 
great arithmetical success, but the remaining six Hun- 
dreds show from 4 to 25 per cent, more hides than the 
normal. It will be noticed that the serious differences 
from the theoretical 100 hides are all in the direction of 
excess, and may perhaps be attributed partly to actual 
increase in the arable area, due to assarting, that is, to 
clearing and cultivation of former waste. The chief 
variations are entirely on the west side of the county, 
namely (from north to south) in Buckley Redbornstoke 
Manshead and Stanbridge. One can hardly expect to 
account for these to-day, but there is evidence (§ 76) in 
the text of D.B. to show that Ralf Taillebosc when 
sheriff made alterations arbitrarily in Hundreds as in 
other things. 

§ 46. Odecroft Hundred. — The most marked 
excess of hides is shown by the Hundreds of Manshead 
and Stanbridge, respectively 23.5 and 25.0 per cent, too 
large; and one is tempted to speculate whether it is 
possible from this to trace the lost Hundred of Odecroft. 
(i) Of it we only know that Sewell 8 was taken from it 
and added to Houghton Regis by Ralf Taillebosc. (ii) 
It is clear from Map I that Hockliffe has been added at 
some date to Manshead ; the obvious boundary of that 
Hundred — the Watling Street — cuts Hockliffe from 
Manshead as it cuts Sewell from Houghton Regis, 
(iii) Ralf Taillebosc added 17 hides to Leighton, to 
which they did not formerly lie (Leighton 2); it is not 
difficult to see in these hides Billington and Eggington, 
with parts of the hamlet of Stanbridge and perhaps of 
Heath and Reach (Gladley), all of which are or were 
till recently hamlets of Leighton. If we now add these 
to the D.B. Half Hundred of Stanbridge (Sewell 5b.. 
ov. + Hockliffe ioh. ov. + additions to Leighton 
1 7h. ov. + Stanbridge Half Hundred ^>2h. 2v. = 94h. 
2V.), we seem to be getting as near as can be expected to 
the figure required for a lost Hundred ; the remaining 
5h. could be supplied by Barworth, which seems always 
to have been imperfectly detached from Bedfordshire. 
This suggestion is pure speculation, but may indicate a 
line of future research. 

§ 47. The Hundreds and the "County Hid- 
age." — The 1200 hides which are assigned to 
Bedfordshire by this document, according to theory 
should have been distributed (? were once distributed) 
among 12 Hundreds. We can only muster in D.B. 9 
Hundreds and (including Bedford) 4 Half Hundreds 
— 11 Hundreds in all. The ancient demesne of the 
Crown, although extracentenal in D.B. (except for 
Biscot), was hidated like the rest, and we can only sup- 

a. Round : F.E., ^5. 

b. The words can be read as implying that this had only been hidated 
T.R.W., after its annexation by the Bishop of Lincoln. But this is not 
certain, though probable. 



pose that its 90 hides were originally ranked fiscally as 
a Hundred. But if we go back only to the shrievalty of 
Ralf Taillebosc, we see that these 90 hides must be re- 
duced by 25, for he added 17I1. to Leighton (Leighton 
2), 3h. to Houghton Regis (Sewell 8), and 5h. to Luton 
(Biscot 9). This bears out what was said above as to 
the instability of the Hundreds; the institution was ex- 
traordinarily permanent, but its application could be 
varied ; and it may be doubted whether at this date it is 
possible to deduce their ancient arrangement; for ex- 
ample, to explain the detached portion of Stodden, or 
the shattered character of Buckley Half Hundred. 

THE BURGH. 

§ 48. Fiscal Status of Bedford. — From the 
fiscal standpoint, the burgh of Bedford was practically 
negligible. It answered as a Half Hundred for re- 
cruiting, but the land inside its boundaries had not been 
assessed in hides, save for one hide of Church land. 1 ' If 
the land was not hidated, the land presumably did not 
pay geld.° An explanation of the apparent exemption 
from geld has been hazarded below (§ 72). 

THE VII.L. 

§ 49. D.B. vills and Bedfordshire villages. 

— A number of place-names are found in D.B. which 
are not familiar, even to those who know the country- 
side fairly well. Many of these however are still to be 
found on the Ordnance Survey, little altered after 835 
years, as names of outlying farms and hamlets; such as 
Pcgsdon, Millo, Putnoe, and Polehanger. Others can 
be traced by means of later records (medieval and post- 
medieval), such as Sudbury in Eaton Socon, VVestcotts 
in Wilshamstead, and Gladley in Heath and Reach. 
Since the names of modern parishes as well as the D.B. 
vills are shown on the maps at the end of this volume, 
there is no need to discuss here those identifications 
which are generally admitted by students of Domesday. 

§ 50. D. B. vills of uncertain locality. — A 

few places however still remain, the geographical posi- 
tion of which is not yet universally accepted. With 
most of these the present writer has attempted to deal 
elsewhere. 

Estone (B.H.R.S., i, 70-73). Nothing has been 
found to militate against the suggestion, made in 191 3, 
that this represented Little Staughton. But it seems 
now possible that the extrinsec Estone may have been 
in Staughton, and not in Easton, co. Hunts. 

Elvendone and Se£resdone (B.H.R.S., vi, 198-9. 
201). These probably lay in or near the present 
Pertenhall; under the latter name only one virgate is 
recorded by D.B., and that lay to Huntingdonshire. 

Hanefeld, as we may fairly infer from its tenure 
by William de Warenne, probably lay also in this neigh- 
bourhood. The name has not been noticed since D.B., 
but, as Mr. Airy very reasonably suggested, its first 
syllables are perhaps preserved by Honey Hill in Per- 
tenhall. 

Chainhalle. I have already ventured' 1 to iden- 
tify this with Ravensden. No new evidence has ap- 

c. " Nescitur quot hidae sunt ihi quia non reddidit celdum T.R.E." ; 
14 Haec terra numquam per hidas diuisa fuit neque geldauit." Dorset D.B., 
quoted by Eyton : Key to Domesday, Dorset, p. 6. 

d. B.H-R.S., i, 63, 64; ii, 26c, a66. 



' 58 



PAKT 111 



§ 51-52 



pcared since then; and it seems probable that the mill 
did not lie within the boundaries of the modern parish 
(§ 184). This docs not however impugn the feudal evi- 
dence, for mills were sometimes separated from their 
manors (Bromham 302), and even to-day the mills of 
Bletsoe and Pulloxhill are still detached from their 
proper parishes. 

The identification of Chainhalle with Channel's End in Colriwortli 1 ' 
places it in a wrong Hundred, and is further unlikely because the Ch 
would probably have a hard sound as in Chaitiehou (Cainho), Chenemon- 
dewiche (Kimwick), Cbaisot (Keysoe), etc.'. The — halle or — hale (Ang. 
Sax. healh), said by Prof. Skeat to have bean long obsolete as an inde- 
pendent word, was still in. use as field-name in Ravensden at the Award of 
i8i6<l, in which Mowing Haie, Ploughed Hale, Swerd Hale, etc-, are re- 
corded. Gain's Meadow occurs in this Award, but unfortunately not Gain 
Hale which would give a reasonable modification of Chainhalle' — Accord- 
ing to Mr. Airy, but without reason assigned, Chainhalle is Renhold, 
Sah hou is Ravensdcri; tins is possible but unlikely, for Salphobury (Salph 
End) which admittedly represents Salchou is assuredly m Retinoid parish 
to-day. We may reasonably hope that the further study of records will 
some day place the matter on a more certain footing. 

Chenemondewicke (B.H.R.S., v. 60-73) nas been 
shown to have lain on the confines of Sandy Sutton and 
Potton. 

Cudsand. There can be little doubt that this is 
represented approximately by Shefford and Shefford 
Hardwicke; but the matter seems to be at present in- 
capable of absolute proof owing to the very early union 
of Shefford with Campton, and to the fact that the name 
Cudsand docs not reappear after D.B. 

We start in D.U. with two holders of land in Cudsand ; Walter Giffard 
held 3h. 2V. in Cudsand 82, and Hugh de Beauchamp held 2h. in Cudsand 
178; of these two men, Walter Giffard also held in Campton, but Hugh did 
not. A charter of Payne de Beauchamp,* proabbly granted between 1147 and 
ri53, shows hirn confirming as overlord a small grant made from ' his fee in 
Campton' to the Priory of Chicksand ; and a charter of William de Beau- 
rhainp,* probably granted between 1206 and 1210, contains a similar con- 
firmation to Chicksand of grants ' from his fee in Campton,' which by now 
amounted to 8 virgates. Not only had the Beauchamps no fee in Campton 
at D.B., but the amount of land shown in these charters as granted from 
their fee 1 there,' is just equivalent to their D.B. holding in Cudsand. The 
D.B. overlordship of Giffard passed to the Honour of the Earl Marshal of 
Pembroke, and towards 1242 we find h a fuz Gerald as tenant of Campton 
under that Honour; and when Shefford first appears by name among feudal 
aids in 1316', we read that " Campton cum Shefford is one vill," and is 
held by Robert de Plsle (descendant of fitz Gerald), and by the Prior of 
Chicksand. We may summarise the probable history of the land thus: — 

Shefford. 

3b. 2v. of the fee of Giffard in Cudsand in 10S6: 
added as Shefford to the fee of fitz Gerald in Campton before 1316 
probably before 1219). 

Shefford Hardwicke. 

2h. of the fee of Beauchamp in Cudsand in 1086. 

8v. of the fee of Beauchamp in ' Campton ' granted by subtenants to 

Chicksand Priory before 1219, 
united with Campton before 1316. 

Of incidental evidence, it is noteworthy that Shefford Hardwicke. like Chick- 
sand but unlike Shefford, was extra-parochial until recent times, a survival 
of its ownership by the Priory. Further, D.B. records that " there could be a 
mill " on Walter Giffard's moiety; for this there was water more than 
sufficient at Shefford, but not at Shefford Hardwicke ; having a mill at 
Campton, he probably found the one adequate to his needs. 

§ 51. Existing villages not named in D.B. — 

- — -In addition to purelv modern civil parishes, and to 
places where a newer (but still old) name has replaced 
the D.B. (but still extant) name — for example Charlton 
and Mogerhanger, Salpho and Renhold. Segenho and 
Ridgmont,— -there are yet some conspicuous omissions 
from our record. Of these, Pertcnhall, Ravensden, 
Shefford and Staughton have been noted in the preced- 
ing paragraph ; but there remain a few for mention here. 

b. V.C.H., i, 237b. 

c. Exceptions are furnished by Chicksand and Chawstoo. 

d. Beds. C.C. Muniments, Award Book L, 137-130. 

e. Gain Hale or Gaynes Hall, co. Hunts, is for many reasons inadmissible. 

f. B.H.R.S., i, 103. 

g. B.H.R.S., i, 105. 

h. Testa de Nevill (R.C.), 247. 

i. Feudal Aids (R.S.), i, 20. Shefford is indexed as if in co. Berks. 



Ghellington is assigned by Mr. Round 1 to an un- 
named holding in Willey Hundred, numbered 28 in the 
Tables (§ 52). 

Dunstable was not founded till the reign of 
Henry I. 

Souldrop is suggested" to have been included 
among the 4J2 hides of the Bishop of Coutances in 
Sharnbrook, but it is also possible that it was merged in 
Knotting. 

Westoning in 10S6 was returned under Hertford- 
shire, having been attached to the royal manor of Hit- 
chin (sec Schedule to Table I, § 20). 

Whipsnade has been regarded' as having been in- 
cluded by D.B. in the extensive manor of Eaton Bray, 
but its later history rather suggests that it was returned 
under Studham. The earliest record of the name at 
present noted is in 1 ?02"\ Part of it lay physically in 
Herts, until the last century. 

Wrestlingworth is not mentioned by name in the 
Survey. Mr. Airy identified it" with Weratewordc in the 
Cambridgeshire return, but this entry has been shown" 
to refer to Wratworth in Orwell, co. Cambs. It appears 
however, on investigation, to have been duly recorded 
under the name of Hatley. 

Here Azelina Taillebosc held 5I1. i.Vv. (Hatley 339), and Countess Judith 
had 3I1. 2iv. (Hatley 322). In the Testa de Nevill (circa 1242), the Bed- 
fordshire Hatley is apparently not mentioned, nor is there any trace of 
Azelina's manor shown under the Barony of Bedford ; this is annoying, 
but by no means unparalleled, for many manors do not figure in the Testa; 
Wrestlingworth, however, appears^ correctly as of the Honour of Huntingdon 
(into which Countess Judith's honour had fallen), and as held from it by 
William de Huntercumbe. In the Feudal Aid ..t 12S4 — we find once 
more both of the D.B. estates in Hatley- Hal Icy itself was held by William 
de Port from Roger l'Kstrange, a coheir of the Beauchamp It. irony into 
which Azelina's lands had fallen; and this Beauchamp fee is Mill traceable 
in the Feudal Aids of 1346 and 1428. Wrestlingworth was in 1284-1286 held 
by Walter de Huntercumbe 111 chief of the King, the Earldom of Huntingdon 
having long escheated to the Crown. The descent of the lands may be 
summarised thus : — 

Overlord. Undertenant. 

Hatley Tort, alias Hatley 
Cockayne. 

D.B., 10S6. Azelina Taillebosc. None. 

c. 1242. [Barony of Beauchamp. J [Adam de Port]. 

Feud. Aid, 1284-6. Barony of Beauchamp 

(PEstrange) William de Port. 

Hatley (later Wrestling, 
worth). 

D.B., 10S6. Countess Judith. None. 

Testa, c. 1242. Honour of Huntingdon. William de Huntercumbe. 

Feud. Aid 1284-6. The King (escheat). Walter de Pluntercumbe. 

It is fairly obvious that, whether Wrestlingworth 
was regarded in 1086 as part of Hatley, or the scribe 
copied a wrong name, the two manors figure under one 
name in D.B. Of the two alternatives the writer inclines 
to the former, that ' Hatley ' covered both Hatley Port 
(afterwards called H. Cockayne) and Wrestlingworth, 
just as it undoubtedly also covered qh. iv. which now 
form Hatley St. George and Fast Hatley just across 
the Cambridgeshire border, and were also returned 
simply as Hatelai without any qualification. 



It is possible to 



§ 52. Unnamed holdings. 

locate some at least of these. 

308. In Barford Hundred. — Mr. Round gives good 
reason for thinking that this holding was probably in 
Sudbury (V.C.H., i, 258, note 3). 

j. V.C.H., i. 225, n. 5. 
k. V.C.H., iii, ^. 
1. V.C.H.. iii, 455. 
m. B.H.R.S., i, 187. 

n. Digest of Bedfordshire Domesday, 98. 

o. V-CH., i, 216. 

p. Testa de Nevill (R.C.), 243. 

q. Feudal Aids (R.S.), i, 3. Adam de Port was already here in 119S; 
B.H.R.S., vi, 13, no. 30. 



§ 53— 55 



PART III 



54 



203. In Biggleswade Hundred. — As the other four 
holdings of Fulcher of Paris were all in Stratton and 
Holme, and as in the Testa de Nevill the only holdings 
of d'Albini of Cainhoe in this Hundred were at Stratton 
and Holme, this unnamed holding may reasonably be 
placed somewhere in the present parish of Biggleswade. 

180. In Manshead Hundred. — In a Saxon charter 
of A.D. 969 (B.H.R.S., v, 45-47), Aspley Guise is 
granted as 15 hides, apparently including Holcote. In 
D.B. Aspley is returned at 10 hides, Holcote at 4 hides 
held by Ralf Passelewe from William Spech, so that 
one hide of Holcote seems to be missing. In the Testa 
de Nevill of about 1242 the 'Frailly heirs of the Spech 
barony are duly found at Holcote and still with a Passe- 
lewe undertenant; but, in addition, the d'Albini barony 
of Cainhoe is also found to hold in Holcote + Hus- 
borne Crawley + Tingrith, and these are its only lands 
in this Hundred. Now Crawley (179) and Tingrith 
(181) both appear in D.B. as d'Albini land, and this 
unnamed entry comes between them ; the obvious in- 
ference is that the missing hide of Holcote is this un- 
named hide entered to Nigel d'Albini as in this Hundred. 

376. In Stodden Hundred. — There is no feudal 
evidence by which to identify this. In this Hundred the 
five-hide principle of assessment (§ 53) is universal 
among the Bedfordshire vills, except in the broken 
ground at and near Staughton (9b. i-^v.) and at Boln- 
hurst (4I1. 2V.); by the addition of these two virgates to 
Bolnhurst, the vill and the scheme of assessment would 
be completed. But this is guess-work, not evidence. 

28. In W'illcy Hundred. — D.B. is silent as to both 
Chellington and Souldrop in this Hundred. Its later 
history seems to indicate that Souldrop may have been 
included among the lands of the Bishop of Coutances 
in Sharnbrook or Knotting; and Mr. Round (V.C.H., i, 
225, note 4) gives reasons for thinking that this unnamed 
holding represents Chellington. 

380. In Willey Hundred.— There is no evidence 
by which to identify this small holding. 

§ 53. The Five -Hide Unit.- In no county as 
yet studied is this more clearly marked than in Bedford- 
shire. To Mr. Round's advocacy is due the general 
acceptance of the view that, the assessment to Danegeld 
having been laid on the Hundred, that institution 
divided the total sum more or less fairly among its vills, 
according to the extent and value of their land. The 
rating unit (we speak of Bedfordshire) was the hide of 
land ; and by a system which may have been based either 
on arithmetical conveniency or on tradition from a remote 
past*, the hundred hides of a Hundred were assessed on 
the vills by fives or multiples of five. The second 
column of Table II. shows how closely this system was 
followed; for example, Barford Hundred shows 3 fives, 
3 tens, 2 twenties of hides. Naturally, a very small area 
could not be rated at so much as 5 hides without upset- 
ting the fair proportion throughout the Hundred ; but 
many of the apparent exceptions are so arranged as 
together to complete the number 5 or its multiple. Thus, 
for example, in Biggleswade Hundred the adjacent vills 
Stratton and Holme together just fall short of 15 hides. 

a. One well-maintained theory regards the Hundred as having been 
originally the area of settlement of a hundred men and their families; and 
the hide (hiwscipe) is translated by Bede as the place of one family ; the 
charter of Aspley already quoted uses " fifteen husbandmen," and " fifteen 
hides," as synonymous. For a discussion of the Hundred, Stubbs: Con- 
stitutional History, vol. i, ch. v, should be read. 



The system was as useful to local arithmetic as the 
Hundred system was to the central Treasury (§ 45); at 
the ' normal ' rate of 2s. on the hide, the geld on 5h.= 
ios., ioh. = 1 li., and so on; even fractions were fairly 
easy, for iv. should yield 6d. 

THE AREAL MEASURES. 

THE HIDE. 

§ 54. The Fiscal Hide and the Areal Flide. 

— The terms employed for land measurement in D.B. 
have been, and probably will yet be, the subject of much 
discussion; but, thanks to the work of Seebohm Maitland 
Round and others, they have become more intelligible. 
When the Normans arrived in England, the chief units 
of land measurement then in use were (a) the old Saxon 
hide, the land of one family, divisible into 4 virgates, 
and (b) the carucate" or plough-gang, divisible into 8 
bovates or ox-gangs, found in those parts of England 
where the invading Danes had settled in such large 
numbers as to dictate their own land-measures. Bed- 
fordshire belongs to the hidated districts; but it is not 
far from the carucated or Danish districts (see map, 
§ 140), and the word carucate is not unknown in its D.B. 
(§ 58). But even before the Conquest, the conception 
of hides and carucates ' for assessment ' (ad geldum) had 
grown up; there came to be fiscal hides and virgates, 
fiscal carucates and bovates. alongside of the old areal 
measures and their subdivisions. In order therefore to 
avoid confusion at the Great Survey, the hides or cam 
cates for which each holding answers seem tn be treated 
purely as fiscal conventions, and in be arbitrary estimates 
of land for purposes of revenue. We thus arrive at the 
Hidage of column ii in Tables I - 1 1 1 , as the mere assess- 
ment on which the holding has to pay Danegeld. There 
is nothing remarkable about this system ; a house to-day 
is assessed at a certain number of ' pounds,' which have 
varied neither with the depreciation which followed 
the passing of Land Valuation (Finance Act, 1910), nor 
with the appreciation due to the shortage of houses after 
the war; these ' pounds ' bear a but shadowy relation to 
the real value of a pound sterling at any moment. 

§ 55. The original principle of assessment. — 

— Granted that the hides virgates and acres of our D.B. 
were not supposed to represent actual areas, we may 
fairly ask what evidence our country affords of an earlier 
system, in which " the hide for Danegeld " was an actual 
measure of land (as measures vaguely went). It must 
be obvious to any reader of D.B. that, in the description 
of the holdings, there is frequently an equality between 
the number of hides and the number of teamlands. On 
a rough count, there seem to be 112 cases out of 369 
holdings in which the equation 1 hide=t teamland is 
exactly true; it is thus true on 30 per cent, of the hold- 
ings, and on very many more it is true within a fraction ; 
the remaining cases are above or below this norm. We 
seem to have here the persistence from a remote date of 
the original principle of hidation- — that each teamland 
was assessed at one hide — even though the principle has 
been modified in many cases with the progress of time. 
Henry of Huntingdon* writing about 1130, explains, 

b. Those who are unaccustomed to D.B. terms must keep in mind the 
difference between land for one caruca or plough, here translated team- 
land; the carucate or plough-gang, a Danish measure of assessment; and 
the carucate in Beds., meaning a non-gelding hide (§ 58). 

c. R.S. 74, p. 176. " Hida autem Anglic? vocatur terTa unius aratri 
culturae surficiens per annum." 



60 



PART III 



§ 56- 59 



when recording a geld on hides levied in 1008, that " a 
hide is the English name for land sufficient for the cul- 
tivation of one plough in the year," is, in fact, what we 
are calling a team land. 

§ 56. The excess of teamlands. — In the 
majority of the 369 holdings the number of teamlands 
exceeds the number of the hides. For this ratio, the 
term " beneficial nidation " was coined by Eyton, mean- 
ing an assessment, to the benefit of the tenant, on a basis 
proportionately lower than that on the average holding. 
It may be the result of an extension of the arable due to 
the agricultural efficiency of the tenant since a former 
assessment, or may be assigned to a deliberate 
favouritism such as seems to be clearly marked in the 
case of the royal manors; probably both these factors 
are involved. Be this as it may, we find that when the 
ratio of hides to teamlands is calculated for each Hun- 
dred, the average gives 1.25 teamlands to every hide. 
A similar calculation for the whole county, from the 
D.B. totals in Table III., shows 1.35 teamlands to every 
hide. This seems to mean that, since the assessment 
recorded in D.B. was first settled, the assessable value 
of the county has been increased by a quarter or more ; 
or, in other words, the rate of assessment has fallen by 
that amount, an ample reason for the appointment of 
the D.B. Commissioners. 

§ 57. Date of the assessment. — On the one 
hand, the frequency of the five-hide system shows that 
this undoubtedly formed the basis of assessment; on the 
other, the variations from it seem to indicate that the 
assessment which was valid in 10S6 had been fixed at 
some time before that date; and that since then sub- 
division, change of ownership, and extension of the 
arable area, had varied the original proportions. Unlike 
some counties," Bedfordshire does not show in its D.B. 
that any revision of assessment had been recently made. 
The contraction defd' is used throughout our record for 
the liability of a vill (compare the entry given in § 8), 
and it is not possible to decide whether this stands for 
defendit or defendebat, for a present or for a past tense. 
In Leighton 2, it is qualified by the addition of modo, 
and certainly represents a present tense. In Sewell 8, 
Biscot g, and Totternhoe 233, it is qualified by the addi- 
tion of the letters T.R.E., and equally certainly stands 
for defendebat. Though Mr. Ragg employs the present 
tense throughout his V.C.H. translation of our D.B. (ex- 
cept in the three entries just mentioned), I incline to the 
belief that the scribe was thinking defendebat when he 
wrote defd', and was recording the assessment T.R.E. 
or of a yet earlier date. The view has been held" that 
one object in the compilation of D.B. was a general re- 
assessment of the realm, but there is no proof that this 
was achieved until a very much later date. If we try 
to get some idea of the date when the assessment valid 
in 1086 was settled, we are on most uncertain ground, 
since only two of the Saxon land-books which have been 
preserved to us give the area and boundaries of the 
land concerned. In one case, the grant of Chalgrave 
and Tebworth in the year 926 describes the land as of 
5 hides, and Mr. Gurney has shown that the boundaries 
then given tally almost exactly with the parish of 1919'; 
but since D.B. assigns 8h. iv. to Chalgrave, this looks 

a. Cambridgeshire in Round : feudal England, ^ i -54. 

b. Maitland: D.B., 4. 

c. B H.R.S . v, 163-170. 

e. " Rreter hanc sunt ibi ij carucate terre que nunquam diuise sunt per 



like an assessment increased since 92b. In the second 
case, Aspley (Guise) was granted in 969 as 15 hides, 
while D.B. only charges it with 10 hides, and this at first 
looks like a lowered assessment; but there is reason to 
believe from the description of the boundaries that 
Holcote was then included in the 15 hides; and Aspley 
at ioh. + Holcote at 4 h. + the unnamed holding no. 
180 (§ 52) at ih. = 15 hides; if this be so, the assess- 
ment had been unaltered since 9G9, although the owner- 
ship had been divided at the Conquest. It is not to be 
inferred from these cases that the boundaries of all the 
vills remain to-day as they were in 10S6 (§ 39, 69). 

THE CARUCATE. 

§ 58. Meaning and Extent of the Carucate. 

— In those parts of England where the Danes settled in 
large numbers, the carucate is employed in D.B. as the 
unit of land assessment instead of the hide, and simi- 
larly seems to have represented something like 120 
acres. In Bedfordshire carucates are rarely mentioned, 
and then only as demesne land additional to the hides 
already returned for assessment: — "The Abbot of 

Thorney holds two hides and one virgate of land 

In demesne is one carucate of land besides (extra or 
preter) the two hides and one virgate." It is generally 
held that such carucates in a hidated country imply non- 
gelding land, land which had been exempted from pay- 
ment towards Danegeld, presumably in pre-Conquest 
time. 

At the Conquest two terms of land measurement for assessment were 
in use over the greater part of England : — the Saxon hiwscipc or hid (latinised 
as hida), and something which the Danes may have called a plough-gang or 
a plough of land and the Normans latinised as carucata ; the returns o( the 
hidated and carueated counties were respectively drawn up iu terms ol the 
local reckoning. Hut in the hidated counties the Norman clerks were con- 
fronted with these non-gelding plough lands, for which there was no general 
term, and seem to have rendered them also as carucata, 0 — to our great con- 
fusion. If that be so, the occurrence of the term with this sense docs not 
necessarily imply Danish settlement.* There are only five entries in which 
it occurs : 

Hidage. Carucates. Teamlands. Teams. 





h.v. 








Holnhurst 62 


2.1 


1 




6 


Clapham 99 


5.0 


10 


■ 3° • 


• 30 


Toddington 101 


15.0 


10 


- 30 . 


■ 3° 


Staugliton 256 


2.0 


2 


5 • 


5 


Chalgrave, 283 


8.1 .. 


3 - 


10 


10 



It is fairly evident that these carucates are additional to the hides, but not 
necessarily to the teamlands, and therefore not to the acreage, for the teams 
accounted for are equal to the teamlands in all cases but one; in that one 
case carucate 4- teamlands = teams. 

THE TEAMEAND. 

§ 59. The team of eight oxen. — At the base 
of our D.B. ' measures ' lie the ox and the pig. The 
latter useful animal will be discussed in § 65-67 ; at the 
moment the ox claims notice. In Bedfordshire at least 
there can be no doubt that when the jurors said " There 
is land for one plough," they had in mind the area which 
a plough of eight oxen could keep in cultivation ; when 
they said that there was land for two oxen, they thought 
of a quarter of that area; and so downwards till we reach 
the classic fraction — " Terra est dimidio boui et ibi est 
semibos " — meaning, as Maitland pleasantly puts it, not 
a monstrous birth, but the sixteenth part of a teamland 
for which the tenant and another found an ox between 
them. The whole treatment of the land and its fractions 
becomes intelligible only if the plough-team consisted 
of eight oxen; the jurors expressed the land in terms of 

hidas." 11 Carucatas que nunquam dedorunt gildam." Eyton : Introd. to 
D.B., Dorset, pp. 19, 20. 

f. Though it is interesting and suggestive that Chalgrave had been pur- 
chased from a Dane (B.H.R.S, v, 42-44), and yields one of the few occurrences 
of carucates in the county. 



§ 60—63 



PART III 



61 



the plough and its team, where we express ourselves in 
terms of surface measure, acres and so forth; its import- 
ance was natural enough, for if you cannot plough you 
starve. In order to avoid confusion with the Danish 
carucate (plough-gang), the caruca of hidated counties is 
generally translated as a teamland. 

We are not bound to believe that the full team of 
eight were always yoked in the plough together. When 
the jurors say " One plough is there, and there can be a 
half [plough]," the statement would be meaningless if 
four oxen could not under some circumstances draw the 
plough. A woodman's ' team ' to-day is, we understand, 
of four or five horses, but he will not harness the whole 
team to haul half-grown timber. 

§ 60. Area of the Teamland. — Unlike the hide, 
the teamland seems to have meant in the minds of 
the D.B. jurors a definite parcel of land. When they said 
" There is land for twelve ploughs. On demesne are two 
ploughs and there can be a third, and sixteen villans 
have eight ploughs and there can be a ninth," they were 
plain men and presumably meant what they said, — that 
there was enough suitable cleared land to employ two 
ploughs more than were on the land ; they knew how 
much land in their own vill a plough could keep in culti- 
vation, and could have laid out what they meant by a 
teamland with practical accuracy. But in the vill from 
the entry of which the quotation above has been taken, 
the land is chiefly sand and loam; and it does not follow 
that, when the jurors of some near-bv vill on heavy soil 
made a similar return, thev would have laid out so large 
a teamland as the other men. 

No phrase in the Bedfordshire D.B. throws any 
light on the number of acres included in a teamland; 
therefore any general discussion of the point would be 
out of place here. Eyton, a pioneer in all D.B. research, 
regarded 120 acres as the definite fixed amount intended 
by the jurors. Maitland* reluctantly comes to the conclu- 
sion that the land for one team " does not in the first 
instance denote a fixed areal quantity of arable land "; 
but his difficulty appears (as so often) to be due to an 
attempt to bring all counties under one and the same 
principle. Though it does seem to be admitted, even 
by Maitland, that in this part of England the teamland 
is best represented by 120 acres, we must not lean too 
heavily on this exact figure ; it probably varied with the 
nature of the soil ; and the teamland was not measured 
but guessed for the purposes of the return, — guessed by 
a primitive rustic folk who had no idea of ' square 
measure,' and whose only surveying instruments were 
their own feet and a ' pole ' of very undecided length. 
Still, we may accept with safety a teamland of 120 acres, 
with a rather elastic boundary capable of some expan- 
sion and contraction as needed. 

THE ACRE. 

§ 61. Nature of the D.B. acre. — Unlike 
Huntingdonshire, where meadow is nearly always and 
woodland is often recorded by the acre, this unit of 
measurement is rarely mentioned in our Survey, and 
only in cases of claim or protest. We find 

a. Maitland : D.B., 418. 

b. Inter siluam et planum. The phrase seems to refer to woodland and 
tilled land taken together—' by wode and by felde.' (V.C.H. Herts., i, 291). 

c. Pole, rod, perch, virga, are only different names for a long stick. 

d. B.H.R.S., vi, 13. 



20 acres of woodland. 

60 acres between field and wood. b 
12 acres of meadow. 
16 acres of arable. 

3 acres of woodland. 
25 acres [? of arable]. 
i\ acres of meadow. 

7 acres of arable. 

1 aero of ? 
12 acres of arable. 
30 acres between wood and field. b 



Staughton 24. 
Staughton 37. 
Barton 53. 
Milton f.rnest 99a. 
Sandy 10S. 
Maulden 190. 
Chawston 215. 
Chawston 215. 
Chawston 215. 
Pavenhani 230. 
Houghton Conquest 331. 



It is significant that the jurors only use ' acres ' for 
arable land when their number cannot be expressed in 
terms of the plough and its team; 16, 25, 7, and 12 acres 
cannot be turned into sixteenths, eighths, etc., of the 
teamland. That they should have used ' acres ' for 
meadow and wood, or for mixed arable and wood, is 
readily to be understood. But of what kind of acres do 
they speak ? for in some counties there are fiscal acres 
— 120 to the hide — alongside of the actual areal acres. 
The probability is that these Bedfordshire acres were 
thought of as aieal acres : firstly because 20, 30, and 60 
fiscal acres could have been expressed in the way usual 
in D.B. as two-thirds of a virgate, one viroate, and half 
a hide; secondly, because woodland, returned by itself 
for fiscal purposes, was actually expressed in the usual 
way as a half hide (Southill, 246, 262). 

§ 62. Area of the acre. — Accurate measurement 
must not be expected in 10S6. To the husbandman of 
that date the acre was in essence the day's work with the 
team; he ploughed a furrow-long (furlong) as far as his 
team could pull without a rest, turned in a wide sweep 
on the headland and ploughed back again, repeating 
this till the block between his first two furrows had been 
all turned; four of such blocks made a good day's work 
and' his ' acre.' If he wanted— it may be doubted 
whether he wanted — to measure his land, he had the 
length of his own foot to start with ; from this he got a 
new tool, for he could lay off a pole of so many feet. 
But — of how many feet? As soon as we get a definite 
statement, we learn that the acre was measured by 40 
poles" along each side, and by 4 poles along the top and 
bottom. A century after D.B., within the first six charters 
to Bushmead Priory, we find perches of 15-J feet 
and of 18 feet both used in one Bedfordshire village; 
these yield ' acres ' of 38440 and 51840 square feet re- 
spectively, while our modern acre includes only 43560 
square feet; the first being 22 per cent, smaller, the 
second 19 per cent, larger, than our present acre. Worse 
still, we have a pole (perch) of 20 feet in 1 197 J , but there 
is some reason to think that specially long poles were 
used to measure woodland". Small wonder that quarrels 
arose when land was sold " by the perches of that vill "'. 
But in all likelihood the D.B. husbandman knew naught 
of these things; to him an acre was a piece of land which 
he could just about plough in a day; and he used it as 
an easy way of expressing woodland and meadow of the 
same area. Dr. Round has however 1 suggested that the 
D.B. acre of meadow was a day's math — as much as 
could be mown in a day. 

THE MEADOW LAND. 

§ 63. The meadow and the team. — The meadow 
land seems to have been set aside specially for 
hay and for green fodder, and was naturally valuable. 

e. For a recent discussion of the subject, see Turner, pp. xciii. — exxiii. 
Also V.C.H. Northants., i, 281, for authorities for the woodland perch. 

f. B.H.R.S., iii, 91, 92. 

g. Round : Domesday Studies, 218-220. 



62 



PART HI 



§ 64— a, 



It is quite obvious, however, that it was not 
indispensable to agriculture, for we have 1400 
teams in the county (13 total, cols, vi and ix, Table III), 
but meadow for only 830 teams (col. xiii). This great 
disproportion — if we may judge from a later husbandry 
— can be explained by the early practices of grazing 
beasts on fallow and stubble, and of selling or killing 
and salting down for winter consumption the superfluous 
Stock for which no winter keep was available. At any 
rate for 570 teams there was no meadow, and what was 
there for the horses, :,heep and cows, of which our D.B. 
seldom or never speaks ? 

Our only clue lies in later agricultural practice; 
Walter of Henley" in the early xiiith. century assigns to 
draught horses (p. 13) oats nightly and twelve penny- 
worth of green fodder in summer; he speaks of cows 
(pp. 26, 27) only as on pasture; hay he only mentions 
(p. 31) as fed to sheep; but if the ox is to do his work 
(si le buef deyt estre en poynt a fere son ouerayne, p. 13), 
he must have 3^. sheaves of oats every week, and twelve 
pennyworth of green food in summer. Walter does not 
tell us how much meadow yielded twelve pennyworth of 
grass; but an anonymous Husbandry', apparently his 
contemporary, explains (p. 69) that an acre of meadow 
can be mown for fourpence. If a fair inference may be 
drawn from these treatises, then, a hundred and fifty 
years after D.B., three acres were meadow enough for an 
ox or twenty four acres for the full team. 

§ 64. User of the meadow. — The meadow 
land is returned apparently as a manorial profit, but it 
is not stated by whom or by what right it was enjoyed. 
It has been maintained that the meadow was common to 
all who held land, and it may safely be granted that it 
was common grazing land after the hay had been carried ; 
later suits and fines confirm this practice. But its value 
and comparative scarcity raise more than a little scep- 
ticism as to common rights over the crop of green fodder 
and hay ; it is not obvious why this crop should be 
communal any more than was the grain". In some cases 
— in all of which the meadow was sufficient or more than 
sufficient for the teams on his land — it does appear that 
others besides the lord enjoyed the meadow land, and 
paid a customary rent for the privilege. They are as 
follows, and include the only mention of hay in the 
record. 

Langford 245 ... Meadow for 16 teams and 2s. surplus. 

Sutton 314 ... „ 1} „ ,, i6d. 

Sutton 316 ... „ i ,, ., i^d. 

Sutton 365 ... „ 2 „ >, "d. 

Biggleswade 289 ... .. 10 „ ,. from hay. 

Whether, in other cases where the area of meadow was 
sufficient to the teams, it was regarded as communal 
property, may well be doubted in the absence of direct 
evidence. The mere fact that it is recorded in our geld- 
book seems to prove conclusively that it was a source of 
manorial profit, not a common right which could not be 
assessed for geld. 

THE WOODLAND. 

§ 65. Swine in woodland. — The head of swine 
carried by the woodland may perhaps help us to realise 
how much of the county was still under natural forest in 
1086. Mr. S. F. Edge, whose successful revival of the 
practice of keeping swine in Sussex woodland is well 

a. Roy. Hist. Soc, 1890. 

b. The unusually expansive entry at High Wycombe (V.C.H. Bucks., 1, 
258a) seems to confirm this view ; meadow for three teams, and the horses 



known, was kind enough to reply to my queries that "m 
a good autumn with a reasonable number of acorns zxd 
nuts, 50 pigs would feed well and grow well on 100 at-<s 
for about i month. . . . To actually let pigs live all the 
year round in the woods is quite impossible without 
ditional food, unless a considerable amount of grass as» 
other form of herbage exists. Wood without undej- 
growth will support more pigs than wood with thick 
undergrowth, which conceals all the ground plants 
Again, a great deal depends on how wet the ground it. 
Under old conditions when there was a great deal of 
marshy ground, pigs got a great deal of food from snails* 
worms and things of that sort, which are excellent food, 
but under modern conditions, where there is decenf 
drainage there is nothing like the quantity ol food." lo 
appears therefore that under present-day conditions of 
forestry and drainage, at the most favourable time oi 
year, one pig would need two acres in order to thrive. 
But natural forest is not like the orderly close-planterf 
woods of modern practice; it is far more open, grassy,, 
and marshy, a condition which survives in parts of the 
New Forest. And it is clear from other sources thac 
swine did run all the year in the open, unfed except that 
weaklings and sows which had newly farrowed were 
brought in and given leavings (eschetes) in a hard winter. 

" There ought to be a Swineherd on those manors 
where the swine can be kept and nourished in forest or 
in wood or in waste or in marsh, without feeding from 
the grange ; and if the swine can be kept with a little 
food from the grange in hard frost, then must a piggery 
be made in a marsh or a wood where the swine may be 
night and day. And then when the sows have farrowed, 
let them be driven with the weaker swine to the manors 
and be fed with leavings so long as the hard frost and 
bad weather last, and then driven back to the others. 
. . . For whoever will keep swine for [the whole] year 
at the costs of the grange, and will reckon the costs of 
provision for swine and swineherd together with the 
damage which they do yearly to the crops, he shall lose 
twice as much as he shall gain. And that can he soon 
see who will reckon it.' " 

The swine must be fed in winter, and especially 
towards its end : " in wynter geve yo' swine mete 
inowghe so \t \ey may haue pouer & be strong of hym 
selfe and spesyaly in feuerere marche and aprell for 
)>t tyme haue ]>ey moste nede." c Both the treatises here 
quoted were written about 150 years after D.B., and 
deal with a far more elaborated husbandry than is likely 
to have been practised in 1086. 

§ 66. Estimation of the woodland.- — Fortunately 
among the Feet of Fines published by the Society 
in 1919 is one which gives us a definite acreage 
required to common swine. In Fine 467, dated 1244, 
we read twice of common of pasture for so many swine 
" uel pro quolibet porco ad duas oues " or two sheep in- 
stead of each pig; and further, " ita quod unicuique 
acre assignate sunt duo oues," to each acre are as- 
signed two sheep. 

We have thus these equations : 2 sheep = 1 pig, 2 
sheep = 1 acre; therefore, 1 pig = 1 acre for common 
of pasture. Granted that the common in question was not 
in woodland, but in fields when the crops had been 
harvested, still we get some idea of the acreage needed 

of the court, and the villan teams is recorded, apparently as an exception, 
c. Walter of Henley: Roy. Hist. Soc. 1890, pp. 113-115, 54. 



§ 67— <9 



PAKT III 



63 



to carry swine; and if an acre of newly reaped stubble 
would carry a pig, probably i* acres of woodland 
would be more than sufficient. Mr. Airy" estimated 
that 3i acres would be required for each head of swine, 
but there does not seem to be room enough in the 
county for so generous an allowance. 

§ 67. Pannage. — The woodland with its head of 
swine appears among manorial profits, because payment 
for pannage was made, either in monev or kind or in 
both, by those whose swine fed there. It is held that, 
according to local custom, either the tenth or the seventh 
pig was exacted by the lord ; since the numbers of swine 
in D.B., when large, are almost invariably round num- 
bers in multiples of ten, it seems likely that the custom 
of the tenth pig ruled in this county. In some cases 
additional payments were exacted, in money or in kind : 



Cainhoe, 193 


Wood for ioo swine 


and 25. 


Clapham 99 


200 


„ Cd. 


ClOphlll Hj2 


200 „ 


, , i2d. 


Cranfield 52 


„ 1000 j, 


iron for [ ? a] plough. 


Eaton Bray 10 


j» „ 3<*» it 


i2d. therefrom. 


Harlingdon 1S3 


„ ,, 400 „ 


a rain and a load of cats 






from the wood. 


Hatley 339 


„ 4 


from rent 3s. 


I-titon 4 


„ 2000 ,, 


from the custom 10s. 8d. 


Mcppershall 381 


,, „ 200 


from the custom of the 






wood 10s. 


Salford 139 


» 15° " 


from the other custom 10s, 


Scgeuho 249 


,, ,, 300 


from custom of the wood 






10 rams yearly. 


Silsoe 250 


>» ■ > 10 


»> as. 


Stanford m 


» „ 60 „ 




Westcotts, 191 


100 


iron for [ ? a] plough. 



It appears therefore that pannage for swine was not 
purely a common right, or, if a right, could only be 
exercised in return for a customary payment in swine 
or other tilings. If the translation of the Salford entry 
(139) is correct (but there is neither definite nor indefinite 
article in Latin) ' the ' other custom implies the practice 
of the usual custom — that of paying the tenth (or seventh) 
Pig- 

THE PASTURE. 

§ 68. User of the pasture. — At the outset must 
be dismissed from mind the idea of the rich enclosures 
called pasture to-day, as well as that of the complicated 
common rights which were appurtenant to tenements 
from the xiiith. century till the period of the Enclosure 
Acts. The leading authorities appear to be agreed that 
in early time beasts were grazed (i) on both arable and 
meadow lands after that the crop had been harvested, 
(ii) on the fallow, which by the two-course system would 
be half the arable area, (iii) on the open ' waste ' or un- 
reclaimed land (marsh heath and wood) some "of which 
descends to this century as the ' commons.' All men 
of the vill are supposed to have had the right to graze 
their beasts on these lands. Unfortunately for the his- 
torian, grazing was so indispensable a part of rural 
economy, it was so absolutely implied by the existence 
of the live stock, that it is hardly ever mentioned in early 
documents until men begin to quarrel about it. The 
waste is often returned in Huntingdonshire as grazing 
woodland (silua pastilis); in Cambridgeshire the state- 
ment that " there is pasture for the cattle of the vill " 

a. Airy : Bedfordshire Domesday, p. igc. 

b. Curiously enough this is the only reference to sheep in our D.B., 
except for reddends of rams (Harlingdon 183, Segenho 240). There is but 
one reference {Dean, S4) to the horse, exclusive of the money paid in lieu 
of providing a sumter-horse for the royal use from the ancient demesne 
(2, 4, 6). Dogs also are only mentioned as subjects of a commuted payment 
(3, 4. 6)- 



appears frequently but by no means universally; but for 
Bedfordshire pasture is only mentioned in five entries, 
and there is no indication of the extent of the waste. 

Ilenlow 207 ... From pasture lod. 

Langford 245 ... From pasture 6s., and there is still pasture for 300 

sheep. 

Kempston 298 ... From pasture 2s. 

Sandy 108 ... Pasture for the cattle of the vill. 

Potton 313 ... Pasture for the cattle of the vill. 

I he first three entries, showing dues of money to 
the lord, imply clearly (i) that some grazing was not 
subject to a free common right, but was a privilege for 
which payment must be made, and (ii) that in the case 
of Langford, over and above the land on which this 
privilege had been granted, there was enough land to 
graze 300 sheep apparently left in the lord's sole hand\ 
Already then the right of common, if it had ever been 
universal, had been curtailed. In the remaining two 
entries, for places which are close on the Cambridgeshire 
border, occurs the usual Cambridgeshire phrase. This 
coincidence cannot be due to the returns having been 
furnished by the same jurors, and may perhaps point 
obscurely to some custom of grazing prevalent in that 
county, which had not extended to, or had been aban- 
doned by, the rest of Bedfordshire 0 . 

D.B AREAS AND MODERN ACREAGE. 

§ 69. Stable and unstable boundaries. — The 

extent of the modern county is, as we have seen 
(§ 39) sufficiently near to that of the D.B. county to 
enable a rough comparison between the two to be made, 
if we have the factors needed for conversion of D.B. 
areal measures into modern acreage. But the relation be- 
tween the D.B. vill and the modern parish must be 
handled with extreme caution. Although our only two 
Saxon land-books show the boundaries of Chalgrave 
apparently stable and unaltered, and those of Aspley 
only modified by the loss of Holcote, yet there is no 
doubt that in early medieval time, the boundaries of 
many a vill were largely unstable; when the lord of a 
manor acquired land near by, it became added to his 
manor, and gradually in some cases later to his ' parish.' 
The instances which are most obvious from a mere con- 
sideration of quite recent maps are in the neighbourhood 
of Westoning; Higham Gobion is in three bits; both 
Pulloxhill and Harlington have detached portions; 
Priestley, now part of Flitwick, was a separate manor 
in another Hundred, and the forms of Tingrith and 
Toddington indicate similar changes. As Maitland 
insisted, when we have learnt to read in terms of history 
" that marvellous palimpsest,'' the map of the Ordnance 
Survey, we shall know more than now of the settlement 
of England, at least by Saxon and Dane; in this direc- 
tion lies an almost unworked field of research. But even 
without such research we shall not be far wrong if we 
picture the Saxons settling in small groups for mutual 
help and protection against the Britons, cultivating at 
first what the Briton had tilled before them, expanding 
their arable and grazing lands gradually outwards from 
the settlement until they were confronted by similar ex- 
pansion of the neighbouring settlements on every hand, 

c. Study of the Cambridgeshire D.B. shows that pasture is returned in 
one of three ways, that of the phrase already quoted, that in which a 
reddend in kind or money was due to the lord, and that in which the lord 
had " pasture for his own cattle." Collation of the entries relating to 
pasture in all counties is much needed. It is possible that "pasture for 
the cattle of the vill " implied a due in kind (say, the tenth calf) just as 
" wood for a hundred swine " seems to have implied exaction of the tenth 
Pig- 



64 PART 

and finally agreeing with these on boundaries well 
marked by a brook, a track, or such like, — the boundaries 
of their immediate rights, of the future vill, and ulti- 
mately of the parish. The ideal vill in open country 
would have the form of a hexagon, due to uniform cen- 
trifugal pressure on every side, but such irregular outlines 
as those of Toddington, Totternhoe, Tingrith, and 
Kempston, afford strong presumption of additions to the 
vill or parish; and conversely, where parishes are simple 
and compact in outline, and (or) abut on each other 
at natural boundaries, there is a similar though weaker 
presumption that their limits were settled in a remote 
past. Consequently, in order to arrive at any sort of 
comparison between the area of a D.B. vill and that of 
the modern parish, care must be taken to neglect vills 
which appear to have undergone later modifications of 
boundary, and to select as far as possible single-manor 
vills which so far as we know remained compact; of 
these the monastic manors of D.B. may be expected to 
be the most stable, and certainly are most easily followed 
by means of cartularies. If we can arrive at a ratio from 
these, it will be something gained, however small. 

§ 70. Conversion of D.B. 4 measures ' to acres. 

— The record offers three ' measures ' for conver- 
sion into acres : — the arable land measured by the teams 
which can till it, the meadow land measured also by 
teams, the woodland measured by the swine which it 
will carry. For the first of these, 120 acres is accepted 
as a working factor for a teamland (§ 60); for the second 
and third, provisional factors of 24 acres per team (§ 63) 
and T.5 acres per head of swine (§ 66) have been sug- 
gested above. If every acre in the county had been 
returned as geldable, if the three D.B. measures were 
exact, and if our three factors were correct; then, repre- 
senting Teamlands by T, Meadowland by M, Woodland 
by W, and the Acreage by A, 

A = (Tx i2o) + (Mx24) + (Wx 1.5) 

and the D.B. components should be exactly equal to the 
modern acreage. 

§ 71. Examples of comparison. — But our 

calculation never works out exactly; there is always a 
surplus or deficiency — an unknown quantity attributable 
to the rough estimation of D.B. ' measures,' the approxi- 
mate nature of the three factors, and the residuum of 
non-gelding land (' waste of the manor ' for rough graz- 
ing in ' common of pasture ') and non-geldable land 
(flooded swamp and barren heather). Before consider- 
ing the vills, we can test the method broadly on the 
figures which we have for the whole county. The area 
of this has been shown to differ but little from that of 
1086; it is officially reckoned at about 302942 acres, or 
after deduction of the net gain (§ 39) 297334 acres. 
Taking the data from the B totals of Table III, columns 
iii, xiii, xiv, and applying the three factors, we get 

Arable land ... ... 189720 acres. 

Meadow land ... ... 19944 11 

Wood land ... ... 25146 .. 

234810 „ 

Deficit ■•• ••• 62524 ,, 

Modern acreage ... ... 2 97334 >■ 

so that a deficiency of 21 per cent., or about a fifth of the 
county, is not returned in D.B. It is probable that this 
deficit is due mainly to the non-gelding common of 
pasture and to non-geldable land. 



Ill § 70-72 

I£ I may take the example which I know best : In Aspley Guise, se 
lately as the beginning of the eighteenth century, marsh land extended ura 
to the 300 ft. contour line, and many acres were described in conveyances as 
"land covered by water"; again, at the Enclosure in 1761, many acres 
were (some still are) open heath and furze land, of little or no value for 
ploughing in any century, and not much more for pasture. Until the figures 
of such lands have been worked out for many villages, the arithmetic of D.lt. 
must be regarded as approximate. 

As the three factors give to some vills a far higher averaee than they 
contain to-day, and to others a far lower one (the extreme range is from 102.7 
per cent, too much to 61. S per cent, too tittle), the sources of error probably 
lie elsewhere than in the factors. Now it is significant that the two extremes 
of the range just cited occur in adjacent parishes, Clapham and Thurleigb, 
which are known to have been entangled with each other and with Oakley 
in a common manorial ownership; and that if these three vills he statistically 
treated as one, the resulting deficit is only 30 per cent, of the modern acreage, 
a figure not far from that on the whole county. The inference is that lands 
have passed from one parish to another since 10S0; and many other con- 
tiguous parishes, especially in or near the obsolete Half Hundred of Buckley, 
appear to have suffered similarly. But the lesson to be drawn is the danger 
of generalisation, until much more has been learnt of the history of individual 
village boundaries at all dates since D.B. 

A more satisfactory group is presented by the (pre- 
sumably) more stable vills, which formed single manors 
of monastic houses in 1086; to these may be added the 
two of which we have Saxon land-books. Their per- 
centage deficit on the modern acreage is 

Cranfield 25.2 Caddincton ... ... 35.9 

Barton 1S.7 Chalgrave 39.6 

Shillington & Vegsdon 23.7 Aspley Guise 12.6 

Lidlington 16.9 

Their average deficit, 24.6 per cent., is close to that 
of the whole county (21 per cent.) and 1 incline to regard 
them as supplying a norm by which other vills may be 
tested, and as giving a fair indication of the non-gelding 
and non-geldable land. 

An interesting little group is formed by Harrowdcn 
(42.1) Cardington (31.9) Cople (33.5) and Willington 
(24.0), because the percentage deficit is high ; and a 
glance at the map will show that their parallel and arti- 
ficial boundaries have probably been extended slowly 
down to the water's edge, as the marsh dried and the 
river contracted ; it seems likely that they form an 
example of the later addition of land which was non- 
geldable in 1086, recognised above among the sources 
of inaccuracy. Similar percentages have been worked 
out for the rest of the county, but are best suppressed 
until more is known of the vicissitudes of the separate 
parishes. 

THE NORMAN SOCIAL FABRIC. 

THE BURGH. 

§ 72. The Burgh of Bedford. — The entries 
of the burgh and of the folk who lived there are disap- 
pointingly meagre when compared with those of many 
towns; they are also rather puzzling. In the first place, 
D.B. speaks of Bedford not as a ' burgus ' but as a 
'villa,' using for it the same style as for the smallest 
hamlet; although it does speak later of its burgesses. 
Again, instead of a long list of burgesses, their lords 
their lands and their payments, such as we have (say) in 
the case of Huntingdon, we are not told of any bur- 
gesses holding land in the town, and only of four who 
held outside its limits. Further, the burgh seems to 
have escaped Danegeld, except for one hide of Church 
land. While this perfectly accounts for the silence of 
D.B. about the burgesses inside the town, to what can 
we attribute its unusual exemption from geld ? and why 
do its burgesses and canons hold in Biddenham ' from 
the King ' ? These facts are compatible with the idea 
— for want of evidence it does not amount to a theory — 
that, on its reconquest from the Danes by King Edward 



§ 73-74 



PART III 



65 



the Elder in or about 919, Bedford and some land 
round it was in a special sense King's land by right of 
conquest, and only afterwards became (or at the date of 
D.B. was still becoming) a King's burgh, an evolution 
by no means unparalleled by other boroughs. "Domes- 
day Book tells us that some, but by no means all, of the 
lands held by the Confessor were and had always been 
free of geld, and this freedom from taxation may imply 
other immunities,'" 1 from which the privileges which 
characterise a burgh could readily grow. 

As a Half Hundred, the burgh sent a contingent of 
ten mcn b to the national iorces, naval and military, 
landfyrd and scypfyrd (Bedford 1). How many men, 
how much trade was in the town, we are not told. But 
the burgesses were at any rate dealing in land; one 
bought land after King William came in England (548); 
another not only bought, but had a mortgage (vadi- 
monium) on land 0 (Biddenham 349). 

THE CHURCH. 

§ 73. The Higher Clergy and Religious Houses. 

— On the Church as an organisation our record 
gives little information. — The ecclesiastical head 
of the county was Remigius, Bishop of Lincoln, under 
whose see it remained till 1837. His Saxon prede- 
cessor, Wulfwig, Bishop of Dorchester, and for a brief 
period of Lincoln, had apparently only held Leighton 
Church (3) with four hides of endowment; Remigius 
succeeded to this; and he also acquired some lands of 
Wul twig's 'men' and others, together with revenue 
from the church of Bedford 44. Of other ecclesiastical 
tenants in chief, the Bishops of Coutanccs and Bayeux 
held rather as secular magnates than as churchmen, al- 
though listed among the latter; at their death their 
lands escheated to the King, and did not pass to their 
Sees. The other two Bishops, the five Abbots and the 
Abbess, and the two foundations of Canons, held their 
lands as endowments of religion; the great majority of 
these lands were pre-Conquest gifts. In addition, al- 
though their Orders are not mentioned in our D.B., 
Albert of Lorraine certainly, and probably also the two 
chamberlains Turstin and William, were also clergy, 
but held land in a secular capacity. 

Although it has been held that the Conqueror be- 
haved tyrannically towards the Church, that view is 
certainly not justified in this County. He left the re- 
ligious houses in posession of their ancient lands, and 
confirmed their rulers in office. But with endowments 
made during the past few years, he felt at liberty to in- 
terfere; gifts to the Church by Harold and others of the 
House of Godwin were revoked on grounds of obvious 
policy; thus he gave to the Bishop of Durham estates 
(Millo 46, Arlesey 47) which had been granted by 
Harold to Waltham College in 1062". Again, shortly 
before 1066 the reversion of the manor of Studham had 
been promised (subject to a life interest 6 to St. Alban ; 
as William assigned this to Robert de Todeni, the re- 
vision had probably not enured in 1066. On the other 
hand many cases are known in which religious houses 
had demised manors T.R.E. to a thane for term of a life 
or lives; when the thane's lands were assigned to a 

a. Maitland : D.B., 255. 

b. Round. D.S., 117, n.i. 

c. An illustration of D.B. arithmetic; he is returned as holding 1 h. 
o§ v. He had held T.R.E. 2} v., had a mortgage on 1 v. ; and bought ri v. ; 
total 1 h. 0} v. 



Norman after the Conquest, these manors were lost to 
the church; the only example in our record is furnished 
by Clapham 99, which, with the lands of Brihtric in 
other counties, fell to Miles Crispin and Robert de 
Oilli, and does not seem to have reverted to Ramsey 
Abbey'. In all other cases he left the Church in posses- 
sion of its endowments; even the gift of the treacherous 
Waltheof to St. Edmund (Kenemondevvick, 49) was re- 
spected. For the apparent loss by St. Alban to Hugh 
de Beauchamp of a hide in Stotfold 133, the King does 
not seem to have been responsible. 

The church of St. Paul, Bedford, the Canons of 
which were eventually re-founded as the Priory of 
Newenham, was the only religious corporation in the 
county which held in chief. It had held the equivalent 
of a hide of land T.R.E., of which Bishop Remigius de- 
prived it (Bedford 1) and appropriated the revenue (Bed- 
ford 44). But two of its Canons, Ansfrid and Osmund, 
held between them a hide of land outside the Burgh (Bid- 
denham 65, 66), most of which had been assigned to the 
church in alms by Ralf Taillebois, presumably when 
Sheriff and therefore acting for the Crown. They also 
held 3 hides in Harrowden 325 as under-tenants of 
Countess Judith. 

The Abbey of Elstow was founded by Countess 
Judith — it is said, in remorse for her betrayal of her 
husband — and appears as her undertenant in three 
vills (294, 296, 297). One alien priory had already ob- 
tained a footing in the county, St. Nicholas of Angers 
holding three virgates in Henlow 207. 

§ 74. The Parish Church and Priest. — On 

' parish churches,' except in Bedford and the Royal 
Manors, our record is absolutely silent. Yet when we 
cross the border into Huntingdonshire, we read again 
and again " There is a church and a priest." It is ob- 
vious on many grounds that the two counties were not 
surveyed by the same body; as neither priest nor church 
as such paid Danegeld, the Commissioners for this 
county apparently did not think it worth while to 
enumerate them, nor do they appear in the Ely interro- 
gatory (§ 5). Besides Bedford (1, 44), only Leighton 3, 
45, Luton 5, and Houghton 6 are mentioned as having a 
church ; these three churches being on ancient demesne 
of King Edward, are correctly included in D.B. as 
royal possessions. It is noteworthy that Luton church 
was worth 20s. yearly, apart from its endowment of 
land, presumably from offerings. 

Eight priests are recorded, mostly as undertenants, 
but it is not clear whether their land was glebe or not ; 
glebe appears to be specified for two out of some fifty- 
four churches in Huntingdonshire. In view of this 
large number, it seems fairly certain that there must 
have been many more than eight churches in Bedford- 
shire at this date, and we might infer that only those 
priests who held a glebe were enumerated. Of these, 
one at least is shown from another source to have held 
a church (§ 176, Tovi). but it is possible that some of 
them may have held in a secular rather than a religious 
capacity, perhaps as clerks and men of business to their 
overlord. Exceptional cases are those of Ernuin who 
held without royal sanction in Harrowden 67, and 

d. B.H.R.S., v. 57. 

e. B.H.R.S., v. 55, This form of tenure, unnoticed by Freeman, is 
discussed by Round : D.B. Studies, 555-557 in a parallel case. 

f. Compare Cart. Ramsey (U.S. 79), ii, 95; B.H.R.S., v. 5O. 



66 



PART III 



§ 75-76 



Ahvin who held by a ' tenure of divine service ' in 
Turvey 379. The eight instances are: — 

h. v. 

Harford, Great 160 i 2 Anschetil, undertenant of Hugh de Beauchamp. 

Biddenham 39 1 o Ernuin, undertenant of Bp. Lincoln, 

liolnhurst 13 02 Tovi, undertenant of Dp. Bayeux. 

Cople 176 o 2^ Roger, joint undertenant of Hugh de Beauchamp. 

Harrowden 67 10 Ernuin, tenant in chief, without warrant. 

Kiseley 146 o 2 Aluric, undertenant of Hugh de Beauchamp. 

Thurleigh 229 o 1 Salomon, undertenant of Robert d' Oilli. 

Turvey 379 o og Alwin, in King's service. 

It is worth noting that six of the eight have names 
unmistakably Saxon. 

THE ROYAL DEMESNE. 

§ 75. The ' Land of the King.' — The three 
original royal manors are each entered as a " de- 
mesne manor of the King " (dominicum manerium 
regis) and have a status in English law which was not 
shared by other lands which accrued to him as escheats 
and so forth. They are of the ' Ancient Demesne,' of 
the 'Manors of St. Edward'; that is, "strictly and 
legally, they were crown lands at the moment when 
King William's claim inured, or to use the contem- 
porary phrase, ' on the day when King Edward was 
alive and dead For many centuries their tenants 
had special liberties, special writs were issued for their 
protection, and they escaped many burdens which fell 
upon their neighbours. These three manors, Leighton 
2, Luton 4, and Houghton [Regis] 6, are also distinct 
by rendering, not only miscellaneous payments, but 
also a complicated ' farm ' of provisions for the royal 
household (§ 115), instead of a simple cash Valet. 
To each of them is attached a church, endowed with 
land. — The other two royal holdings, Sewell 8, and 
Biscot 9, are not marked as ' manors ' ; they had been 
added for additional revenue, the former to Houghton, 
the latter to Luton, bv Ralf Taillebosc; and he had 
also added 17 hides to the Leighton of King Edward's 
day, probably those lands which still form its ' hamlets '. 
The men of all these added lands could claim the privi- 
leges of ancient demesne, for D.B. was the authority to 
which appeal was made when such privileges were 
questioned and taken to trial. 

THE SHERIFF. 

§ 76. Shire Reeve and Vicecomes. — The Saxon 
Shire Reeve or Sheriff was " the King's steward 
and judicial president of the shire, the administrator 
of the royal demesne and executor of the law " u ; with- 
out appreciably altering his functions, the Normans 
gave him a new name, the Vicecomes — literally, and on 
the continent actually, the Deputy-Earl; but he was 
never that in England. The policy of William, guided 
always by the fear of introducing to his new kingdom 
the worst features of continental feudalism, was to in- 
crease the powers of the Sheriff whom he could control, 
at the expense of those of the Earl, who might easily 
become uncontrollably powerful. And where, as in 
Bedfordshire after the Conquest, there was no Earl 
to divide duties with him 1 , the Sheriff had almost un- 
limited powers. With these D.B. is only concerned in 
so far as they are of a financial nature, but finance cuts 
deep. He was appointed, as he still is, by the Crown ; 
and a natural tendency for the office to become heredi- 

g. Vinogradov : Villainage in England, 90. The whole of his chap, iii 
is devoted to Ancient Demesne ; see also Pollock and MaiUand : Hist, of 
English Law, 1, 366-3S9. 

h. Stubbs : Constitutional History, i, § 49. 



tary, though occasionally visible, never struck firm root 
in this country. 

The name of only one Norman sheriff before 1086 
has been definitely recorded — Ralf Taillebosc, whose 
acts are writ large in Domesday. Nothing will give a 
clearer idea of the Sheriff's powers than to show how 
they were exercised. As chief financial officer, and 
liable to be called to account most strictly at the Ex- 
chequer, the Sheriff had to collect all moneys, geld or 
gablum, taxes or rent, clue to the Crown; he had to 
render ' the farm of the county.' He was paid for his 
services (it seems, but our data are scanty) by the 
Sheriff's Aid', a contribution of which neither the amount 
nor the source are exactly known; he further received a 
share 111 the profits of justice, of the fines levied in the 
courts of the Shire and Hundred. To these there is 
no reference in our D.B., but we read that Leighton, 
Luton and Houghton (2, 4, 6) must each find an ounce 
of gold for the Sheriff yearly. The Sheriffs shared with 
the Barons of the Exchequer the privilege of exemption 
from Danegeld, on account of their labours in its 
collection. 

The administration of the royal demesne was 
among his duties, and we find him, a zealous official, 
adding 17 hides of land to Leighton, placing Sewell 
under Houghton and Biscot under Luton; his authority 
is shown by the fact that in the last two cases he had to 
break into the organisation of the Hundreds of Odecroft 
and Flitt, compensating the latter by adding to it five 
hides from another Hundred. Of these last two drastic 
alterations, the first was made " with the consent of 
King William," both were made " for the revenue 
(crementum) which it yielded to him "; whether Ralf or 
William were to receive the added revenue is not clear 
from the text; both lion and jackal profit by the kill, 
but ' ei ' would seem to mean the King. If, as we have 
no reason to disbelieve, the general system of adminis- 
tration of royal demesne was much the same under 
William as under Henry I, the Sheriff would not make 
much by such transactions; if he added to the royal 
lands, he must render for them additional revenue (cre- 
mentum) to the Exchequer; his gain would be merely 
the possible difference between the actual yield of the 
land and the crementum. If, as has been suggested for 
Godric the Sheriff in Buckinghamshire* he actually 
added bits of royal land to his own estate, or used them 
to pay for his daughter's lessons in embroidery, he must 
still pay his full sum at the Exchequer. When Free- 
man wrote 1 that Ralf's alterations were for the conveni- 
ence of his own estate, he did not observe that Ralf had 
no land in the neighbourhood. It is possible that the 
Sheriff, like others, may have dealt wrongfully by pri- 
vate persons ; it may be doubted whether he dared in 
any way to defraud the Crown. 

In endowing St. Paul, Bedford, with three virgates 
(Biddenham 65, 66) Ralf was probably also acting 
officially; he had a hide of his own in Biddenham, but 
this was not from the same Saxon source as the Canons' 
land; the facts suggest (§ 78, vi) that this endowment 
of St. Paul was a royal compensation for the hide of 
which Bishop Remy had deprived the Canons (Bedford 
1). — The case of Sharnbrook 275 is interesting; a Saxon 
house-carle refused to pay his rent after King William 

i. The brief earldom of Hugh pauper is negligible in this connection. 

j. Round : F. E., 500. 

k. V.C.H., Bucks., i, 220, 221. 

1. N.C., v. 794, 795. 



§ 77-78 



PART III 



67 



came in England, whereon Ralf paid the rent and took 
the land as forfeit; this can only have been in his official 
capacity ; the Sheriff was then no debt-collector, he 
would not be concerned in any rent as between subject 
and subject, but was directly responsible for any rent 
due to the Crown. — In the administration of the lands 
of the ' King's service ' (ministerium Regis), by means 
of which his subordinate officials were paid and the 
king's almsmen supported, he had added to it no less 
than eleven hides, in itself a respectable estate (356, 
3°3> 373)- 

Such being the evidence in the record of the 
functions of the Sheriff, we may venture a step further 
back, and infer from similar activities a similar authority. 
Ivo Taillebosc, supposed brother of Ralf and dapifer 
of William Rufus, had in 1086 but a half hide in this 
county as undertenant of the Bishop of Lincoln, but 
sheriffs apparently had not always large estates in their 
sheriffwicks; and when Ivo is found to have increased 
the royal revenue from the ancient demesnes, and 
further to have imposed on them the payment of an 
ounce of gold to the Sheriff (2, 4, 6), we see him acting 
on exactly the same lines as did his brother. Again, 
when we are told of lands in Streatley 364 that Bundi 
the staller added them to the ancient demesne of Luton 
and that Ralf Taillebosc found them so added, he has 
done precisely what Ralf might have done later. No 
one but the Sheriff had the right or duty to meddle with 
the royal demesnes in this fashion ; and there can be 
little doubt that both Ivo Taillebosc and Bundi the 
staller, whether called Sheriffs or under some other 
name, did Sheriff's work between 1066 and 1086. 

THE TENANT IN CHIEF. 

§ 77. Tenure in chief. — All land was held 
from the Crown. " The person whom we might be in- 
clined to call its owner, the person who has the right to 
use and abuse the land, to cultivate it or leave it uncul- 
tivated, to keep all others off it, holds the land of the 
King either immediately or mediately. In the simplest 
case he holds it immediately of the King; only the Kine 
and he have rights in it; in such case he is said to hold 
of the King in chief (in capite); he is one of the King's 
tenants in chief or tenants in capite " m . This was so 
much a commonplace of the feudal system as the Nor- 
mans brought it, that, when a fief has been granted to 
a baron, the usual phrase in D.B. is merely that he 
* holds ' such and such a vill— " Walterius Gifardus 
tenet Woburne," " In Houstone tenet Hugo v hidas." 

§ 78. 'Tenet de Rege.' — Consequently when 
the phrase is met that the T. in C. ' holds from the 
King ' (tenet de rege), something other than the ordin- 
ary tenure is probably implied, for it is abundantly ob- 
vious that the D.B. scribe was sparing of time and parch- 
ment. 11 The terms of the tenure are but very rarely 
described, for Domesday Book is no feodary "". Still 
it must be obvious that not all T. in C. stood on the 
same footing; some had been rewarded for their services 
at the Conquest with great estates which were meant 
to, and did, descend to their heirs; at the furthest other 
end of the scale are the King's Reeves and Almsmen, 

m. Pollock and Maitland : History of English Law, i, 211. 

n. Maitland: D.B., 151; but he quotes a few instances. 

o. The coronation Declaration nf Henry I is years after D.B. (which he 
did not keep) shows what had been the practice before, just as it was 
afterwards. " Et si mortuo barone siue alio homine meo . . . uxor eius 
remanserit et sine liberis fuerit dotem suam et maritationem nabebit et 



holding mere scraps of land. Between these extremes 
must lie other forms of tenure, of which (so far as the 
writer knows) no documentary account exists, but some- 
thing may be inferred from analysis of the record. 
The first step towards such analysis is to bring together 
every hint of a temporary tenure, as contrasted with the 
apparently permanent and heritable tenure of the greater 
barons. 

We cannot suppose that the King's Almsmen, or 
the reeves and grooms who had small parcels of land 
for their sustenance while in office, were given a herit- 
able right with sac and soc, thol and theam, and the rest 
of it; the Canons of St. Paul, Bedford, enjoyed their 
land ex officio on an " ownership " very different from 
that of Hugh de Beauchamp; the widow of a tenant in 
chief would fall into the King's hand for wardship and 
re-marriage° as surely as her later sisters; in these al- 
ready we have three forms of ' tenure in chief ' which are 
not those of a King's Baron. From these we may ad- 
vance a short step into a reasonable conjecture that 
William, like his successors, assigned to his immediate 
servants and officers lands suitable to maintain their 
condition, their interest being either for life as reward, 
or coterminous with office as salary. A very large 
number of the cases of ' tenet de Rege ' fall under one 
or other of these categories. 

(i) . It is obvious that the Reeves and Almsmen held ' from the King '; 
and in the entries 3^6 — 361 this fact, or the holder's office, or the King's 
soke or service, are almost invariably mentioned. 

(ii) . Of the five entries, 351 — 355, which I have also referred to the 
King's service (§ 25), four hold de- Rege and the fifth is a minor official. 

(iii) . Passing from these humble officials to the great officers, it ft 
highly significant that all the T. in C. who are named as higher officials 
in D.B* (with one exception) or are known to have been of the King's 
service, hold de Rege; the phrase is not always repeated for every holding 
but is always given on the first entry of the fief. 

Staughton 254 
Segresdone 255 
Luton Church 5 ... 
Potsgrove 263 
Battlesden 264 
Totternhoe 2G5 
Pavenham 277 
Hinwick 27S 
Beeston 279 ... 
Campton 280 
Moppershall 281 
Felmersham 282 ... 
Sharnbrook 275 

Carlton 276 ... ... ... ,, ,, ,, 

The tenant's whole fief is set out above in each case; of the three hold- 
ings not marked de Rege, Segresdone was only one virgate and is in any 
case unimportant; Battlesden, like Luton Church and Potsgrove had been 
held by Morcar priest of Luton, and presumably was held on the same 
terms as they were, a royal chaplaincy we may call it ; Felmersham was a 
part of the holding of the Larderer Serjeant. The only official mentioned 
as such in D.B., who is not generally stated to hold de Rege, is Eudo dapifer, 
but he was a much greater man than these and evidently held on a baronial 
status and not officially as dapifer; at some date after his death his fief 
became the barony of Beauchamp of Eaton. 

(iv) . Of the three ladies who appear in the record as T. in C, Countess 
Judith, King William's niece, certainly transmitted her husband's Earl- 
dom of Huntingdon through her daughter to David I of Scotland, and may 
be regarded herself as of baronial status, holding ' in her own right ' — if 
a modern phrase may be used. Azelina the widow of Ralf Taillebosc had no 
son, and her estates would naturally have fallen into the king's hands on 
her widownood ; in the first entry of her fief (Battlesden 334) it is said that 
she holds de Rege. The third lady, Adeliza de Grentmesnil. was not a 
widow, and therefore not in the King's hand ; but she had received (apparently 
for life only) a separate estate in four counties ; and her first entry is marked 
' de Rege.' 

(v) . The burgesses of Bedford (347 — 350) all hold de Rege. In many 
burghs something like half of the numerous burgesses hold their burgages 
of the King, the others of one Baron or another. Here the only four recorded 
held directly from the King, a condition which suggests that Biddenham 
and Bedford had been in royal hands and that Bedford was slowly rising' 
from the status of a mere fortress or ' burh ' to that of a Burgh (§ 72). 

earn non dabo marito nisi secundum uelle suum," etc. Stubbs : Sel : 
Charters, 97. 
p. See § 80. 

q. The status of D.B. boroughs is thoroughly examined in Maitland, 
D.B., 172-219. 



de Rege Hugh pincerna (butler) 

de Rege William camerarius (chamberlain) 
de Rege ,, ,, 

de Rege ,, ,, 

,, ,, Turstin camerarius (chamberlain) 



,, ,, Gilbert son of Salomon (larderer") 
de Rege Osbern piscator (fisherman 1 *) 



68 



PART III 



§ 79-81 



(vi) . The same suggestion of royal ownership naturally accrues from 
the tenure de Rege by the two Canons of St. Paul. Bedford, in ISiddenham 
(65, C6; as usual only the first entry has the phrase de Rege). At least 
three-quarters of the endowment would seem to have been a royal grant, 
made through Kalf Taillebosc probably as sheriff; the other quarter had 
been held from King Edward, and from William after him. 

It is hoped that the foregoing cases have shown the probability that de 
Rege is no mere scribal nourish, but is used with a tenurial significance; the 
King was lord of all the land, but lord of these Lands in a very special sense. 
On this inference the more obscure occurrences of the words may be ap- 
proached; but considering the. darkness of the years 1066 — 1086, we may be 
saddened but must not be surprised if many cases are left as hopeless. 

(vii) . In the case of Church lands, we can at least see that de Retro 
is used only where a post-Conquest gift has been made by the Crown. M1U0 
46 and Arlescy 47 (of which, as usual, the first entry only is said to be held 
de Rege) had been confirmed to Waltham College (afterwards the Abbey) 
by King Edward as lately as 1062, but had been assigned by King W illiam 
to the Bishop of Durham. 1 " All the land of the Abbey of St. E.dmund had 
been recently acquired ; (a) a burgess of Bedford claims to hold ot the Abbot 
in Biddenham 48, but the men of the Hundred denv his claim ; his pre- 
decessor did not hold of the Abbey, but had power to give his land, and 
Ordui had seized it when reeve of the burgh ; there is no evidence that the 
Abbot had, ot indeed made, any claim to the land; the phra.se de Rege 
is not used ; (b) Keneinondwick 49 bad been given to St. Edmund T.R.W. 
by Earl Waltheof anil his wife ' in alms,' and therefore would not be held 
de Rege in a special sense, nor is the phrase, used ; (c) on the other hand 
Blunharu 50 was held by St. Edmund de Rege; it had been held T.R.E. 
by socmen who could dispose of their land, and therefore had been assigned 
by William newly to the Abbey. It is remarkable that all the other monastic 
foundations had a pre-Conquest title to their lands, and that in no case is 
the phrase de Uege used of them. Of St. Paul, London, which had acquired 
a manor since the Conquest (Caddington, 64), we read that the Canons 
have a writ of the King to say that he gave it to them; this clears them 
from holding de Rege in any special sense. 

(viii) . With the laymen the darkness becomes thicker. Vet is note- 
worthy tliat out of the last nineteen T. in C, the lesser men and smaller 
estates (entries 251 — 293), the first entry of the fief of sixteen of them contains 
the words de Rege (one entry even gives the convincing phrase de feudo 
Regis, of the king's fief ! for Tempsford 261). Of the remaining three, two 
were important Barons in other counties, Richard son of Count Gilbert and 
founder of the house of Clare, and Osbern son of Richard of Richard's 
Castle in Herefordshire; the third is a quite unimportant person, Gunfrid 
de Cioches, who appears to have transmitted his land by inheritance. — 
On the other hand, the phrase is unknown on the fiefs of such great barons 
as Count Eustace, Walter Giffard, William tie Warenne, and Hugh de 
Beauchamp ; and one is driven to the belief that among the lesser men, as 
with the named officials in (iii) aliove, the tenure may have been in the 
nature of a more temporary grant, in return for a service to the Crown which 
can no longer be traced, in some cases it can be guessed; Osln:rn son of 
Walter (Little Bar ford 274) is suggested to have been Osbern the Chamber- 



lain 8 



Albert of Lo 



2S3), the Chaplain, t was in high 



favour with both Edward and William. But at present is were profitless 
and dangerous to grope further into this obscurity. The instances of the 
phrase among lay tenants in chief, additional to those set out for avowed 
officials in (iii) above are : — 



Toddington 101 
Tillsworth 120 . 
Wardon 221 
Studham 224 
Flitton 231 
Odcll 236 ... . 
Podington 251 . 
Hinwick 252 
Staughton 256 . 
Duntojn 260 
Tempsford 261 . 



. Ernulf de Hesding. 
Wiliiam Peverel. 
William Spech. 
Robert de Todeni 
Robert Fafiton. 
Walter Fleming. 
Hugh Fleming. 

Sigar de Cioches. 
Richard Pungiant. 



Husb. Crawley 266. William Lovet. 
Fhtwick 267 
Farndish 268 
Farndish 269 
Barford, Lit. 



Chalgrave 283 
Riseley 2S7 

Stratton 288 
Wardon 291 
Potsgrove 292 



... William .... 
... Henry son of Azor. 
274 Osbern son of 

Walter. 

... Albert of Lorraine. 
... David de Argen- 
toin. 

... Ralf de Insula. 
... Gozelin Brito. 



It also occurs once on the fief of Eudo dapifer, in the vindication of a 
claim (Beeston 115); Norman had held land T.R.E. and T.R.W. , but Eudo's 
men claim that he holds not from Norman but from the King. Here ' de 
Rege ' is merely contrasted with the implication ' et non de Normanno,' 
tenure from the Crown with tenure from a subject. A similar phrase occurs 
in Silsoe 250, where Hugh holds from Walter, brother of Seier, but for a 
part of the land " this half hide Hugh holds from the King, as they say." 

(ix) At least there seem to be good grounds for an 
open mind as to the possibility of more than one kind of 
tenure in chief, apart from the services due. Considera- 
tion of this point in the D.B. of other counties may throw- 
further light, but direct proof is not likely to be dis- 
covered now. " The only documentary evidence that 
the great lords of the Conqueror's day could have pro- 
duced by way of title deed, was, in all probability, some 
brief writ which commanded the royal officers to put him 
in seisin of certain lands, and said nothing about the 
tenure by which he was to hold them."" The tenure may 
have been recorded at the Exchequer, but no roll of the 
kind exists, and the quotation certainly describes the few 

r. Waltham, co. Berks., had the same history (O.B., i, fo. 58b); they 
were apparently escheated as having been Earl Harold's gift (§73, and 
B.H.R.S., v. 57). 

s. Davis and Whitwell : Regesta Regum Anglo-Xormannum, xxv, xxvi. 
t. Round ; Commune of London, 36 — 38. 



personal writs to laymen which have been calendared. 
Yet more than one kind of tenure seems to be implied 
in a royal writ between 1082 and 10S7, addressed to 
Geoffrey bishop of Coutances and Robert Count of Mor- 
tain, enjoining restitution to Ely of lands which had been 
diverted from the demesne : " And if any shall have said 
that he holds aught thereof by gift from me, tell me the 
size of the land and by what tenure he claims it " (quo 
modo earn reclaniat). v 

§ 79. Tenure in chief by military service. — Of 

the services by which land was held in chief in this 
county, our record tells almost nothing. But it is cer- 
tain that for the larger fiefs the services were in almost 
every case military; in return for the land the tenant 
was bound to furnish a fixed number of armed horsemen ; 
even the monastic houses had to render their quota. 
Working backwards from the Cartae of 11 66, Mr. 
Round™ has shown that, in the xiith and probably in the 
xith century, the quota of knights due was with rare 
exceptions a multiple of 5 or 10, an assessment on a 
decimal principle, based on the constabulary of ten 
knights as the unit of the feudal host. This system 
seems to have been introduced by the Normans ; another 
principle held under Saxon rule. The due quota ap- 
pears (but it is unlikely that it really was) somewhat 
arbitrarily assessed; certainly it bore no direct and ob- 
vious ratio either to the hidage or to the value of the fief. 

§ 80. Tenure in chief by serjeanty. — This 
tenure, by rendering some service in or for the royal 
household, is not mentioned : but there can he little doubt 
that Meppershair and Felmersham were already held 
on this lenurc, together with Felstcd in Essex". As 
Mr. Round points out, it is not the usual practice of 
D.B. to name the vocation to which the serjeanty is 
attached ; and it is more probable that the three manors 
were attached to the Larderership (they were already in 
one holding) than that the Larderership was later im- 
posed on the estate. — It is also probable that Osbern 
fisher held by a petty serjeanty of providing fish from his 
stew (uiuarium piscium, Sharnbrook 275); possibly salt 
fish for winter, just as the local larderers were expected to 
salt venison. A more or less parallel case is at Soham in 
Cambridgeshire, where seven fishermen hold on the royal 
manor " rendering to the King a present of fish thrice 
in the year according as they can." Osbern seems to 
have held directly from the King, since a rent or gablum 
was attached to his land of which the Sheriff took cog- 
nisance; he held much more land than a mere fisherman, 
who was usually ranked near the villans ; he has therefore 
been included provisionally among officials in § 78, iii. 

§ 81. Other forms of tenure in chief. — In the 

case of the smallest holdings from the Crown it is reason- 
able to suppose that the service to be rendered was some- 
times pecuniary: when we read that two burgesses of 
Bedford " did service neither to the King nor lo any 
other " for 3^7 virgates which they had bought (Bidden- 
ham 348, 349), only a gablum or rent can have been 
expected. — One instance of what later lawyers would call 
' tenure by divine service ' is exhibited by the case of 
Alwin priest (Turvey 379) who " performed a mass in 
every week on the second day for the soul of the King 

u. Pollock and Maitland : Hist. Engl. Law, i, 237. 
v. Cotton M.S., Tiberius A. vi, fo. 104 (olim 106). 
w. Round, F.E., 259. 

x. For this Larderership, see A. V. Jenkinson ; B II.R.S., iii. 251. 
y. D.B. 11, 189. 



§ 82-85 



PART III 



69 



and Queen." — Lastly there are the minor officials of the 
last page of D.B., the reeves and so forth, who will be 
mentioned under their titles (§ 107); they held in virtue 
of their office. 

§ 82. Feudum. — The use in D.B. of this word, 
generally translated as fee or fief, is exceedingly obscure. 
" Very rarely does it denote a tenure, or a mass of rights ; 
usually, though it may connote rights of a certain order, 
it denotes a stretch of land; thus we may read of the 
fee of the Bishop of Bayeux, thereby being meant the 
territory which the Bishop holds. Occasionally however 
we may hear of a man holding land in feudo, " a but not 
necessarily by military tenure; such tenure was probably 
implied in its initial meaning, but very soon after D.B. 
it connotes a hereditary right, in land and other things. 
The word occurs as follows : — 

Eversholt 11 ... Tenet Ansgot . . . . de fedo episcopi Baiocensis. 
Barfurd, Lit., 56 Quinque hidas de feudo Abhatis. 
Beeston 115 ... Set non est de feudo Lisois. 

Streatley 196 ... Pirot tenet . . . . de maritagio sue femine et tenet .... 

in feudum de Nfgello Albiniensi. 
Wyboston 202 ... Pirot tenet . . . . de lege de feudo Nigelli. 
Tempsford 261 ... Tenet Robertus . . . . de feudo regis. 
Bromham 302 ... De feudo Comitisse est. 
Radwell 305 ... Tenet Hugo de feudo Comitisse. 

These are all obscure phrases, and one at least is 
quite unintelligible." On the whole the sense seems to 
imply an estate in land, continuous if not hereditary, 
rather than tenurial rights, as the ' fief ' from which the 
undertenant held. 

§ 83. Allotment of the Shire. — Summarising 
the results obtained from Table VI, we may say that the 
King's demesne was assessed at 7.8 per cent, of the total 
hidage; the Church Land at 16. 1 per cent., and the 
Baron Land at 73.3 per cent. These proportions are 
approximately maintained in the figures for the team- 
lands, so that there is no reason to suppose that any class 
was heavily or lightly assessed in comparison with an- 
other; of the teamlands the King held 10.8 per cent., 
the Church 15.6 per cent., and the Barons 71.8 per cent. 
As regards annual value, it is unfortunately not possible 
to calculate that of the Royal demesne; but of other 
demesne lands and primary tenancies, 18.6 per cent, of 
the value belonged to the Church, and 80.0 per cent, to 
the Barons. Roughly speaking we may therefore say 
that three-quarters of the County had been allotted to lay 
Overlords, the remaining quarter being divided between 
Church and King in the proportion of 15 to 10. 

But while some three-quarters of the county is thus 
assigned in D.B. to tenants in chief (for they were re- 



UNOERTENANTS 



sponsible for its geld), the actual land from which they 
drew produce was comparatively insignificant. They 
held in demesne only about 17 p.c. of this, or 12 p.c. of 
the whole county. No less than 82 p.c. of the land 
allotted to them, or 60 p.c. of the whole county, had been 
placed by them in the hands of undertenants, the future 

a. Maitland : D.B. 152. 

b. Wyboston 202. The actual words can only mean that the King took 
land in some way out of Nigel's fee and gave it to Pirot. This is possible ; 
the Feudal Aid of 1302-1303 shows his descendant Ralf Pirrot apparently 



class of ' squires,' which thus assumes a rather unex- 
pected significance in the daily life of the time. The 
annexed diagram shows graphically the proportion of 
land actually enjoyed by each class, and the vast impor- 
tance of the undertenant in the development of the 
country. 

§ 84. Agricultural Efficiency. — Taking it 
broadly, we may say that Church land was somewhat 
better administered than Baron land. The mean per- 
centage ratio of all Church Lands together shows an im- 
provement of 44 per cent., that of lay lands similarly 
treated shows a rise in value of only 20 per cent., over 
the Q.R. valet. No Church land had fallen in value be- 
tween the dale of its receipt and 1086, except a very 
small holding of the Abbot of Peterborough, and the 
land of Bishop Odo of Bayeux who had been in prison 
for four years at this date. In the Baron land is notice- 
able that all the big holders — Eudo dapifer, Hugh de 
Beauchamp, Nigel d'Albini, and Countess Judith (or 
her late husband), — had improved their demesnes to an 
extent above the average, with the exception of Walter 
Fleming, — a curious exception, since the drop was at 
Odcll which at a later date was the caput baronie, the 
head manor of the Wahull estate. 

The efficiency or incompetence of the tenant in 
chief seems to have had a natural effect on his under- 
tenants. The extraordinary fall in the values of practi- 
cally all lands of the non-resident Count Eustace (table 
IV, col. xviii) should be contrasted with the same values 
for the lands of Eudo dapifer, on which the only holding 
valued below the Q.R. valet is an outlying virgatc. There 
are plenty of other examples. 

A heavy Danegeld would certainly work as a punish- 
ment for slack husbandry; the annual value of Gozelin 
Brito's lands was 3H. ros., but Danegeld at 6s. on the 
hide amounted to 3b. , leaving a small margin of subsis- 
tence. The corresponding figures for Hugh de Beau- 
champ's lands, demesne and others all together, are 177b. 
17s. 6d. against a Danegeld of 52b. 2s. gd.\ for his 
demesnes only the value is 85b. 12s. and the Danegeld 
22b. 4s. Undoubtedly it was a ' geld exceeding stiff,' 
but it was only about 5s. 6d. in the pound, less than is 
paid for income tax to-day ; further it is not certain that 
tenants in chief were not exempt from this particular 
levy, 0 though they paid the customary Danegelds of 2s. 
on the hide. 

Of ' waste ' land which had passed out of cultivation 
we hear very little. A virgate and a half in Wyboston 
55, and a half hide in Beeston 279, are the only instances 
noted. We rarely get a value at a date between the 
Q.R. valet (generally taken to mean 1066 — 1068 or there- 
about) and the 1086 valet; but in the case of Salpho 137 
the manor had been seriously depreciated in value since 
Ralf Taillebois had received it in part exchange for 
Ware. 

THE UNDERTENANT. 

§ 85. Undertenancy by military service. — While 
the record shows on my computation 155 named under- 
tenants, besides the nameless men at the end of Table 
VII, it is silent as to the terms of their tenure. Assuredly 
this was mainly by military service, then as before and 
after. On the Saxon military system, an armed warrior 

holding in chief at Wyboston, though the Cainhoe barony was still in 
existence, vested in coheiresses. 

c. Round : Dom. Stud., 97, 98. 



70 



PART HI 



§ 86—90 



seems to have been due from every five hides; that this 
was not the Norman principle is clear, hut the exact 
relation between land held and service due is still un- 
certain; it seems to be true that the undertenant of 5 
hides must serve as a knight, but the converse — that 
every one so serving must have held 5 hides- - is certainly 
not the case. It is possible that the studv of a barony 
in greater detail than has yet been attempted might throw 
light on the matter. Meanwhile we must be content 
with the statement that the bargain between the T. in C. 
and the undertenant was that, in return for his land the 
latter must serve as knight or find his share of a knight, 
must acquit his overlord against the King for his land 
when the army is summoned. 

§ S6. Permanency of Tenure. — As with the T. 
in C, there is no hint in the record of the permanency of 
undertenure, or otherwise. Sometimes a household offi- 
cer is enfeoffed; the Bishop of Bayeux (Newton 27) and 
Hugh de Grantmesnil (Milton Ernest 33) have each put 
their dapifer on the land, and the Bishop of Bayeux his 
chamberlain (Totternhoe 265), presumably as salary for 
office, and tenable only during office. More interesting 
are the cases in which the tenure seems to have been of a 
permanent character, for the undertenant's descendants 
are found on the same holding long afterwards as ' lords 
of the manor ' ; these cases will be given in detail in Part 
IV. of this memoir. 

§ 87. Multiple Undertenure. — It may be pre- 
sumed that, immediately after the battle of Hastings, the 
men whom a Norman magnate settled on his newly 
acquired fief were his retainers, friends and relatives, — 
that there was a personal tie between overlord and under- 
tenant. This is shown in many cases by known 
genealogy, and seems to be corroborated in others by the 
geography of the cantons of Normandy. By icS6 however 
the personal tie seems to have been so far relaxed that 
a few undertenants are found to hold from more than 
one overlord. Thus William de Caron is undertenant 
of the Bishop of Lincoln, Eudo dapifer, and Nigel 
d'Albini; Fulcher of Paris holds from Walter Giffard, 
Countess Judith, and Nigel d'Albini; Pirot also is a case 
in point. Just as in the cases where a T. in C. farmed 
as undertenant outlying holdings of another T. in C. 
(§ 30), the proximity of the holdings shows that the 
motive was a more economical husbandry. But the 
principle, once introduced, must have done much to 
break down the feudal tie by giving a greater indepen- 
dence to the undertenant. 

§ 88. Mesne Lord and Rear Vassal. -Already 
in 1086 the tendency of the undertenant to enfeoff other 
men of part of his land was visible; certain villans hold 
from Hugh, who holds from Herbert son of Ivo his uncle, 
who holds from the Bishop of Bayeux, who holds from 
the King (Wilden 18) — as Maitland would say, a feudal 
ladder of five rungs. In later phrase, Herbert is mesne 
(medius) between the overlord and the rear-vassal Hugh. 
Each would be responsible to the man next above him 
for the land's due military service; in practice it would 
be carried out by the actual occupier Hugh. The in- 
stances in the County are not numerous : — Carlton 16, 
Turvey 17, Wilden 18, Little Barford 56, and Cudsand 
82 ; — nor do they show any noteworthy features, but are 
of interest as the beginning of that process which ulti- 
mately broke up the power of the feudal barons by break- 
ing up their estates into fractions. 

d. D.B., i, 61b. 



§ 89. Grades of Rank. — The undertenants of the 
greater barons were seemingly of ranks as different as 
were the T. in C. themselves; they vary from barons to 
socmen, from abbots to concubines. Bui many of those 
who bore the name of the Norman village from which 
they sprang, seem to have been cadets of good houses 
(lor example, Ernulf of Ardres) and themselves to have 
founded famil les of some importance in later England 
(Serlo de Ros). Others we may take to have been (or 
to have been the sons of) mere soldier-adventurers of 
William's army. It would seem that their holdings were 
to some extent proportional to their rank by birth ; glanc- 
ing down Hugh de Beauchamp's fief (Table HI) we see 
that the men with a place-name or sur-name held fairly 
large estates, very different from the single hide or less 
which fell to the lot of most of those who are recorded 
by a simple font-name. 

Acard de Ivri ioh. ov. Wimund de Taissel 

1 ih. ov. 

Will 1am Froissart gh. 2v. Osbert de Broilg =;h. iv. 
William de Locels 12I1. iv. Serlo de Ros 7I1. ov. 

There are, of course, exceptions; William Basset held 
only 2h., and Riwalo 5h. rv., nor is the point so clearly 
shown on every fief. But already we dimly see a strati- 
fication of ranks, foreshadowing the esquires and yeomen 
of later centuries. 

THE MANOR AND ITS DEPENDENCIES. 

§ 90. The meaning of ' Manor.'— It has been 
contended that this term has no technical significance in 
D.B., — that it meant no more than ' land.' But while a 
manerium was assuredly always terra, not all terra formed 
a manerium. The evidence of the record is overwhelm- 
ing that, when our Commissioners used the word 
manerium, they had something much mere definite in 
mind than merely land. What they had in mind is 
another question, which they were not concerned to 
answer for the instruction of posterity. 

To certain entries only in the Beds. D.B. (about 107 in number) did 
the scribe prefix the Lombardic M representing Manerium (compare the. 
reproduction in § 8). In almost every case the entry goes on to describe 
the holding as " hoc manerium ' ; in about five cases it is called ' hec terra,'— 
not wrongly, because a manor is land, and the greater includes the less; 
in six more cases both manerium and terra are used to describe it. In 
more than 30 entries, the M has apparently been omitted by inadvertence, 
for the holding is described later in the entry as a manerium; in many of 
these cases (and in many to which the M is prefixed, roughly ig in all), 
the tenant is said to hold it " for a manor "; this must surely imply some 
special right or duty attached to a manor; and when the scribe wrote 
" Miles holds these two manors for one manor,'' he was thinking of some- 
thing more than two blocks of latid. d 

The case of Cople (170 — 176) is instructive; — " Of this manor of 
Chochepol, Ralf Tallgebosc had nine hides in exchange for Wares.'' D.B. 
shows us ob. ^v., distributed in seven undertenancies, out of which four 
hides are held by Robert " for a manor " ; whatever the rights and duties 
of the nine hides might be, they are now centred in Robert, in spite of 
the partition of the vill by Ralf or his successor among a Norman soldiery. 
But it is still possible to speak of the " manor of Chochepol'' as a whole. 

The actual word manerium seems to have been 
introduced by the Normans. Like mansa, mansio, man- 
sura, etc., it means literally no more than a dwelling 
place ; but every man dwelt somewhere, and the compilers 
of D.B. had something more in their minds. From a 
brilliant dissection of the available evidence" Maitland 
concludes that the essential feature of a manor in D.B. 
was a house against which Danegeld was charged. The 
tax truly is assessed on land, but it has to be drawn in 
practice from some taxpayer in some house. And from 
whom? for so many are concerned. From the villans 
and bordars who occupy it? from the small undertenant 

e. Maitland, D.B., 120-122. 



§ 91-92 



PART III 



71 



above them for whom they sometimes work? from the 
lord of the manor? or from the overlord? for these all 
have an interest in the land. Naturally, the State de- 
sires to collect its dues in the largest sums with the least 
trouble; the small folk are glad enough to keep the tax- 
collector from their door by promise of rent and service 
to their lord ; the lord needs these rents and services, 
and undertakes liability for the taxes, he becomes re- 
sponsible for them as principal debtor; his manor-house 
or hall is the place where the debt is demanded and paid. 
[The whole thing is paralleled by our system of ' com- 
pounding for rates ']. There is reason to believe that 
socmen and freemen T.R.W. paid their own dues, but 
paid them at their lord's hall, and that he was to some 
extent responsible for their solvency. This theory of 
Maitland is incapable of direct proof, but is consonant 
with the evidence of D.B. and its contemporaries. That 
the term manor lost this special meaning at a later period 
followed from the disappearance of Danegeld from the 
scheme of taxation ; its later connotation was an inven- 
tion of the lawyers, and was based largely upon the 
working of its little court 

This theory has been contested by Vinogradoff' on 
the ground that " the tax-collector had primarily in view 
the hundred and vill, and not the manor." But this 
criticism entirely misses the whole point of the rearrange- 
ment of D.B. If he was concerned chiefly with the 
taxable values of hundreds and vills, which had all been 
set out in due order by the original returns, why should 
his work have been made infinitely more laborious by 
rearranging die returns into fiefs? If on the other hand 
the lords were responsible for the geld of the men on 
their land, the rearrangement by fiefs was absolutely 
necessary. Let us take a concrete instance ; in Henlow 
were 25 villans and bordars, 6 undertenants, and 3 
tenants in chief (at least 31 persons to pay geld), and 2 
manors; a regiment of collectors would have been needed 
in this County alone for house-to-house collection from 
the individual bordars and villans, especially as the size' 
of their holdings is rarely recorded by D.B.; but if the 
collector had to go only to the Henlow manors of Nigel 
d'Albini and Azelina Taillebois and the adjacent Flem- 
ing manor of Langford, and to levy on the gross return 
of hidage, his task would have been comparatively light, 
and could perhaps be further lightened by collection at 
the head manors or capita baronie of the T. in C. con- 
cerned. True — the Hundred might have collected the 
geld as it (apparently) assessed it, but there is no positive 
evidence to show that it did, and a good deal of negative 
evidence to show that it did not. We may admit with 
Vinogradoff that the term manerium implied a good deal 
more than merely the place where geld was paid; it was 
an economic unit of agriculture, it was probably already 
a centre of some judicial and administrative functions, 
it was used to some extent as a part of the military or- 
ganisation. But D.B. is a geld book, and rarely con- 
descends to such matters. 

Of the hall or manor-house our D.B. does not speak, 
though it is sometimes mentioned elsewhere in the re- 
cord. It proceeds at once to the assessment of the land 
attached to the manor, the total land (by Maitland's 
theory) for the geld of which the manor was responsible. 
Reckoned separately from this total is the demesne, the 
land on the produce of which the lord was himself sup- 

f. P. Vinogradoff : Growth of the Manor, 300. 

g. B.H.R.S., vi, 42—47. 

h. Hanefeld 86 is an exception, but lay in another county than its head 



ported, the ' home farm ' of the manor; this is assessed 
either in hides which (theoretically) paid geld, or in caru- 
cates which escaped (§ 58). Then follow the miscel- 
laneous sources of manorial profit — the meadow pasture 
and wood, and so forth, discussed above (§ 63 — 68), the 
mill fishery and so forth described below (§ 92 — 94). 

While the Normans seem to have introduced the 
term (' heal ' or hall may have been the Saxon word), 
it is certain that they did not give us the institution of 
the manor, which is of older dale than the Conquest. 
They divided or joined together existing manors, and 
created new ones; they made the manor a means of 
superposing their system of tenure on Saxon custom, and 
of organising the kingdom for fiscal administrative and 
judicial ends. But the basal structure was Saxon by 
origin, and is to be sought in such royal charters as 
those of Aspley and Cbalgrave. 8 One may hazard the 
suggestion that the nut infrequent phrase " So and so 
holds such hides ' for ' a manor " marks the post-Con- 
quest creation of a new manor or alteration in an older 
one. 

§ 91. The dependencies of a manor. — When 
a piece of land ' lies to ' a manor, we may take it that 
it paid its geld and soke there.'' Sometimes these out- 
liers are described as a ' berewick ' or ' member ' of the 
central manor, then or previously, 
h. v. 

Riselcy J23 10 berewick of Keysoe 122, T.R.W. 
Charlton 332 10 o ,, „ Potton 313, T.R.E. 
Henlow 342 1 3 „ „ Stotfold 133, T.R.E. 
Shelton 285 3 o member ,, Wootton 284, T.R.E. et 

W. 

Of those, Charlton is itself marked as a manor, but had been separated 
from Potton and given to another tenant in chief by the date of D.B. Hen- 
low was held by Azelina Taillebois, but was claimed by Hugo de Beau- 
champ, the holder of Stotfold, as not being part of her dower. In all four 
cases the central manor is held in demesne, and the others (like the grange 
anl the barton) seem to receive a special name as detached portions, not 
of the estate as a whole, but of the demesne in particular. 

There seems to be no reason why Chainhalle 127, Goldington 128, and 
Hatley 322 should nut have been described as berewicks, except that these 
lands were probably physically continuous with the demesne manors of 
l'utnoe and Potton respectively. Other cases which might apparently have 
been described as members or bere.wicks are Cople 173 (T.R.E.), Stratton 
242 (TR.E. et W.), Wardon 291 (T.R.E.), and Everton 323 (T.R.E.). 

.MANORIAL PROFITS. 

§ 92. Value of Mills. — Of the sources of agricul- 
tural profit to the Manor — the meadow pasture and 
woodland — enough has been said already (§ 63 — 68). 
Following these in importance is the Mill.' Its 
economic value lay very largely in the revenue derived 
in grist or money from the tenants who owed soke to 
the mill and w 7 ere thereby bound to bring their corn to 
be ground there. The revenue from the mills in Table 
XII is therefore not purely the result of the mechanical 
efficiency and horse-power developed, because the extent 
of the mill's custom was not settled by competition in a 
free market, except perhaps among neighbouring vills 
which lacked water power. Hence, as one passes down 
a stream (say from Bletsoe to Kempston), the value of 
the mills fluctuates very much, though the natural ad- 
vantages and defects of the sites may have contributed 
to this. On the upland brooks, many of the mills re- 
corded were probably molendina hiemalia, working only 
in winter when water was plentiful ; this would account 
for their low values. 

manor. 

i. It is to be noticed that both of our Miltons were Middletowns, not 
Milltowns. 



PART III 



§ 93-98 



§ 93. Character of mills. — There seems to be 
little room for doubt that most of the river mills were 
undershot (that is, with the lower part of the wheel sub- 
merged in the stream) as all on the Ouse are to-day. 
The contour line of 50 feet above sea level cuts the 
Ouse at Eaton Socon, and that of 100 feet cuts the Ivel 
at Langford ; between these two points we have to put 
in 13 to 18 mills. From Turvey to Bedford the fall is 
hardly 40 feet, but we have to place about 14 mills in 
this stretch also. If it is correct that an overshot wheel 
(one for which the stream is artificially held up so as to 
strike the wheel from above) demands a mill-head of 
8-10 feet, we could then only allow four or five of these 
in either stretch of our sluggish main rivers. 

On the more easily controlled upland brooks, a 
mill leat or a mill dam for an overshot wheel would 
present no great difficulty, and the gradient is steeper 
than on the main rivers; between Flitwick and Langford 
the fall is 100 feet, and we have to account for only 6 
to 9 mills in this case. In my own upland neighbour- 
hood, the mills which are apparently on D.B. sites, are or 
were overshot and driven from dammed ponds. But 
there appears to be no evidence that the Norse mill with 
horizontal wheel was used in Britain outside the area of 
purely Norse settlement. 

While the number of mills in a vill is sometimes 
rather surprising, the word molendinum or molinum 
seems to have meant the wheel rather than a separate 
building, machinery and staff, and the explanation is 
perhaps furnished by a later phrase of ' two mills under 
one roof ' at heighten Buzzard." It would be quite prac- 
ticable to work an undershot wheel immediately below 
an overshot one, or two wheels on one axle coupled for 
greater mechanical efficiency, an arrangement which 1 
have seen frequently on the continent. Where however, 
as at Stanford, mills were in different ownership, this 
explanation is improbable. 

§ 94. Fisheries. — At a period later than D.B., 
rights of several fishery over stretches of the Ouse and 
Ivel were a valuable possession, and were returned as 
part of the estate in Inquisitions post mortem. But it 
is somewhat remarkable that only one fishery is recorded 
in D.B., that at Sharnbrook 275, which seems to have 
been a stew for captured fish (uiuarium piscium), and 
not a right of fishery. There is some slight reason to 
believe that to this fishery was attached a small serjeanty 
(§ 80), but no further trace, of the holding has been as 
yet noted. It is extremely interesting that, as Mr. J. 
C. Beall pointed out to me, this stew-pond appears to be 
still recognisable on the 6 in. and 25 in. Ordnance Map; 
at any rate, at Sharnbrook and nowhere else on the river 
appears a kind of dock on the left bank, some 120 feet by 
40 feet, which if controlled by a sluice would form an 
excellent stew-pond. 

Apart from this, many of the mills paid dues of 
eels to the lord, which are returned among manorial 
profits. 1 In some counties the eel-rent was paid in 
' stiches ' or bundles of twenty five, presumably cured 
and dry as we see them on the continent to-day. In 
this county the eels were rendered by tale, the number 
being generally 100 or some other multiple of 25, but 

k. P.R.O., Rentals and Surveys, portf. i/i, No. i. 

I. An interesting little paper by J. Steele Elliott in the Zoologist, iqi4, 
p. I2i, records the recent state of the eel fishery at Bedfordshire watermills, 
and describes the trap which was probably in use in Norman times. 

m. Although it is usual to derive the name Stagsden from these deeT, 
the word ' stag ' did not find its way into English much before the xvth 
century. The original form is generally Stachedene, perhaps from Stache = 



there are exceptions. There does not seem to be any 
definite relation between the number of eels due and the 
height of the mill on the watershed, nor between the 
numbers due and the money value of the mill. 

§ 95. Park and Vineyard.-— Both of these were 
privileges of great barons, and are uncommon in D.B.; 
each is represented by a single example in this country. 

i. A ' park of woodland beasts,' that is, of deer, 
was permitted only by royal licence, and in later docu- 
ments ' leave to impark ' land is an occasional grant. 
Hugh de Beauchamp had such a park, on the manor 
afterwards known as Dilwick, in Stagsden 125."' Exactly 
200 years later," this park was recorded as containing 
140 acres, of which the pasture would be worth 15s. yearly 
' if the beasts should be removed,' — a curiously small 
sum considering the usual value of pasture at that time, 
which suggests a good deal of timber and brushwood 
in the park. 

ii. A vineyard" of two acres was held by Eudo 
dapifer in Eaton Socon 103. The measurement is un- 
usual, as vineyards were generally measured by the 
arpent of about an acre. 

§ 96. Market. --Only three markets arc men- 
tioned, those of Leighton 2, Luton 4, and Arlesey 97; 
of these the first two were on royal vills, the third a 
private market held by Burnard from William de 
Warenne. As with churches and mills, so also markets 
are only mentioned by D.B. when they yield revenue 
to the Crown, and it is probable that Bedford, as a 
borough (at least incipient), also had a market which 
escaped geld on the same grounds as did its land. 1 he 
value of a market lay principally in the toll exacted on 
all goods sold there; this was estimated at 7 li. yearly 
in Leighton, and 5 li. in Luton. That at Arlesey is said 
to be a ' market of 10s.,' but this may represent its value 
to the Crown and not to the owner; a market being 
essentially a royal franchise, a yearly rental might well 
be demanded of the grantee. 

§ 97. Miscellaneous Profits. — A few additional 
reddends or rents will be found in § § 26 and 31. Iron 
for ploughs, which occurs only twice in Beds., is much 
more common in some other counties such as Cambridge- 
shire. The others require no further comment here. 

THE TILLERS OF THE SOIL. 

§ 98. Soke and the Socman. — The status of 
the socman in 10S6 is very obscure. Little is known of 
it before the Conquest, but medieval lawyers have made 
fairly clear its later developments. A soke is a seeking 
of something, a having recourse to something; under 
mill-soke a tenant must have recourse to the lord's mill 
in order to grind his own corn; under fold-soke he must 
gather his sheep in his lord's fold, their manure is not 
his. It would seem that before the Conquest the soc- 
man might be a lordless man, and would then owe soke 
or suit to his Hundred Court; but certainly later, prob- 
ably in 1086, a socman always owed soke (suit, secta) 
to his lord's court; he must attend the court, hear decide 
and bear witness in the pleadings, for certain offences 

Eustachius or Eustace. Compare Sk&at : Camb. Antiq. Soc. Publ., xlii, ix. 
n. Inq. p.m. Ed. I, 46 (i). 

o. The Roman and Norman vinevards have been cited as evidence that 
our climate is now more rigorous than in the past, but I have drunk 
excellent wine made from grapes of an outdoor vine at Hammersmith Terrace, 
five miles from Charing Cross. 



§ 99—100 



PART 111 



73 



be tried in the court, and pay his fine to the lord of the 
court. The legal position of the post-Conquest socman 1 ' 
is, however, too thorny a handful to be grasped by the 
present writer, and our D.B. throws no light on it; some- 
thing will be said (§ 138-141) as to his pre-Conquest 
condition; at this point it must be enough to say that 
the few socmen traceable under that description in 1086 
are but little above the rank of villans and almost indis- 
tinguishable from them; and that the soclands, the lands 
held by this tenure, had been reduced by the Conquest, 
in number from 672 to 106, and in fiscal area from 353 
hides to 20 hides. 

§ 99. The Villan Tenement. —To begin with a 
typical entry : — " The Bishop of Bayeux holds Eaton 
[Bray]. It answers for twelve hides and one virgate. 
There is land for twenty teams. In demesne are two 
hides and there are four teams and might yet be two. 
The villans have eight teams and there might yet be 
six." In this county it is never said that the villans 
' have ' land but the fact is obvious in such an entry; 
they held, or at least cultivated and had some rights 
over or in, the land which was not in demesne ;— perhaps 
the fourteen bordars held a little— but they held land 
assessed at ioh. iv. ; and out of twenty teamlands, they 
had teams to work eight, and there is still, not in de- 
mesne, land for six more teams to work, if they but had 
them. — Not all entries are so definite as that quoted 
above ; very often the extent of the demesne is not given, 
but only the number of teams upon it. " William Spech 
holds in Holcote four hides. . . . There is land for 
three teams. In demesne is one team and five villans 
have two teams." Here also it seems a fair inference to 
say that the villans tilled two-thirds of the cultivated 
land. We may safely assume that the villan did not 
keep oxen for pleasure, nor yet purely to plough his 
lord's land, and that (except perhaps for a few who may 
have bred oxen for profit), if he had the team, he had 
the land on which to employ it. If the villans had 
more land, land not in demesne, than their actual teams 
could work, D.B. lets us know it, as in the case of Eaton 
Bray; and we may take it broadly that villans who had 
five teams held enough land to keep them busy. 

We may follow Maitland in the belief that the 
caruca, the plough-team, means a constant number (eight) 
of oxen, whether it be the lord's team or that of the vil- 
lans; anything else would convict the planners of D.B. 
of ' laborious folly.' On the basis that one teamland = 
120 acres, the average acreage held by villans in each 
vill, and the average acreage over all the vills, have 
been worked out for a large part of D.B. in those cases 
which state the number of demesne teams. By way of 
example, the entries from two typical fiefs are printed 
here, those of Eudo dapifer and Hugh de Beauchamp. 
Only the teams actually on the land have been reckoned ; 
the possible teams would have led to another complica- 
tion. The figures show the average acreage and oxen 
per villan in each holding. 



Eaton Socon 103 
Wyboston 104 
Tempsford ro6 
Tempsford 107 
Sandy 108 ... 
Stanford til ... 
Beeston 114 ... 
Beeston 115 ... 



acres. 


oxen. 




acres, oxen. 


■■• 37 


2 -5 


Eversholt 140 ... . 


. ... 48 32 


... 60 


4.0 


Milton Brian 141 


. ... 60 4.0 


... 120 


8.0 


Gravenhurst 142 ... . 


. ... 30 2.0 


.. 30 


2.0 


Streatley 143 


. ... 68 4-5 


.. 40 


2.6 


Higham Gobion 144 . 


. ... 60 3.1 


... 80 


5-3 


Milton Ernest 147 


. ... 120 8.0 


... 30 


2.0 


Bletsoe 148 


• - 5» 3-4 


... 90 


Co 


Bromham 150 ... . 


... 30 2.0 



p. Maitland: D.B., 66 — 107. 



Clifton 119 ... 
Putnoe 124 
Stagsden 125 
Chainhalle 126 
Cardington 131 
Willington 132 
Stotfold 13 ^ 
Hawnes 136 ... 
Asplcy 13S ... 
Salford 139 ... 



acres, oxen. 

.. 33 2.2 

... 60 4.0 

... 30 2.0 

... 30 2.0 

... 70 4.6 

... 46 3.0 

... 6S 4.5 



4 - 



.8 



60 4.0 
40 2.6 



Turvey 151 
Barford, Great 
Barford, Great 
CohmvoTtfi 159 
Barford, Great 
Barford, Great 
Goldington 162 
Goldington 163 
Astwick 1661 
Cople 170 



160 
161 



acres, oxen. 
... 120 8.0 
... 40 
... 45 
... 80 
... 120 



2.6 
i 0 
5-3 
8.0 
8.0 
2.6 
1.6 



150 10. o 
40 2.6 



The enormous discrepancy between the acres per 
villan on the different holdings will at once strike the 
reader; on holdings of less than two hides there is often 
only one villan with a full team and presumably some- 
thing like 120 acres; on holdings of a higher assessment, 
the number of villans is usually disproportionately 
larger and the average acreage generally less. 

The average over all the 36 holdings allows 61.4 
acres per villan, a remarkable figure as being almost 
exactly half a teamland. Of course this does not for a 
moment imply that every villan on these fiefs held 60 
acres; for some villans no teams whatever are recorded; 
the teams assigned to the villans are merely the sum of 
all the oxen of all the villans in that vill. But our aver- 
age does at least give us a factor for estimation of the 
land in villan tenure on such fiefs; if some had less, 
others had more; so that we may conceive the villan, 
on the demesne manors of such estates as these, as a 
work-paying tenant holding up to about 120 acres, 
generally about 60 acres, probably not less than 20 
acres; of this land the bordars may have held a little. — 
As a part of the villan tenement must be reckoned the 
oxen, which alone made the land a possible means of 
livelihood. On the 36 holdings shown above, the aver- 
age number of oxen per villan was 3.3. Like the aver- 
age size of the villan tenement, this must not be pressed 
too far, but at least it argues a widely spread distribution 
of wealth. It points also to a system of co-operative 
ploughing, for it seems doubtful whether 3 oxen could 
till 60 acres, at any rate on heavy land. 

But when we come to lesser holdings, where the 
undertenant or the holding were not important enough 
for a ' demesne ' to be recorded, we have nothing to 
guide us : — " In Stanford Roger holds one hide of 
Hugh. There is land for a team and a half and they 
are there and four villans "; but whose were the oxen, 
and how the land was apportioned, seem to be indeter- 
minable with certainty, though I believe the oxen to have 
been on demesne. Did Roger live there and farm him- 
self? or was the land merely given to him for his sus- 
tenance as Hugh's soldier, and he made out of it what 
he could ? 

§ 100. The Villan Rent. --Without entering into 
controversial detail, it may be said that the political 
tendency of the Conquest was to increase the dependence 
of a man upon his lord; the villan of 10S6 was more 
dependent than the small Saxon holder, but his depen- 
dence was no new principle introduced by Normans. A 
villan is merely a man of the vill — we might almost trans- 
late him as a villager, — who chiefly pays for the land 
which he holds, not in coin, but in muscle; he pays a 
work-rent, perhaps also something in produce, little if 
anything in hard cash. The work-rent due from him 
is never recorded in this county; the Exchequer had no 
concern with that; it called for the number of men and 

q. The villans appear to be credited with a team too many, but the text 
has been followed. 



PART III 



$ 101—103 



teams, for it was in quest of geld ; the lord must collect 
their share from his villans. But it is apparent from 
the D.B. of other counties, and from later evidence in 
this, that the principal work-rent was paid in ploughing, 
and that the villans used their teams to plough the 
lord's land as well as their own. From the detailed 
evidence of other counties, it would seem that the plough- 
ing thus paid was far from being a heavy tax, a view 
supported by indirect evidence from Bedfordshire. 
Stotfold 133 supplies a good case, for it was a large 
manor with an equal number (fifteen) of hides and 
teamlands, and with a hidated demesne. The demesne 
of 5 hides may there be put at about 5 x 120=600 acres; 
of this, on the two-course' system, a half will be fallow, 
leaving 300 acres to be ploughed. The lord has 3 
teams, the villans can put up among them another 12 
teams. Now Walter of Henley' says (it is perhaps a 
counsel of perfection) that a team can be made to work 
160 or even 180 acres a year; without setting its effi- 
ciency so high as this, we can see that 15 teams would 
not take long to plough 300 acres, and leave the villans 
ample time to cultivate their own ten hides or twelve 
teamlands. If any other services for which the villans 
might be called upon— harrowing, reaping, etc. — Were 
as light as this, their economic position was very com- 
fortable. 

§ 101. The Villan Status. — To this subject 
Maitland devotes' an acute though inconclusive study. 
But if, as few will deny, very different customs of tenure 
prevailed in England before the Conquest, we can hardly 
expect to arrive at a uniform villan status in 10S6, seeing 
that in the xiiith century lawyers were still busied in 
trying to reduce it to one model. For the unfamiliar and 
divergent customs which they met in their enquiry, the 
Norman D.B. Commissioners had no vocabulary ready; 
as a rule the principal dependent tenants were uniformly 
set down as villani, the men of the viil, — hence our 
difficulties Moreover, as Maitland points out, this class 
of men was necessarily heterogeneous; it was composed 
principally of the men already on the land when the 
Norman arrived ; and if only the names of the villans 
had been given in D.B., we could probably identify 
many of the Saxons of Table VIII — perhaps a few 
King's thanes, almost certainly thanes and their ' men,' 
besides the nameless socmen. The slaughter at Hast- 
ings was not great, and there is no evidence of a general 
butchery at the Conquest. Those Saxons who could 
afford to do so redeemed their land by a payment; some 
were allowed by the King to keep it as his almsmen, 
some even to inherit it (§ 109). 

That the villan was less free than his Saxon pre- 
decessor cannot be denied ; we hear no more of men 
being able to ' give and sell their land ' or to ' withdraw 
to another lord.' On the Norman theory (but we can- 
not say that it was unknown in England before they 
came) all land was held ' from ' some superior; and the 
villan could no more sell his land to the lord of the next 
vill or become his man, than the lord could place himself 
and his manor in another barony. Yet the villan held 
bis land and his o.ren to himself, " and we can hardly 

t. Part of Stotfold was still farmed on the two^xiurse system (alternate 
crop and fallow) as late as 1808 (Batchelor : Agriculture of the County ot 
Bedford, 339). 

1. R. Hist. Soc., p. 0. 

t. Maitland, D.U., 3S— 66. 

u. The only possible case of the widest use of the term is Dean 36 : 
" la dominio sunt lj carucc et uiUani babent j carucam et dimidiam. Ibi 



doubt that both in their land and their oxen the villeins 
have had rights protected by law"; there is evidence 
that they could not be arbitrarily ejected, the^ - are not 
tenants at will, but so long as they performed the service 
due from the land crnld claim to hold it as of right. — 
With the complicated question of the lord's justiciary 
rights over the villan, his ' sake and soke,' our record 
is not concerned, nor consequently are we. But in this 
as in other things we shall not err far in regarding the 
conditions at Domesday as intermediate between the 
freer Saxon society and the more irksome environment 
of the xiijth century (of which so much more is known) 
and we ought to be very chary of arguing in such matters 
backwards from 1250 to 1086. — If then the work-rent 
was light, and the villan's rights in land and cattle were 
protected, if he lost no more by the Conquest than his 
power of disposal of his land and his choice of a lord, 
we need not waste much sympathy over the change from 
socman to villan. 

§ 102. The Bordar and the Cottar. — In the 
D.B. of Bedfordshire there is no mention of the Cotarii, 
a class fairly numerous in parts of the south and east of 
England. They occur frequently in Hertfordshire, and 
the entry of the Herts, portion of Meppershall (d. in the 
Schedule to Table I) shows 3 villans and 4 cottars as 
on the land. For the entry of the Beds, portion of 
Meppershall 281, after setting out the hidage and team- 
lands of each part separately, D.B. then proceeds to give 
the sum (inter totum) of the two portions in teamlands 
demesne men and profits, recording 5 villans, 4 bordars 
and 2 serfs. There can be little doubt that this equates 
bordars and cottars so far as our county is concerned, 
and the most recent students have failed to separate 
them satisfactorily; that there was a slight distinction is 
obvious from the fact that both are occasionally recorded 
in the same entry, as for instance in Cambridgeshire. 

§ 103. The Tenement of Bordar and Serf. — 

Scanty as is our knowledge of the villan, it is yet more 
meagre as to these two classes. In some counties the 
term villan can be used by D.B. to connote all unfree 
men, including bordars and serfs; this does not seem to 
be the practice for Bedfordshire, 'which usually separates 
the villan from the other two by the possession of teams.' 1 
As an example of a very common type of entry — " In 
demesne are two hides and there are two teams and 12 
villans have 3 teams. There are 9 bordars-and 5 serfs " 
(Chainhalle 126); if the uniform marshalling of words 
has any value, this means that on that holding the villans 
have teams and the bordars and the serfs have none. 
Contrasted with such entries are a few which assign a 
share in the teams to bordars and to serfs; these have 
been set out below in tabular form, arranged according 
to their combinations, — firstly bordars alone, then bor- 
dars and serfs, next villans and bordars,' lastly villans, 
bordars and serfs; the teams which they can muster 
between them are shown in the last column. 



vn bordarn et ij serui." The want of articles in Latin makes this of 
doubtful meaning, but I think that anyone acquainted wuh the phrasing 
of the Beds. D.U. will infer that the number of villans has been acci- 
dentally omitted. The identical phrasing but with the number supplied 
may be read in Shillmgton 58 among many other casos. 

t. Serfs are recorded on the holding, but excluded from the record of 
teams, in entries Si, 331, 333, 339, 340 cued in this table. 



I 104—105 



PART III 



75 



Thurlcigh 241 
Sutton 319 
Stondon 346 
Sutton 365 
Turvcy 235 
Stratton 81 
Cudsand 82 
Campton 280 



Villans Bordars Serfs Teams 

4 ... 1 

4 ... 1 

3 ... 4 

3 ... 1 

... 8 11 

' 5 ... 1 

1 3 ... 2 

2 1 ... * 



Houghton Conquest 331 11 7 ... 3* 

Charlton 332 16 9 ... 5 

Hockliffc 335 13 " ••■ 6 

Hatley 339 8 4 ... 6 

Stanford 340 2 1 ... 1 

Wyminton 232 1 6 3 2 

Wyminton 23S 1 8 4 1 

Langford 245 ... " ... 12 7 5 9 

Silsoe 250 6 8 4 7 

Hinwick 252 14 31 

Staughton 254 41 1 2 

Totals ... 79 97 21 $ii 

It will be noticed that the 14 bordars oi the first 
four entries average 2 oxen apiece; we may attribute 
this to their being the only men on the holding, but it 
seems certain that so high a number is unusual ; they are 
generally excluded from possession oi oxen in the record. 

Confining our attention purely to these 19 cases and 
admitting them to be exceptional, it is yet of interest to 
note that by allowing on an average 3 oxen to a villan 
(§ 99), 2 to a bordar, and 1 to a serf, we get a total of 
452 oxen, the actual number in the 51^ teams being 412; 
the estimated number is only 10 per cent, wrong, and 
a fair approximation. Taking another point oi view 
and regarding the teams as implying the corresponding 
teamlands, it is the case that on an allowance of half a 
hide to each villan (§ 9Q), hall a virgate to each bordar. 
and a quarter virgate to each serf, we arrive at a total 
of 6247 acres, while the actual number of teams multi- 
plied by 120 is 6180 acres, and the error here is only 
I per cent. But the average bordar of the first four 
entries would have a whole virgate, which shows (if it 
needed to e shown) that too much stress must not be 
laid on the lesuh of such computations. Taken broadly 
as they should be taken, they show that we can contem- 
plate a bordar as having on occasions something like 
15-30 acres and _' oxen, and a serf yet more rarely as 
having at least one ox and a quarter of a virgate. This 
tallies with more direct statements from the D.B. of some 
other counties. 

§ 104. Status of Bordar and Serf.— That the 
villan was economically above the bordar, that villan 
and bordar were both legally and economically higher 
than the serf, and that in 1086 none of the three were 
regarded as completely ' free ' men, are almost the only 
points of certainty about them. Before we can see them 
fairly, our usual associations with the words ' villan ' 
and ' serf ' must be ruthlessly discarded. The ordinary 
history book tends to draw the villan as a scarcely human 
chattel, liable to almost limitless oppression at his lord's 
land; a ' serf : suggests to most oi us " Uncle Tom's 
Cabin." It would make for clear thinking if the three 
classes were styled 1st. 2nd. and 3rd. Villager like the 
members of a stage chorus. The villan was merely 
the typical villager of the better class: the bordar, a 

w. Leges Henrici in Schmid : d:e Gesette der AnRclsachen, 69 fa, 7° 
|l, 76 fa; Stubba : Lectures on Early English History, 144, 145. 



smaller man who held a horde or cot and cot land (cot- 
tage and allotment); the serf was certainly not a slave 
in any modern sense of the word, and though we cannot 
find a good name for hini, we may almost call him a 
' labourer ' or even ' farm-servant.' 

As to the legal status of both villan and bordar, the 
' unfreedom ' of their tenure may fairly be regarded as 
largely the invention of xiijth century lawyers. When 
the compiler of the " Laws of Henrv I " attempted about 
1 1 18" to set down what he knew of the law of Edward 
the Confessor and its post-Conquest amendment, he 
regarded everyone who was below a thane and above a 
serf as a villan, as a free man with a wergild of 200 
shillings to be paid to his kindred on his murder. This 
would include the villans, bnrdars, cottars and boors of 
1086, but in one respect they had ceased to be free, 
they were no longer free to dispose of their land, and 
were therefore in practice tied to their holdings; " Men 
may become so economically dependent on their lords 

that the legal question whether they can quit their 

service has no interest. Who wishes to leave his all and 
go forth a beggar into the world ? "' to leave house, hold- 
ing and stock, with the sole option of becoming a hired 
labourer to some other lord? For it is clear from D.B. 
that the bordar had a holding; in this county he might, 
in neighbouring counties he generally did, have his own 
oxen; nor, so far as we can see, could his tenure be ter- 
minated so long as the services due for rent were ri^htlv 
paid. Of the duties of the bordar we shall learn some- 
thing from his Saxon forerunner, the cotsetla (§ 14S). 
The difference between villan and bordar seems to have 
been chiefly economic, they held by somewhat different 
tenures; the villan had the larger holding and more 
wealth in oxen; he paid his work-rent mainly in plough- 
ing, the bordar paid his in more miscellaneous services. 

But the serf of D.B. is on a different plane. As to 
his status and his duties the record as a whole is nearly, 
and in this county is absolutely, silent. His services 
(that is, he) can be sold by one lord to another; the mar- 
ket exacts toll on his sale, as it does on cattle sales. But 
as we have seen (§ 103) he might have a share in the 
teams, and in such a case must have had a little land; 
he might be working for himself as well as for his lord. 
After the xijth century the serf seems gradually to 
disappear, and as a rule only villans of a status increas- 
ingly unfree can be seen. Therefore in order to learn 
something of the D.B. serf, we must look at his predeces- 
sor, the Saxon theow (§ 149) in the light of a recent 
Conquest. On the whole, the evidence does not point 
to more than a rather stern labour-contract, between the 
man who has lost everything or was born to nothing, and 
the lord who finds for him bread and shelter in return 
for work. 

§ 105. Distribution of Serfs. — When plotted on 
a map, the serfs are seen to be fairly evenly distributed 
over the county; few vills have no serfs. The only 
noteworthy exception seems to be the Ancient Demesne; 
Luton has but three, Leighton two, and Houghton Regis 
none. But elsewhere a close connection is noticeable 
between serfs and demesne; in order to show this, the 
first 150 entries which follow the Royal lands have been 
analysed; out of these 

on 72 holdings (nearly half) there arc teams in demesne, 
and 63 (87 per cent.) of them carry serfs; 

X. Maitland : D.B, 51. 



76 



PART III 



§ 106-109 



on 75 holdings (exactly half) there are serfs, and 63 (84 
per cent.) of them are holdings with demesne teams; 

of 246 serfs recorded in the 150 entries, all except 20 
(8 per cent.) are on holdings with demesne teams; 
and many of the 20 are so placed that they could 
have served the same lord's demesne on an adjacent 
holding. 

This intimate relation between serfs and demesne 
supports the conclusion which will be drawn later (§ 149) 
as to the Saxon theow; they were the demesne labourers. 

MISCELLANEOUS MEN. 

§ 106. Officers of the Royal Household/ — Of 
these are mentioned 

(1) the Staller, an Old English style for the Steward 
of the Household. We have only references (Biscot 9, 
Streatley 364") to Asgar the Staller and Bondi or Bundi 
the Staller; the latter passed from the service of Edward 
and Harold to that of William"; he has been suggested 
above as a possible Sheriff of this county (§ 76) : 

(2) the Dapifer (in England) or Seneschal (in Nor- 
mandy), the Norman name for the Staller. Eudo dapifer 
is familiar as a Tenant in Chief of importance (103-109) : 

(3) the Camerarius or Chamberlain. Tt would seem, 
that, in D.B. as later, more than one officer bore this title. 
There was a ' Chamberlain of England ' who does not 
appear in our D.B. His duties, which seem originally to 
have been largely those of a royal Treasurer, demanded 
deputies and assistants, some at least of whom were 
clergy. Of these we have two — Turstin chamberlain 
(277-280) and William chamberlain (5, 263-265): 

(4) the Pincerna or Butler. Hugh de Ivri had been 
Duke William's Butler in the Norman household, and 
held a little land in this county (254, 255). 

For the King's Serjeants, see § 80. 

§ 107. Lesser Officials. — These seem to have 
been rewarded by small grants of land, probably only for 
life or during tenure of office; they are found in that last 
section of D.B. which is (partly) headed ' Land of the 
King's Reeves and Almsmen,' and cited in this memoir 
as the ' King's Service ' (ministerium Regis). They are 
as follows : — 

(1) the prebendarius (355). His function seems to 
have been the purchasing of provisions. 

(2) the prefectus Regis or King's Reeve (356, 358- 
362, 380). If his duties resembled those of the reeve of 
a manor, he would be occupied in general supervision of 
the royal demesne. 

(3) the prefectus de hundredo (364), the Reeve of 
the Hundred. His land ' lay to ' Luton; this fact and 
his royal office seem to fit in with the suggestion (§ 47) 
that the ancient demesne in the south of the county once 
ranked as a Hundred. 

(4) the equarius regis, or groom of the royal stud 
(357)- 

(5) the bedellus or beadle (377), whose function is 
obscure. There seem to have been corresponding offi- 
cials T.R.E., whatever their Saxon title mav have been 
(362). 

y. The same titles occur in the households of magnates ; thus we have 
Hugh de Grentmesnil's dapifer (Milton Ernest 333), and the Bishop of 
Bayeux's camerarius (Totternhoe 265). 

z. Rcgesta i, p. xxii. 



(6) the prepositus burgi, the Reeve of the Burgh 
(48), the fore-runner of the Mayor of Bedford, may fairly 
be counted among these officials. 

§ 108. Milites and Frenchmen. —The term 
' miles ' is used in D.B. for at least two very different 
classes of men, if we may judge from their estates; (a) 
for a warrior of high degree, such as Hamo the Sheriff 
and the Count of Eu, who were milites of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury ; in such a case it may fairly be 
translated as ' knight,' nor is the ' service of a knight's 
fee,' a phrase later so familiar, unknown to Domesday"; 
(b) in our county however the word is used for a fighting 
retainer of the Baron, presumably a ' Frenchman,' that 
is, a Norman. The instances are 

Yiclden 22. There are 17 villans and 1 miles and 12 

bordars and 1 serf (under the Bishop of Coutances). 
Sundon 92. In the same vill 1 miles has 1 team (under 

William de Ow). 
Edworth 95. Two milites hold from William de Ow 7 

hides and 3 virgates and a half. 
Oakley 225. Two milites hold of Robert [de Todcni] 

4 hides. 

Turvey 226. Two milites hold of Robert [de Todeni] 

2 hides and 1 virgate. 
Sharnbrook 275. Ralf Taillgebosc . . . took that land 

L l \ virgate] and gave it to a certain man his miles." 

Even here we seem to trace grades of rank. The 
man at Yielden who is ranked between villans and bor- 
dars, or the man at Sundon who had one team, arc surely 
of another class than the men at Edworth, Oakley and 
Turvey who were true undertenants with comfortable 
estates ; Edworth at least was a manor ; the military ser- 
vice which these men owed was probably that of an 
" ordinary horseman in the ranks of the heavy cavalry," 
as Dr. Morris says. Such service could hardly have 
been expected from a man whose holding was that of 
a villan; and in one case elsewhere in D.B. soldarius 
( = solidarius from the shilling of his pay = soldier) is 
used as a synonym for miles. We must conclude that 
the term miles was used by our scribe rather loosely, 
meaning not much more than a Norman fighting man. 

Frenchmen ' (francigena, francus) also probably 
meant nothing more than Normans whose names the 
scribe did not know. They occur only as undertenants 
in Riseley 25 and Southill 219. Freeman" remarks that 
in D.B. " the word Norman is nowhere found." Yet 
Normannus in Beeston 115 and Cople 173 is not likely 
to have been a personal name (though it may have 
become one), any more than an undertenant Francus 
would be known as — Freeman ! In the Beeston case 
there can be little doubt, for the man had held there 
T.R.E., and would naturally be known as ' the Norman ' 
among the Saxons. 

§ 109. Englishmen and Almsmen. —Of 'Eng- 
lishmen ' (anglus, anglicus), six held in Riseley, 25 as 
undertenants jointly with two Frenchmen, and were 
possibly the six socmen who had held four hides there 
T.R.E.; this would leave two hides for the two French- 
men. In two other cases (Sharnbrook 31, Stagsden 70), 
Englishmen are undertenants, and their names recorded. 

a. D.B. (R.C.), i, 32 : Ditton. 

b. This was perhaps Osbern de Broilg's holding from Hugh de Beau- 
champ in Sharnbrook 152. Dr. Morris has also drawn attention to the 
coincidence (B.H.R.S., v, 5). 

c. Freeman, N.C., v, 766. 



§ 110-112 



FART III 



11 



But there is no doubt that many Saxons were 
allowed to hold land after the Conquest — of course, at 
a price; such an opportunity of raising money was 
valuable* 1 ; — and some who had but scraps of land seem 
to have held by compassion as the King's Almsmen. 
The following cases of continuous tenure have been 
noted: the hidage being T.R.W. 



Astwick iGS 
Beeston 115 
Beeston 353 
Biddenham 347 
Biddenham 348 
Biddenhuin 349 
Biddenham 350 
Bolnhurst 14 
Bromham 378 
Carl I on 16 
Carlton 366 
Clifton 57 
Dean 84 
Dean 373 
Dean 374 
Eyworth 33S 
Goldington 368 
Hanefeld 375 
Henlow 354 
Hinwick 351 



Sharnbrook 352 
Stanford 369 
Stanford 370 
Staughton 24 
Staughton 37 
Staughton 88 
S tod den 

Hund. 376 
Sutton 316 
Sutton 321 
Sutton 365 
Thurlcigh 100 
Tillbrook 85 
Turvey 379 
Westcotts 372 
Wvminton 367 
Wyminton 381 



1). 


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Lcdmar, m. of E. Tosti. 

Norman (7 h., T.R.E.) 

Godmund. 

Osgar de Bedeford. 

Godwin the burgess (o h. 2 v., T.R.E.). 
Ordwi the burgess (o h. 2' v., T.R.E.). 
Ulmar the burgess, 
two socmen. 
Osiet. 

two socmen, 

Chelbert, m. of Qu. Edith. 

Ix'win, ten. of Abb. of Ramsey. 

three socmen. 

eleven socmen. 

Godwin Dere of Bedeford. 

Brodo. 

Alric Wintremelc. 

Saiet, of the King's soke. 

Alric. 

Edward, succeeded his father. 
? two socmen. 

a bedell, succeeded his father. 
Alxnar, succeeded his father. 
Alric. 

Ordui, m. of Kg. Edward, 
four socmen, m. of Burgled, 
father of Will, de Caron. 
Avigi. 

Turgot and mother, succeeded his father. 

Levegar m. of Kg. Edward. 

Ederic, m. of Kg. Edward. 

Alwin (o h. 3 v., T.R.E.). 

Leuric, m. of Brihtric. 

twenty socmen. 

Alwin priest. 

Ordui, m. of Kg. Edward. 

5 bros. and m., succeeded f. Lant. 

Turchill. 



Besides these, there are a few socmen T.R.W. who 
may be the same socmen as held T.R.E. ; in several 
cases their number is the same under both kings. They 
will be found in Table IX, column iv, marked with an 
asterisk. 

Lastly, two tenants in chief had continuous tenure 
across the Conquest, Albert of Lorraine (Chalgrave 283), 
and Ernuin priest (Harrowden 67); the latter had suc- 
ceeded his father, a man of King Edward, but without 
royal authorisation. 

At the outside we can only find a pitiful 69 hides 
— less than 6 per cent, of the county — in undisturbed 
possession since pre-Conquest days. The spoils in deed 
fell to the victors. 

POPULATION. 

§ 1 10. The Numbers of Men. — No exact census 
is possible. We are not aware how many of the 54 
Tenants in Chief were actually resident; we can only 
sav that, in all probability, some were usually, some 
occasionally, some never, to be found in the County. 
We have no information as to the number of Burgesses, 
Canons, villans, etc., in Bedford itself; nothing is told 
us of the country priests. With the undertenants and 
men in the King's Service there is uncertainty in iden- 
tifying men of the same name. Only with the villans, 
bordars and serfs are we on fairly firm ground, but even 
they mav have been returned more than once in adjacent 
vills under one lord. 

d. " They paid him [William] geld . . . and then bought their lands." 
(A. S. Chron. R.S. 23, i, 337). " When the English redeemed their lands." 
(D.B., R.C., ii, 360). 

e. Round : Domesday Studies, 77-142. 



Bearing this uncertainty in mind, we arrive at the 

following approximate figures for adult males : — 

Tenants in chief ... 54 1.4 p.c. 
Undertenants ... 200 5.4 p.c. 

Villans ... 1850 49.7 p.c. 

Bordars ... 1 145 30.7 p.c. 

Serfs ... ... 474 12.7 p.c. 



Total 3723 99.9 p.c. 

a little below Ellis' count of 3875, and Airy's of 3891, 
which seem to be numbers of tenancies rather than of 
tenants. The undertenants are counted from Table 
VII, omitting T. in C. and religious houses, including 
Englishmen ' ' Frenchmen ' militcs and socmen. 

It would not be safe to deduce a total population 
of men, women and children from these figures, but they 
are of interest as showing the proportions borne by 
various classes of men to one another ; these proportions 
are probably more accurate than the absolute numbers, 
and seem to indicate that not more than 5 or 6 per cent, 
were of Norman blood. 

PAYMENTS AND VALUES. 

§ in. The Danegeld/— This tax, which may 
fairly be regarded as the immediate cause of the Great 
Survey, was at first a tribute paid to the marauding 
Danes, blackmail to avert invasion. About 1012 it 
assumed rather the character of a wage, paid to Thorkill 
with five and forty Danish ships who should protect the 
feeble shores of England from hungry pirates; about 
105 1 -1054 the successors of these mercenaries were paid 
off and the tax abolished. But the Conqueror raised a 
Danegeld in the year that he was crowned, and another 
in the following year, both apparently at the old rate of 
2s. on the hide. In 1084 it was levied at the rate of 6s. 
on the hide, in 1096 at 4s. on the hide, but from then until 
it disappears from the Rolls in 11 63 it seems to have 
been raised on the old rate, and, apparently from 1130 
onwards, annually not intermittently. The royal manors 
were exempt, otherwise this tax seems as a rule to have 
been paid by all ranks,' the tenant in chief being ulti- 
mately responsible for producing the money and raising 
their proportion from the villans, presumably through 
the manor of the undertenant. It has been suggested 
that tenants in chief were excused the Danegeld of 1084, 
but many features of this particular levy are still a 
puzzle; Ramsay* suggests that it was raised to resist an 
invasion threatened by a coalition of Norway, Denmark 
and Flanders; William, forewarned, raised a strong army 
of foreign mercenaries whom he billetted on the mag- 
nates (" much toil had men that year "), and laid waste 
the coast at likely landing places ; but the raid was never 
attempted. 

§ 112. Yield of the Danegeld. — We can see ap- 
proximately the fiscal result of the Domesday Survey in 
the Danegeld as it appears in the Pipe Roll of 11 30. 
At the ordinary rate of 2s. on the hide, the 12 10 hides of 
this county should have yielded 121 li. to the royal ex- 
chequer. But it is obvious, and not from D.B. alone, 
that many monasteries and some men were assessed at 
far less than their real hidage, and the actual yield must 

f. fro the Charter of Liberties (noi) Henry I. undertook that lands per- 
forming military service should be free from all gelds (Stubbs : Select Charters, 
p. 98, no. 11); but, like many royal promises, this was not kept. 

g. Ramsay: Foundations of England, ii, 126-128. 



78 



PART lil 



§ 113-117 



often have disappointed a zealous official. In 1 130 only 
no li. us. is accounted for by the Sheriff, but much 
less was actually received, because many men were 
' pardoned by the King's writ.' 

li. s. d. li. s. d. 
Paid into the Treasury ... ... 76 8 9 

Due from the Sheriff ... ... 3 14 6 

- 80 3 3 

Pardoned on the King's writ" ... ... . .. 30 8 9 



1 10 1 2 o 



so that the Exchequer in 1 130 only received about 65 
per cent, or two-thirds of what the county hidage should 
have yielded, and it may be doubted whether King 
William got even so much. 

§ 113. Coinage. — The Conquest made no dif- 
ference to the English coinage, for William, like his 
immediate predecessors, minted only the silver penny 
containing twenty grains Tower of silver; broken along 
ihe cross, its pieces served as half pennies and farthings. 
The coins were struck by moneyers from dies supplied 
by the Exchequer; they worked in numerous towns. 
Our record, so uncommunicative as to Bedford, does not 
mention a mint there. Yet there undoubtedly was one, 
lor coins of William I exist, struck by the moneyers 
Sibrand and Saegod (Sigod) at Bedeford. Sigod minted 
also under William Rufus at Bedford, as did also Lifwi 
(Leofwine) and Godric. 1 

In addition to the minted penny, the Normans used 
higher values, simply as moneys of account for which 
no coins were struck: — the shilling of 12 pennies, the 
ounce or ore (Carlton 366) of 20 pennies, the mark of 
160 pennies or 8 ores or 13s. 4d., and the pound (weight) 
of 240 pennies or 12 ores or 20 shillings. Both ore and 
mark had been increased by a third at the Conquest. 
Gold passed by weight only, a mark of gold being taken 
as equal to six pounds of silver, in the ratio 9:1. 

§ 114. Payment in bullion. — The value of the 
pennies tendered for Danegeld was naturally liable to 
have been reduced by wear and by tarnish, and the 
Exchequer might thus easily lose a considerable sum on 
a large payment by number or tale. We find therefore 
that during the first century after the Conquest payments 
were made by one or other of the following methods : — 

a. by tale (numero, ad numerum), any 240 pennies being 

taken as equal to a pound : 

b. by weight (ad pensum), when the full pound weight 
was required, irrespective of the number of pennies : 

c. by assay, the silver being blanched (bianco, de albo 

argento); in this method a sample of the bullion 
was assayed by fire, and the debtor must make good 
any deficiency in value shown by the assay : 

d. by rate (ad scalam), when, instead of having the 
bullion weighed or assayed, the debtor paid an extra 
six or twelve pennies in the pound. 

Payments by weight and in blanch silver are mentioned 
on the Ancient Demesne (2, 4, 5). 

The Queen's Gold, which is also recorded under 
the same three manors (2, 4, 6), formed the revenue of 

h. Using the Record Commission's edition of this Roll, I can only make 
this sum 30H. os. ad. 

i. Brit. Mus. Cat. Eng. Coins, Norman Kings, ii. 



the Queen Consort, and at a later date was taken as one 
tenth of any fine or offering to the King, to which it was 
supplemental. This revenue was enjoyed by all Queens 
Consort till the death of Henry VIII. To the Sheriff's 
gold, reference has already been made (§ 76). 

§ 115. Payment in kind. —This appears in our 
record as due only from the Ancient Demesne ; it is the 
King's feorm, and descends from that remote past when 
the royal household was fed by the produce of the royal 
manors. In some counties the payment in kind had 
already been commuted for a payment in money, even 
before 1066; but Leighton, Luton and Houghton still 
apparently rendered yearly, in grain, honey and other 
customary matters, a half-day's farm-rent, enough 
theoretically to maintain the royal household for half a 
day. 

§ 116. Farm of the Ancient Demesne. — The 
Sheriff administered officially the royal manors, paid a 
fixed farm-rent in cash and kind to the Exchequer, and 
made what he could on the transaction. In the following 
attempt to show their cash value to the Crown, the dif- 
ference in value between payments by weight and by 
assay has been neglected. 





Leighton 


Iaitos 




Houghton 




(52 teamlands) 


(82 teamlands) 


(22 tea ni lands) 


Sheriff owes 


li. S. d. 


li. s. 


d. 


1.. 


s. d. 


for the Manor, etc. 


22 O O 


30 0 


0 


IO 


0 0 


„ Queen's Gold 


I IO O 


3 0 


0 


I 


10 0. 


,, Sumter-horse, etc 


. 3 IO O 


3 io 


0 


3 


5 0 


., King's hounds' [? omitted] 


6 10 


0 


3 


5 0 


,, Increment 


7 0O 


9 0 


0 


4 


0 0 


Due to the Crown 


34 0 0 


52 0 


0 


22 


0 0 


Sheriff receives 


15 0 


15 


c 




15 0 



If the Sheriff compounded fot the depreciation of 
the coinage in 1086 as a later Exchequer would have 
required, the totals due to the Crown for the three manors 
would be approximately: Leighton, 35 li. 9s.; Luton, 
53I i. 19s.; Houghton Regis, 22H. 14s. 

In order to arrive at the total value to the Crown, 
the worth of the half-day's feorm should be added, but 
can hardly be estimated; the amount at which it was 
compounded is recorded in some counties, but cannot 
necessarily be applied to Bedfordshire. 

§ 117. Geldum, Warra and Gablum. — These 
seem to be Saxon terms latinised by the Normans. The 
geld being the money paid as Dane-geld, the Warra 
(Wara) appears to mean the liability for payment, place 
of payment, or act of payment. It appears in our record 
only four times" : — 

86. [Hanefelde] iacuit semper in Chenebaltone sed 
Warram dedit semper iuste in Bedefordscira. 

0,9a. In Middeltone habuerunt ij sochemanni xvj acras 
terre et suam Warram in eadem Middeltone de- 
derunt. 

108. Set Radulfus qnando erat uicecomes eum desai- 
siuit ideoque Eudo noluit dare Warras de eadem 
silua [in Sandeie]. 

c. [Westone] iacuit et iacet in Hiz set wara huius 
manerii iacuit in Bedefordscira T.R.E. 

j. Reference to Table I, col. xxiii, will show that a liberty has been 
taken with the text in the matter of Leighton's payment to the King's hounds, 
k. Translated in Tabic I, col. xxiii. 



§ 118-120 



PART III 



In 99a and 108 the word geldum might almost have 
been substituted. 

Gablum (the Saxon gafo!) on the other hand is a 
rent due to the lord, whether he be King or subject. It 
occurs but twice in this county* : — 

233. [In Totenehou] homines qui v hidas tenuerunt et 
tencnt omries consuetudines regis et gablum re- 
tinuerunt et retinent. 

275. [In Sernebroc] ille gablum de hac terra dare noluit 
et Radulfus Taillebosc gablum dedit. 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE VALETS. 

§ i iS. The Ravag6 of War.— It follows from 
Total A of Table [II, cols, xvii and xviii, that the value 
of the lands as a whole had been depreciated by only 
one third or 33 per cent, of their T.R.E. value. This 
figure is remarkably small, and shows how little real 
disturbance in the life of the countryside was caused by 
the Conquest in this part of England 1 ; the tiller of the 
soil changed his lord, and lost something of his inde- 
pendence, yet in other respects the tenour of his daily 
life seems to have been unbroken. But if we turn to 
col. xix of Table II, which shows the depreciation of the 
separate vills after the Conquest, it becomes clear that 
while some were worth when received as much as, or 
even (perhaps owing to addition of land from a neigh- 
bouring vill) more than their value T.R.E., others had 
suffered very heavily, and had dropped to less than half 
of their previous value. 

§ 119. The Invasion of Bedfordshire. — In the 
interesting ' Domesday Tables ' of Mr. F. H. Baring 
is included an essay on the march of William the Con- 
queror from Hastings to London. On the reasonable 
assumption that the depreciation in value of manors 
when received (O.R.), as compared with their valet 
T.R.E., is due to devastation caused by William's army, 
he uses it to trace the path of the Norman columns 
which approached London from the north. Mr. Baring 
seems to have utilised onlv the manors, and their de- 
preciation as shown by the actual figures of the valets. 
Greater accuracy and surer inference seem likely to be 
attained (a) by the use of the summed values of 
every holding in a vill (thus obtaining the total deprecia- 
tion of that vill), and (b) by employing percentage values 
instead of absolute valets; both these have been applied 
to the preparation of Map VIII. 

On this, the percentage ratio which the total Q.R. 
valet of the vill bears to the total of the T.R.E. valet 
(taken from Table II, column xix) was set against each 
vill ; and contour lines were then swept round those vills 
in the centre and south of the county of which the value 
was 55 per cent, or less of their original value before the 
Conquest. The results of the method amply confirmed 
Mr. Baring's general principle, but led to conclusions 
rather different in detail from those which he reached, 
and indicate that the Royal Manors and the Burgh were 
the chief objective of the army in this county. When 
this had been done, the same method was applied to the 
D.B. records of neighbouring counties through which the 
forces must pass on their route through Bedfordshire 
towards London, and their results (which are intended to 
form the subject of a separate paper) seem to fall into 
line with those deduced for this county, and bring the 

k. Translated in Table I. col. xxiii. 

L Only those who have seen the tumbled heaps of shattered rubble, 



columns ultimately to the known point at which the 
submission of the Londoners was received. 

The devastation by the army was not necessarily 
calculated and deliberate; the country was by no means 
" ruthlessly laid waste " as historians are apt to say. 
The statement that William's plan was " to isolate and 
starve out the city by a wide belt of desolation " (as one 
historian writes) is neither consonant with the facts of 
the case, nor consistent with a rational policy. A Con- 
queror who designs to stay does not wantonly ruin the 
land which will shortly be his own. But there was no 
Commissariat, and the army had to find its daily food in 
the seed-corn and plough-oxen of the nearest vill. Lands 
through which it merely marched by day would suffer, 
either not at all or not so much as those on which it was 
billelted at night ; and along roads it would travel much 
more rapidly than when marching across country; these 
account for occasional rises of percentage along its sup- 
posed route. It is not contended that every reduction to 
half-value need necessarily have been due to William's 
army, fire, or murrain, or in the north of the county 
Morkere's raid from Northampton to Oxford in 1065, 
may account for outlying cases. But the fact that all 
the instances of a 55 per cent, reduction easily fall into 
definite lines, leading to rational objectives (the royal 
manors and boroughs) goes far to prove the correctness 
of the explanation suggested. 

§ 120. Routes of the Columns. — A study of all 
the facts and figures available for this and six adjacent 
counties suggests the following account, which can be 
followed for this County on Map Vill. 

At Crowmarsh opposite Wallingiord, where he 
crossed the Thames, the Conqueror (according to Wil- 
liam of Jumicges) formed a fortified camp; he occupied 
the area between the Thame, the Thames, and the Ick- 
nield Way, while the forces concentrated. When the 
great advance began, the main body followed the Ick- 
r.ield Way to Harold's manor of Risborough and the 
royal manor of Wendover, while the desolate and wooded 
region of the Chiltern Hills sufficiently guarded the right 
flank. At this point there was no physical feature to 
prevent a direct advance on London, but the army must 
command the quarter from which attack might be ex- 
pected, that is to say, the North. The Earl? Eadwinc 
and Morkere had taken no part in the battle of Hastings, 
but had withdrawn northward with their forces : their 
attitude to the Conqueror was still undetermined. Mor- 
kere might come down the Ermin Street with the 
Northumbrians, Eadwine down the Watling Street with 
the Mercians, as both had done the year before; and the 
Conqueror took his measures accordingly. The bag- 
gage proceeded by the Icknield Way to Lmon, covered 
by a flanking column from Pitstone on the now exposed 
southern flank ; this halted at the heads of the Gade and 
Bulborne valleys as the baggage moved (Studham and 
Caddington). The main body struck north, securing 
the royal manor of Aylesbury; then east in two divisions 
to the valuable group of royal manors, Leighton, Hough- 
ton Regis, and Luton ; the Watling Street was thus held, 
with an outpost at Potsgrcve ; the army seems to have 
entered Bedfordshire by the ford at Lin.slade, and by 
either the Yttingaford or that at Wbaddon in Slapton. 
From Luton the baggage proceeded later towards Hert- 
ford ; the main body again turned north, seizing Harold's 

which seven years ago were happy French villages, can appreciate the 
Conqueror's restraint and foresight, and the discipline of his men. 



so 



PART III 



§ 121-12 



manor of Westoning; the right wing then wheeled east, 
crossing the River Ivel at the Long Ford (Langford), 
and shortly afterwards wheeled south on Hertford ; while 
the left wing continued on to Bedford, thence along the 
drier ground on the left bank of the Ouse; after crossing 
the river, at Little Barford and perhaps Eaton Ford, it 
also wheeled southwards on Hertford, while a flying 
column planted an outpost on the Ermin Street at Pap- 
worth, and a detachment seized Earl Waltheof's manor 
of Potion. At the beginning of the advance a flying 
column had been despatched to seize the royal burgh of 
Buckingham and guard the left Hank. Riding eastward, 
it established an outer post on the Watling Street, en- 
tered Bedfordshire from Wavendon, and slackened its 
pace or halted till joined by the left wing for the advance 
on Bedford. 

In the preceding year Northamptonshire and the 
neighbouring shires had been deliberately devastated by 
a typical Danish raid of the Northumbrians in revolt 
against Earl Tostig, joined by the Danes of Lines. 
Derbs. and Mercia. Consequently it is hardly possible 
to say whether a few depreciations in the north of Bed- 
fordshire are due to the Danes or to the Normans; these 
are tentatively connected by arrows, as if the line Laven- 
don-Sharnbrook and Radwell-Bolnhurst-Kimbolton had 
been traversed by a flying column of Normans; and 
Farndish and Hinwick had been devastated by the 
Danes; but there is no certainty in the matter. 

§ 121. The Recovery. — A comparison of Total 
A in columns xvi, xvii and xviii of Table III shows the 
very gradual recovery in values which followed on the 
pacification of the country. While the total value of all 
lands in the Hundreds in 1086 had risen by 15 per cent, 
over the Q.R. valet, it was still 23 per cent, below the 
T.R.E. valet. Some would seek the cause of this in 
Norman misrule and oppression. History does not how- 
ever show that this county, like Yorkshire, Somerset and 
Herefordshire, ever suffered for a share in those later 
risings against the Conqueror which were punished by a 
deliberate and systematic devastation. It seems more 
likely that the loss of seed-corn and of the plough-oxen 
at the Invasion, and a series of bad harvests coupled 
with heavy taxation, retarded the return of prosperity; 
such failures of harvest, resulting in famines, are 
chronicled for the years 107 1 and 1082. 

TITLE TO LAND 

§ 122. Royal Grants. — As already said, few docu- 
ments which may be described as personal title-deeds 
have come down from Norman time ; they are writs, ad- 
dressed as a rule to the Sheriff and (or) other magnates of 
the shire, notifying that the King has granted (concessit) 
such lands to so-and-so." 1 As a formal and public ' livery 
of seisin,' duly witnessed, was of first importance for 
quiet possession, it would be the Sheriff's duty to send 
some one or to act himself as ' liberator,'" that is, to de- 
liver or give livery of seisin of the land, in the presence 
of the Hundred Court or other voucher (aduocatus) for 
the goodness of the recipient's title. The following- 
cases seem to refer to these proceedings; sometimes one 
step only is mentioned, sometimes more." 

m. For some persona] grants, see Regesta i, nos. 9, 19, 84, 210, 226. 

n. One ' authurity ' on D.B., dealing with men's employments, writes 
11 Of the Libcratores not much is known ' r ! ! The voucher seems to have been 
the witness to the formal act of the liberator; " huius rei fuerunt testes et 



Caddington 64 
Harrowden 67 
Dean 84 

Tillbrook 85 

Thurleigh 228 
Biddenham 348 

Hinwick, 351 

Sharnbrook, 3^2 
Eversholt, etc. 356 
Nos. 385-363. 

Carlton 366 



Canonici habent breue regis in quo habetur (mod 
ipse hoc mancrium dedit. 

De hac terra non habet iste liberatorem nee orcie 
sed occupauit super regem. 

Fuit Willelmus Spec saisitus per regem et cits, 
liberatorem sed VV. de Warenna sine breue regis eun. 
desaisiuit. 

Radulfus Taillebosc . . . . de ea per regem saisitis 
fuit. 

Cuius terras omncs Willelmus rex sibi donauit. 
Reclamat Willelmus Spech [terram] que sibi lilicats 
fuit et postea perdidit. 

Hanc rex Willelmus in elemosina eidem concesdt 
unde et breue regis habet et testimonium ie 
hundredo. 

Rex. W. ei per breue suum reddidit. 

Dicit se eas habuisse per concessionem regis. 

Qui eas nunc habent concessione regis tenent -nc 
dicunt. 

[Terras] occupauit unde nec liberatorem .tec. 
aduocatum inueriit. 

A special form of royal gift to an undertenant was 
by commendation : — 

Staughton 88. ... Hanc ei postea Willelmus rex concessit et per svun 

breue Radulfo Tallebosc commendauit ut oiin. 

seruaret quamdiu uiueret. 
Willey Hund. 380. ... Quern rex Willelmus cum terra hac predicto prefato 

commendauit ut quamdiu uiueret uictum et m-iti- 

mentum ei preberet. 

These were perhaps disabled soldiers, judged by a 
parallel case which is recorded in detail." 

§ 123. Other forms of title. — Land could be 
transferred in several ways, remaining of course subject 
to the service towards the overlord (348, 349), and need- 
ing formal livery of seisin (348). Land is recorded as 
passing 

a. by partial gift during life, to become absolute at death ; later a conmrun 
way of endowing religious houses, while retaining a liie annuity : 



Goldington 368. 

by deathbed gift ; 
testament : 
Biddenham 65. 

Staughton 88. 

by gift in alms : 
Wilshamstead 296. 

by purchase : 
Biddenham 348. 

Biddenham 349. 



Quam postea Canonicis Sancti Pauli sub Wiltelmo 
rege dedit et ut post mortem suam haberent omiuco 
concessit. 

almost what would be called later a nuncupative 

Qui presbyter moriens concessit ecclesie Saiutt 
Pauli unam uirgatam de hac terra. 
Hie die quo mortuus est dixit se esse hominem 
Willelmi de Warenne et ideo Willelmus saisitus 
est de hac terra. 



Judita comitissa dedit sancte Marie de Elnestou in 
elemosina. 



[Terrain] emit postquam rex Willelmus in Anglia 
uenit .... nec de ea liberatorem habuit. 
Idem ipse emit [terram] post quam rex Willelmus 
in Anglia uenit. 



e. by mortgage ; a temporary title, for the land could be redeemed . 



Southill 247. 



Biddenham 349. 

f. by marriage portion : 
Streatley 196. 

338.341, 345. 



Hanc terram tenuit I.euuinus teignus regis in uadi- 
monio T.R.E. sed postquam rex Willelmus uenit in 
Anglia ille ipse qui inuadiauit hanc terram redemit. 
Unam uirgatam uero in uadimonio tenuit et modo 
tenet. 



De ista terra tenet Pirot iij hidas de maritagio sue 
femine. 

De maritagio [Azehne Tallgebosc.] 



by dower; presumably a life interest. 



Hen low 342. 
Chicksand 344 



Nec eius dotem unquam fuisse. 
De dote sua. 



by exchange : 
for Bleadon, co. Soms. 

Bolnhurst 26. 

Willey Hund. 28. 

Turvey 29. 
for Toddington, co. Beds. 

Holcote 209. 

Biddenham 212. 



for Ware, co. Herts. 
Goldington 128. 
Salpho 137. 
Coldington 162. 
Goldington 163. 
Goldington 164. 
Cople 176. 



libcratores " (Cal. Doc. France, no. 423, p. 142). 

o. These citations are translated in Table I, col. xxiii. 
p. Hist. Abingdon, U.S. 2, ii, 6. 



§ 124—127 



PART III 



81 



These transactions seem to have been incompletely recorded. Bleadon 
had been granted by Gytha (Goda), wife of Earl Godwine, to the Old 
Minster at Winchester; the grant, like many others by this family, was 
annulled by the Conqueror, and tne lands were given to the Bishop of 
Coutances. By 10S6 Bleadon had been restored to the Church.i and the 
Bishop compensated by these lands and others in Tyringham and Clifton 
Reynes, co. Bucks.; but their total hidage is only 12} h., as against the 
15 h. of Bleadon. Similarly, for Toddington's 15 h. 2 v., only 7 h. 2$- v. 
arc recorded as having been exchanged ; and for Ware, which was assessed 
at 24 h., only 14 h. 3^ v. are noted, 
i. at farm; a temporary title for a life or a term of years (Stotfold 133). 

We may infer that lease, sale or exchange had taken place (for no claim 
or protest is registered) in Stanford 112 ; this is returned under Eudo's fief, 
but with the note, " Now Hugh de Beauchamp holds it." 

§ 124. Claims and encroachments. — As a rule 
the separate holdings of Saxon time are meticulously 
kept still separate in D.B. under their new owners; the 
continuity of the tenement across the Conquest is strictly 
maintained.' This was a basal principle in the allot- 
ment of land to Normans, and colours the whole record. 
Again and again the Hundred bears witness that such 
land formed part of such a Saxon's estate, and therefore 
ought to be in the hands of his Norman successor. But 
it is hardly surprising that at a time of Conquest, 
whether by design or inadvertence, men occupied land 
which had not belonged to their Saxon predecessor or 
had not been assigned to them by the King; and a heavy 
crop of claims and encroachments was the result. 

Of such encroachments twenty-eight have been 
noted'; in the majority of these the Hundred, in one the 
Shiremoot, vouches the facts. The grounds vouched are 

i. the land lay T.R.E. to the claimant's land (five cases) 

ii. the claimant or his antecessor had once been seised 

(ten cases) 

iii. the claimant or his antecessor had a royal grant (four 

cases) 

The grounds of the claims are often interesting and 
informative, and have been utilised in other paragraphs. 
Both living tenants and their predecessors were often 
accused of wrongful disseisin ; among the former Wil- 
liam de Warenne occurs three times; of the latter, Ralf 
Taillebois occurs three times and John des Roches twice. 

§ 125. Change of ownership under royal sanc- 
tion. — Besides the apparently wrongful changes just 
mentioned, some other alterations in the natural sequence 
of tenancy had occurred, at or since the Conquest. 

i. Of these some may be described as official, being probably carried out 
by the Sheriff to the benefit of the Crown. 
Leighton 2 ... addition of 17 h. to the manor. 

Sewell 8 ... addition of this to Houghton Regis. 

Biscot 9 ... addition of this to Luton. 

Eversholt etc. 356 ... added to the King' Service, 
entries 358-363 ... ,, „ 

Dean 373 ... ,, ,, ,, „ 

Streatley 364 ... ,, ,, ,, ,, 

Beeston 371 ... ,, ,, 

ii The recent gifts to religious foundations were still few : — 
Kenemondwick, 49 by Waltheof and Judith to St, Edmund. 

Biddenham, 65, 66 by Ralf Taillebois f ? as Sheriff] to St. Paul. 

Henlow 207 ... 3 v. by Nigel de Albini to Angers. 

Harrowden 325 ... by Judith to the Canons of St. Paul. 

iii. The losses of land by the Church have been already discussed in § 73. 

§ 126. Miscellaneous cases.- -There are further a 
few outlying cases, some of which involve curious points 
of law or custom. 

q. D.B. i, 87b. 

r. An exception to this is found in Cople 173. 

s. These claims are set out in column xxiii of Table I, and are under — 

Barton 53 Dean 84 Maulden 190 

Bedford 1 Eaton Socon 103 Pavenham 230 (bis). 

Biddenham 348 Henlow 342 Sandy 108 

Chawston 215 (ter.) Houghton Conquest 331 Sharnbrook 275 

Clophill 192 Marston Moretaine 77 Southill 247 



i. Robert d'Oilli transferred two socmen, their land, and 

their assessment to geld (warra) from Milton Ernest 
(99a) to his then manor of Clapham. This shows 
in operation the method by which land in one vill 
came to ' lie to ' another. It is not apparent from 
which holding in Milton they were taken. 

ii. Unintelligible is the case of Tillsworth 120, whence 

wood for 100 swine had been ' removed ' by Oswi, 
for nothing further is recorded of him in this county. 
It had apparently been recovered by William 
Peverel for his manor. 

iii. An interesting case is that of Beeston 1 14, 1 15, where 

a Norman (§ 108), the tenant T.R.E. and T.R.W., 
seems to have been put down to the status of under- 
tenant, and part of his land taken from him by the 
high hand of Eudo dapifer, but the latter had no 
claim on it from his antecessor in the fief. 

iv. An instance of simple oppression is apparently dis- 

played in Biddenham 48; the Reeve of the Burgh 
of Bedford seized the land for a forfeit, and re- 
tained it, sheltering himself behind the Abbot of St. 
Edmund; the Hundred is clear that the seizure was 
wrongful. 

v. An interesting problem is furnished by Sharnbrook 

275. The T.R.E. tenant refused after the Con- 
quest to pay rent for some land; Ralf Taillebois 
paid the rent and seized the land. Dr. Round' 
refers this to an ordinance of King Cnut." But 
what was unpaid was not tax (warra or geldum), but 
rent (gablum); and the case seems more easily ex- 
plained as a failure to pay renl on royal land', which 
the Sheriff promptly punished bv forfeiture — to him- 
self ! 

vi. Of great interest is the record of Staughton 88, where 

a death-bed acknowledgment of patronage seems to 
transfer the overlordship. But this is not vouched 
by the Hundred, and it may be doubted whether 
it was good in law of the time. 

THE SAXON SOCIAL FABRIC. 

EORL AND SCIR-GEREFA. 

§ 127. The Earl and the Shire. — In the 

organisation of the older shires, — among which ours can- 
not be reckoned," — the chief person is the Ealdorman 
(alderman) ; at first elective, his office seems to have be- 
come hereditary at an early date. He was the King's 
lieutenant and military head of the shire; in a judicial 
and administrative capacity, together with the Sheriff 
and Bishop, he presided over the Shiremoot. In the 
reign of /Ethelred (978 — for6), the title of Eorl — 
originally meaning, in Anglo-Saxon, merely ' noble '— 
began to supplant that of Ealdorman, and to assume the 
Danish sense of the Jarl or under-king. Of the four 
great Earldoms created by the Danish King Cnut, that 
of Mercia probably included Bedfordshire. But in their 
later distribution in King Edward's' day among the sons 
of Godwine, it is not certain under whose Earldom this 
shire fell; Tosti, Earl of Northumbria, received also 

Staughton 24 Stotfold 133 Totternhoe 265 

Staughton 37 Thurleigh 228 Wymington 212 (bis). 

Staughton 87 Tillbrook 85 Wymington 239 

t. V.C.H., i, 207, n. 2. 

u. Heming's Cartulary, i, 278. 

v. Osbcrn holds ' de Kege.' 

a. No certain mention of the shire of Bedford has been found before 
ion (V.C.H., ii, 19). 



82 



PART III 



§ 128-130 



Northampton and Huntingdon; to Gyrth was given the 
northern portion of East Anglia, and also Oxford; both 
of them held land in Bedfordshire. Gyrth, however, 
had but one manor, and it is possible that he only 
received this on Tosti's banishment. b Tosti had a far 
larger holding, and as, judged by its later descent, most 
of it fell to Waltheof, Tosti's successor in the Earldom 
of Northampton and Huntingdon, Bedfordshire prob- 
ably came under his authority as Earl. In this holding 
of nearly 30 hides comprised in Potton with its berewick 
and members — the fourth largest holding in the county 
before the Conquest — we perhaps see one of the comi- 
tates uille with which the ealdormanships and later 
earldoms were endowed, and to which the third part of 
the profits of justice in the county was attached as 
revenue''; as there was almost certainly no Earl after 
Waltheof 's death, it could be assigned to the Countess. 

Neither Tosti nor Waltheof are ever mentioned as 
Earls of Bedford, nor is an earl said in D.B. to have 
received the third penny of the revenues of the burgh 
as he did at Huntingdon. Yet some one must have dis- 
charged the Earl's duties in Saxon time, and we can 
only conclude from the imperfect evidence that Bedford- 
shire was loosely attached to Tosti's neighbouring earl- 
dom. The same uncertainty holds after the Conquest; 
William created as few Earls as possible, and the Beau- 
champs, though they may have exercised the functions, 
never received the title of Earl; they were displaced by 
Stephen for about three years (? 1138 — 1141) in favour 
of a definitely created Earl of Bedford, Hugh de Beau- 
mont ; but after his brief appearance the title was not 
revived till 1366. 

§ 128. The Sheriff. — The Scir-gerefa or Shire- 
Reeve seems to have, been appointed by the Crown 
always within historic times. His duties (which were not 
greatly altered by the Conquest) were to supervise taxa- 
tion, to administer and account for the royal demesnes, 
and twice in the year to constitute the Shire Moot, in 
which the Ealdorman and Bishop presided with him 
to declare the law secular and the law ecclesiastical. 
Whether Godric the Sheriff (§ 174), who seems to have 
held a little land here and is known to have been sheriff 
of Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, had also been sheriff 
of this country or not, is uncertain; but the witness of 
Godric tribunus to the grant of Studham' 1 suggests it. 
^Elfstan uicecomes, who also attests this grant, almost 
certainly was then Sheriff of Bedfordshire. In Saxon 
as in Norman time, the sheriff appears to have treated 
land somewhat high-handedly. 

THE CHURCH. 

§ 129. Churchmen and their Lands. — Of the 
Church in Saxon time, there is little to be learnt from 
our D.B. Bishop Wulfwig (§ 176) held Leighton 
Church, and had a few men in the county; his territorial 

b. This was Kempston 298. We are told that Harrowden 325 was held 
by " Azelinus homo comitis Tosti Non potuit dare neque uendere sine 
licentia illius qui Camestone manerium com' teriuit " ; here com' is more 
likely to stand for comitis [Tosti] just mentioned, than for comitisse [Judithe J 
to whom the manor had fallen ; Cardington 326, held by the same ' man ' of 
Tosti, was similarly inalienable without leave of Keinpston's lord. If Gyrth 
succeeded Tosti at Kempston these entries would become intelligible and 
would meet Dr. Round's difficulty (V.C.H., i, 204). The devolution of 
Tosli's manors after escheat to King Edward would then seem to be 
1065-6 1086 
Potton, 313, 209 I Escheat to Kg. 1 Countess Judith 
Hatley 322 ] Edw., granted to \ ,, 

Everton 323 ' E. Waltheof. I ,, 

Charlton 332 [query] Ad. de Grentmesnil 

Kempston 268 I Escheat to Kg. | Countess Judith 

Harrowden 325 1 Edw., granted to j ,, 
Cardington 326 I E. Gyrth I ,, 



influence was but small. Only about i i per cent, ef 
the hidage of the county was in ecclesiastical hands, as 
against 16 per cent, in 10S6. The few churches men- 
tioned in D.B. were all pre-Conquest foundations. Only 
six priests are named : 

Morcar, Luton Leviet, Biddenham 65 

,, Battlesden 264 Samar, Rushdrn 121 

,, Potsgrove 263 Ulmar, Streatley 364 

Vlmar, Biddenham 48 Alwin, Turvey, 379 

It is as uncertain as in Norman time whether these 
men were the priests of the vill or not. 

THE BURH. 

§ 130. The Burh of Bedford.- Neither trade, 
nor even a population any denser than that of an or 
dinary township, are implied by the term 'burh'; it 
connoted merely a stronghold, a defensive earthwork. 
In time the word came especially to be used for those 
works on which the defence of the realm depended, in 
which therefore the King was especially interested and 
over the efficient upkeep of which he must exercise con- 
trol. In such a King's burh ran the King's peace, 
guarded by special penalties for its breach. It would 
seem that, at any rate in those areas where the older 
sub-divisions had been obliterated by the Danes, for 
military purposes each shire was planned in later Saxon 
time to have its central burh, and to take its name from 
that burh. The burh-bot, the duty of helping to keep 
its earthen walls in repair, was laid upon die shire; this 
was one of the three things (trimoda necessitas) from 
which no land was exempt, and it fell directly on the 
great men of the shire. In order effectually to perforin 
it, they acquired in many cases men and lands in the 
burh who ' lay to ' their manors elsewhere in the shire. 
When the ceorl who raised himself to thane's rank must 
have (among other things) a burh-geat-setl — a dwelling 
in the burh street — " he did not acquire a town house 
in order that he might enjoy the pleasures of the town- 
He acquired it because, if he was to be one of the great 
men of the county, he was bound to keep in the count) 
burh retainers who would do the wall-work and hoard 
provisions sent in to meet the evil day when all men 
would wish to be behind the walls of a burh.'" Hence 
if we look at Domesday Book's account of Buckingham 
or Huntingdon or Hertford, we find that some indeed 
of the burgages are held from the King, but a large 
number are held from other magnates — Bishops, Earls, 
and Barons — with Saxon predecessors. The recognised 
Burghs head the D.B. record of their county; they pre- 
cede and are separate from the Land of the King. 

But when we turn to the account of Bedford, we 
find it describing a Vill, not a Burgh; it precedes indeed 
the Land of the King, but offers no list of magnates 
who have houses and men there. The inference has 
already been drawn (§ 72) from this and other facts that 
Bedford was in an especial sense a royal stronghold since 
its conquest from the Danes between 916 and 921. " In 
this year went King Edward to Bedanford .... and took 
the burgh and to him turned most all the burghers that 
abode there, and he sat there four weeks and bade build 
the burgh on the south side of the river ere he fared 
thence.'" 

c. Maitland : D.B., 16S ; Round: Geoffrey de Mandeville, 291. 
d B.H.R.S., v, 55. 

e. Maitland : D.B., 190. Pp. 172-219 sketch the early history of boroughs. 
Another explanation of burh geat sctl is furnished by Stevenson, Eng. Hist. 
Rev., xii, 489. 

f. Anglo Saxon Chronicle : i, 192. The exact date is uncertain. 



§ 131-136 



PART III 



83 



The burh of Bedford therefore had been a Saxon 
stronghold for only about 150 years at the date of the 
Conquest, and — if we may judge from the silence of 
D.B. — the system of burh-bot was not the same as that 
which ruled for the older burhs. The Conquest had 
apparently produced no change in the relation of this 
burh to the Crown, beyond the rating of one hide to geld ; 
it was in 1086 as it had been T.R.E. Beyond this, 
D.B. tells us nothing. 

ROYAL LAND. 

§ 131. Ancient Demesne. — Those lands which at 
a later date were styled the ' manors of St. Edward.' 
ancient demesne of the Crown from time immemorial, 
were considerably less than the demesnes held by the 
Conqueror. They were (including the land held by 
their respective churches) 

T.R.E. T.R.W. 

Leighton, 2, 3 ... 3oh. 47b. 

Luton, 4, 5 ... 30I1. 3oh. 

Houghton Regis, 6, 7 ioh. loh. 

Sewell, 8 3h. 

Biscot, 9 Sh. 

7oh. 95h. 

The three ancient manors, if we may judge by the feorm 
or farm (§ 116) which they paid, were passed from king 
to king, were regalis terra and an appanage of the 
Crown. 

§ 132. Other Royal Land. — Before, as after, 
the Conquest, the King acquired land by gift, by escheat, 
and other means. King Edward held Potton 313 (pre- 
sumably with its members, Potton 309, Hatley 322, and 
Everton 323) and its berewick Charlton 332, apparently 
as escheat on the forfeiture and banishment of Earl 
Tosti in 1065." These were not treated as ancient 
demesne, or annexed to the Norman Crown. Both 
Edward and his Queen, and her brother Earl (King) 
Harold, had ' men ' in the county, but in these cases also 
the Conqueror claimed no right as successor to the 
Crown. 

THEGNS. 

§ 133. The King's Thanes.— Some at least of 
the King's Thanes" were landed magnates, with large 
estates in numerous counties. They appear to have 
been organised as a fighting caste by King Alfred during 
his struggle against the Danes, when he definitely linked 
land ownership with military service, at the rate of a 
warrior for every five hides. In the xjth century " the 
name of thegn' covers the whole class, which after the 
Conquest appears under the name of knights, with the 
same qualification in land and nearly the same obliga- 
tions. It also carried so much of nobility as is implied 
in hereditary privilege." The thane must have five hides 
of his own land, church and kitchen, bell-house and 
burh-geat-setl (§ 130), and special service in the King's 
hall ; a ceorl could ' thrive to thegn-right ' if he acquired 
these, so that nobility of birth was not essential to the 
rank. 

While it is frequently recorded of a King's Thane 
that he had power of disposal of his land, the reverse 
is never stated ; in the sole instance of such a thane 
holding Church land (Clapham 99), this power naturally 
would not exist, he would hold as a knight of the abbey. 

In some counties, for example, in Huntingdonshire, 

g. Bayford co. Herts, was similarly escheated for the same reason- 
fa. Maitland : D.B.. 160-166. 



the list of ' King's Reeves and Almsmen ' which con- 
cludes our D.B. is replaced bv one headed, ' Thanes of 
the King '; it has been suggested that these men art 
remnants of the thanes of King Edward, allowed by 
King William to eke out existence on a few acres as his 
pensioners or as minor officers (ministri). This may 
have been the case also with some of our almsmen, but 
the names concerned are too common to allow anything 
but a guess at their identity. 

§ 134. The Lower Thanes. — Onr D.B. records 
in Saxon time ' thanes ' in addition to the ' thanes of 
King Edward.' The mere thanes seem to have held but 
small parcels of land in groups; Table X shows thirty- 
six such unnamed thane-holdings, making in al! only 
thirty-three hides. These holdings are curiously 
localised in a small part of the county, the reason for 
which restriction does not appear. It has been suggested 
that the small estate is due to the rank being hereditary; 
" since the law which regulates the inheritance of land 
does not f avour the first-born, we may have poor thegns 
and landless thegns." But this would not explain their 
curious distribution. In nine out of the ten vills in 
which they occur, these thanes had power of disposal ol 
their land ; in the tenth nothing is said as to this. 

§ 135. Size of Saxon Estates. — It is not 

possible to present for Saxon holders anything corre- 
sponding to Table IV of the Norman T. in C. But it 
is worth while to compare the smallness of the estates of 
the chief King's Thanes with the ' latifundia ' of Norman 
Barons. To the hidagc of the three principal Thanes 
and the (probable) Earl of the county is appended that 
of their actual Norman successors : — 



Anschil 
Levenot 
Ulmar 
Earl Tostig 



h. v. successor 

... 69 2 Bcauchamp 

... 40 o Fleming family 

... 57 2 Eudo dapifer 

... 29 o Countess Judith ... 



h. v. 

... 72 1 
... 85 3 



The six next largest lay holders in Saxon time were :- 



Lewin cilt 

Borgred 

Alestan of Boscumbe 



... 35 2 Alwold of Stevinton 
... 31 2 Alsi of Bromham ... 
... 24 o Wulward the White 



■9 3 
19 1 

15 ° 



But some King's Thanes are credited with only 2, 5, 6, 
or 7 hides; and one, Almar (Bolnhurst 299) with only 2 
virgates, but he may be perhaps the Almar who held in 
Hatley St. George and other places in Cambridgeshire. 

§ 136. The Sharing of the Spoil. — There 
appears to be no recognisable rule on which the Saxon 
estates were transferred to their new masters (compare 
Table VIII). In the case of Alestan de Boscumbe, not 
only his three manors but also the five holdings of his 
' men ' were conveyed in block to the estate which fell 
to William de Ow; the latter received nothing further in 
this county, but succeeded Alestan with like thorough- 
ness in many others — a little fact which suggests the re- 
flection that the Saxon chancellor must have possessed 
an accurate ' survey ' of the kingdom, and that a domes- 
day book was no new thing in England. Similarly 
Anschill's fifteen holdings, with eight holdings of his 
' men,' devolved solidly upon Hugh de Beauchamp and 
Azelina Taillebois, with a single exception; and the lands 
of Borgred and his men fell, mostly but not so com- 
pletely, to the Bishop of Coutances. On the other hand, 
the four holdings of Godwin Frambolt went to four dif- 
ferent Normans, Lewin cilt's lands were divided among 
five tenants in chief, and nine holdings of the ' men ' of 
Earl Tostig fell to six new lords. 

i. Stubbs : Constitutional History, i. ch. vi. 



81 



PART III 



§ 137-1-8 



If we look at this question from the other side (Table 
IV, col. xix.) we see the same lack of consistent principle. 
Walter Giffard's fief is a composite of oddments, that of 
Eudo dapifer based largely upon the estate of Ulmar 
of Etone and his men, that of Nigel de Albini a congeries 
of the lands of every class of Saxon below an earl. 

The result suggests that in the first instance the 
estates of the greater thanes — Alwold, Anschill, Borgred, 
Levcnot, etc. — were generally assigned in entirety, with 
most of their men, to certain favoured Normans; and that 
what was thereon left was divided among others accord- 
ing to their supposed deserts. The geographical tangle 
is such that one could readily believe that lots were 
drawn for them, but it is possible that post-Conquest 
exchange and sale have somewhat blurred the record. 

THE LESSER LANDHOLDERS. 

§ 137. Problems of Saxon Tenure. — With the 
lesser landholders" we approach what is still the most 
difficult problem presented by the Great Survey — their 
relations to their lords, the connection between the small 
holding and the large estate, in the years immediately 
before the Conquest. And it seems well to bear in mind 
that D.13. was compiled twenty years after the wreck of 
the social fabric which it tries in part to depict, by the 
pens of Norman scribes wholly unfamiliar with that 
fabric, from oral evidence of conquered Saxons. We 
dare not therefore expect each and every scribe and 
commissioner to fasten upon the same points of law and 
custom, or to use their technical terms always in the 
same sense, as his fellows. Nothing but close analysis, 
of what the D.B. of each county can tell us of that county, 
seems likely to enable the future student to reconcile the 
conflicting evidence presented by the Great Survey as a 
whole. 

There is one question which evidently seemed of 
supreme importance to our commissioners and their 
scribes : — had the Saxon holder power of disposal over 
his land or not? The bearing of this question is not 
obvious, because the land had been assigned to its 
Norman overlord, and he had enfeoffed his followers 
years ago; their tenancy was secure; and their title in 
any case did not depend upon the answer. Curiously 
enough, this question does not appear in the Interrogatory 
(§ 5), as it has come down to us. Yet we may feel sure 
that it was not prompted by antiquarian curiosity, that 
it had an intended bearing upon the status and duties of 
the cultivator of the soil, and that it was ultimately 
designed to fix responsibility for payment of taxation. 

Besides the power of disposal possessed or not by 
the smaller landholder, D.B. often indicates his relation 
to some one of more importance : — " this manor two men 
of King Edward and one of Earl Harold held," " they 
were men of Aschil," and so forth. Or they are described 
as ' socmen,' occasionally as ' of the King's soke." But 
it seems fairly clear from some entries that ' men ' and 
' socmen ' are not alternatives, but refer to standards 
different in kind, as if a directory should describe a row 
of houses as inhabited by ' employes ' and ' ratepayers ' ; 
the two classes are not directly correlated. " This manor 
six socmen held, they were men of Borred, of the King's 

k. Maitland : D.B. passim ; particularly pp. 23-25, 66-107. 

1. The King's Soke in Cambs. and Herts, seems to have implied a 
carrying service (avera) when he was in the county or a payment if he was 
not, at the rate of one avera or (in Herts.) 4d. per hide (V.C.H. Herts., 
j, 269-271). This service is not mentioned in our D.B., and only 5 cases of 
King's socmen have been noticed: Dean 21, Tillbrook 85, Cainhoe 336, 



soke " (21). Sometimes a socman on a thane's land is 
said to be that thane's ' man,' sometimes no such state- 
ment is made. A conclusive entry occurs under Elsfcav 
297 : — " this manor four socmen held, they were men -sf 
the King, they could give and sell their land, but lie 
soke remained in Kempston." It becomes clear that tie 
terms ' men ' and ' socmen ' are not meant to compile 
persons by the same gauge, they are recording differt.it 
and unrelated attributes. 

§ 13S. Status of the Socmen. — In considering 
the socmen of this county, one is tempted to wonrkr 
whether the scribe had not in mind a social level ratfea 
than a definable legal status. All socmen, we may take, 
for granted, had this much in common, that they owed 
soke'" to some lord, that they must ' seek ' him or Hats 
court for certain purposes. But just as we can speak 
to-day of a ' small-holder,' meaning a particular social 
class of men who till for themselves a small parcel of 
land, and we do not thereby distinguish the freeholder 
from the rent-paying tenant or from the man who mort- 
gaged his land in order to buy it, — so also a man migftt 
apparently have the social status of a socman, whether he 
were some one else's man or not, whether he were free 
to dispose of his land or not. 

In the greater number of the verv numerous entries 
which record socmen as having held in this county, they 
are noted as able to dispose of their land, in one or 
another of the usual phrases familiar to students of 
D.B. ; they could ' give,' or ' sell,' or 1 give and sell,' or 
' could do what they would with the land,' ' without leave 
of the lord,' or they even ' could withdraw to another 
lord '; they were in no way tied to the soil, or to the 
thane who had received certain rights over that soil. 
All these expressions have been shown by Dr. Round 3 
to imply the same power of disposal. In live cases only 
is this liberty restricted ; they are worth quoting in ful!" 
for the light which they throw on difficult points : — 

Dean 21. Sex socheinanni. homines Borred fuerunt. de soca Regis, iij 
hidas et dim. potuerunt dare et uendere et ad alteruni dominum rece- 
dere sine licentia Borred. Dimidiam uero hidam sine licentia eius 
dare et uendere non potuerunt. 

Dean 84. Tres sochemanni . . . L : uus eorum non potuit dare et uendere 
tcrram suam sine licentia domini sui. Alii duo uero hoc lacere 
potuerunt. 

Tillbrook 85. Idem ipsi sochemanni . . . . ita de soca regis fuerunt quod 

dare et uendere terram suam cui uoluisseut potuerunt et recedere ad 

alium dominum sine licentia eius sub quo fuerunt. 
Tempslord 107- Tres sochemanni homines Ulmari de Etone. Unas 

eorum dare non potuit sine licentia domini sui alii duo quod uoluerint 

facere potuerunt. 

Stanford 130. Quatuor sochemanni quorum tres liberi fuerunt. quartus uero 
unam hidam habuit sed nec dare nec uendere potuit. 

The entry of Stanford 130 is of special value, as 
showing that, in this county, socmen who could give 
and sell their land were regarded as ' free ' men, and 
contrasted with the [unfree] men who could not do so. 
From the other entries it appears that it was possible 
to be the ' man ' of a lord, and a socman of the King's 
soke, and yet to have power of disposal of land, or of 
becoming the ' man ' of some other lord ; surely freedom 
of tenure and contract can hardly go further. 

But the soke was not fluid; on the contrary, it is 
pretty clear that it was inherent in the land and was 
inalienable. 

Eversholt Wcburn Potsgrave 356, Maulden 359. To the allied service ot 
1 inward ' there is no reference in Beds. 

m. The meaning of this term has been briefly sketched in § 98. 

n. Round : E.E., 22. 

o. Translated in Table I. col. xxiii. — There is also an entrv under 
Eaton Socon 103 mentioning post-Conquest socmen without power of dis- 
posal, but the scribe seems to have in some way slipped. 



§ 139-140 



PART III 



Staughton 37. Aluuinus (deule) homo episcopi Lincolniensis Et quod 

uoluit de ea [terra] faceTe potuit Soca umlen] semper episcopi fuit. 
Slaughton 87. Auigi homo Aschil . . . potuit uendere cui uoluit set socam 

ipse Aschil retinuit in t'olmeborde macerio suo. 
Stauphton 145. Ouiet hemo Aschil. F.t dare et uendere potuit set soca 

semper iacuit in Culmeuuorde manerio Aschil. 
Wilsharnstead 296. Judita comitissa dedit [hoc manerium] in elemosina 

sed soca. iacuit semper in Camestone. 
Elstow 297. Quaiuor socheinanni homines regis Eduuardi fuerur.t terram 

suam dare et uendere potuerunt sed in Camestone iacuit semper soca 

eorum. 

The point of recording the inalienability of the 
soke in these cases appears to be the fact that it was 
appurtenant to some other manor, not to the manor of the 
vill in which the land lay." No matter who bought the 
land, the land remained liable for soke to the manor 
specified. 

In summary, so far as this county is concerned, we 
shall not err far in regarding the socman as holder of 
a small estate in which was inherent a fixed soke of 
some kind ; who might be a ' free man ' (liber homo) as 



As to their numbers, in consideration of Table IX, 
the first point to be made is that the figures in column i, 
the numbers given in D.B. for Saxon time, are not 
necessarily the number of socmen, but are the number 
of soc-lands, the holdings which owed soke. This is 
easily seen; in Blunham 113, good market-garden land 
as it is to-day, four men could not have got their victual 
off 30 acres (of which half was fallow) by any husbandry 
known to the xith century; still less could seven socmen 
exist on the 7 acres of Stanford 112. These are extreme 
cases; but many more go to show that when D.B. says 
" This land six socmen held," it means no more than it 
says; it neither says nor means that these six men got 
their sole living from it. By such phrases the Survey 
is recording separate geld-paying parcels of land accord- 
ing to their tenure, and is in no way concerned with 
statistics of population. We can add the figures in 
column i to arrive at the total number of tenures in soke, 



STAFFS 




WARWS 



OXON 

MID. 



MAP SHOWING ALL CARUCATED AND SOME HIDATED COUNTIES, AND SEE- 
BOHM'S PERCENTAGES OF SOCMEN IN THE POPULATION. THE DANISH ' FIVE 
BOROUGHS ' ARE MARKED BY BLACK CIRCLES. 



able to dispose of his land, or unfree in so far as he 
could not do so; who incidentally might be the ' man 
of ' someone else, or might not be such. Other sources 
show that he ranked among the ceorls, below the thane 
and considerably below the King's thane. 

§ 139. Size and number of soc-lands.— On the 
size of the socman's holding it is not safe to venture, 
because socmen are (except in one case) nameless; it is 
possible and even likely that the same man may have 
held a hide in one vill, a half hide in the next, a virgate 
fn a third, as did the King's thanes, and after them the 
Normans. The single holdings recorded are anything 
between a virgate and a hide. 

p. The Bishop had no manor in Little Staughton ; soke was probably 
due at Great Staughton, co. Hunts., where he held a manor of 6 hides; but 



but they will not tell us the number of socmen. I 
venture to think that the non-recognition of this has 
given unnecessary trouble to many students of D.B.; 
assuredly it has vitiated many statistical conclusions. — 
Again, we do not know whether any, or how many, of 
the smaller named Saxons were holding in soke; it is 
certainly implied that some held in soke who are not 
styled socmen. 

§ 140. Distribution of soc-lands. — Mr. Seebohm" 
regarded socmen as a class " distinctly and exceptionally 
Danish," and shows among his maps what he terms the 
' percentage of population ' which they formed in the 
counties where they occur. But apparently he obtained 

the Staughtons were not then separated so sharply as to-day by a definite 
county boundary. 

q. Seebohm : Village Community, 8?- 



86 



PART III 



the numbers for this by counting up the soc-lands ; and, 
as has just been stated, this method is entirely untrust- 
worthy for statistics of population, though it does give 
some sort of an unscientific ratio between, on the one 
hand the number of tenures in soke, and on the other 
the population counted by an equally uncertain process. 

Maitland was content to enumerate the counties in 
which socmen occurred in largest numbers, but does 
not appear to have committed himself for or against 
their Danish origin. There can however be no doubt 
that they occur most plentifully in the most Danish 
counties (Lines. Notts. Leics. Norf.) and diminish in 
numbers as the edge of the Dane-law is approached. 
If the status of socman was not of Danish introduction, 
it is assuredly a measure of Danish influence. In the 
figure are shown the counties (p. 85) where socmen are 
recorded, the assessment of the land by the Danish caru- 
cate (cak.) or by the Saxon hide (hid.), and the numbers 
which Mr. Seebohm gave as representing the ' percent- 
age of population ' formed by socmen' ; the figure shows 
pretty clearly that Danish influence on Bedfordshire 
would be from the North and East." This is borne out 
by Map IX ; on this, the amount of land held in soke in 
each vill has been expressed as a percentage of the total 
hidagc of that vill, and the results are shown by 
graduated tinting. The areas of greatest intensity seem 
to show (a) penetration along the Ouse to Bedford, along 
the Vale of Bedford and the Ivel valley, (b) pressure also 
from Northants where soc-holding was strongly de- 
veloped. It is not clear whether this infiltration was by 
conquest or by ' peaceful penetration '; nor is there any 
guarantee that it was produced by a single migratory 
movement; indeed the historical relations of the Danes 
to Bedfordshire, their successive advances and^ retreats, 
argue against a simultaneous migration. But, just as it 
is certain that the Danes, when in possession of the 
county, did not drive out or kill off every Saxon, so it 
is unlikely that, when their power here was finally broken 
about 920, every Danish settler was expelled; and it is 
more than possible that the T.R.E. socmen are evidences 
of their persistence, heirs of their custom if not of their 
blood. Though it has been doubted whether any place- 
names in this county are of Danish origin, the personal 
name Daco, Danensis, le Daneis, it not uncommon in 
our early records. The wave seems to have spent itself 
in Buckinghamshire, where only some 39 socmen arc 
recorded in D.B. for Saxon time; but Fin the Dane held 
in Cheddington both before and after the Conquest. 

§ 141. Fate of the Socmen. — As to this there 
can be little doubt. The majority lost their status alto- 
gether. In Table IX, on any interpretation of the 
figures in column i, the enormous reduction of soclands 
after the Conquest becomes striking indeed. Instead of 
672 Saxon holdings in soke, comprising land assessed 
at 353 hides, are left but 102 certain and a doubtful cases 
of men entered as socmen, who are credited with only 
2oh. i-J-v. In many cases the number of pre-Conquest 
socmen tallies with that of post-Conquest villans; but 
this may mean merely that the available tilled land 
would only carry that number of persons, irrespective 
of tenure ; we may not infer that the socmen are now 
necessarily villans. More instructive on this point are 
the four entries which follow :— 

r. Supplemented for Yorks. from Maitland. 

s. Dr. Round calls attention to a similar distribution of socmen in the 
north and east of Hertfordshire (V.C.H. Herts., i, 266, 267); and Danais 
Daneis or Dacorum Hundred is in the north of that county, abutting on 



Dean 21. There are 6 socmen and 6 bordars and 2 serfs. 
Potton, 313. There are 18 villans and 2 socmen with 8 teams. 
Tillbrook 85. Land for 6 teams and they are there and 20 sucmej Jind 4 
bordars. 

Wildcn iS. The villans have 10 teams. . . There are 20 socmen vad 12 
bordars and 1 serf. 

Those who are familiar with the way in which the 
Survey marshals its facts will recognise at once that 
these men, if not actually regarded as villans, are 'Aery 
near to it. 

§ 142. The 'Man.' — With the ' man of' sine 
magnate, we feel, perhaps too hastily, that we are on 
firmer ground than with the socmen. When we asad 
that " they bowed themselves before William and be- 
came this man's men," we see a solemn rite of hon»ge 
far older than the Conquest and by no means conlned 
to this island. 

The status of the ' man ' is not expounded ri our 
record, and we must turn to other counties for its s&is- 
tration : — " For his protection he submitted himsd'f tt> 
the Bishop"; He became the man of Geoffrey dl his 
own free will "; " She put herself with her land m the 
Queen's hand." And when D.B. tells us " as k con- 
stantly does, that one person was the man of anther, 
no doubt it is telling us of a relationship which had its 

origin in an oath and a symbolic ceremony An 

Anglo-Saxon oath of fealty (hyldao) has been presented, 
The swearer promises to be faithful and true to iiis 
lord, to love all that his lord loves and eschew all tiiat 
his lord eschews. He makes no distinct reference to 
any land, but he refers to some compact which exists 
between him and his lord,"' a compact so well recognised 
as to need no expression. 

The personal bond was assuredly profitable to t*Dth 
sides ; the smaller man found a protector often needed 
in rough times; the greater man enlisted a sworn re- 
tainer, to fight in his troop, or to act as champion and 
compurgator at the law. There might be more titan 
one link in the chain; your ' man ' might himself have 
' men ' who followed him, a useful addition to your 
fighting force." But as a rule the small folk became 
' men ' of a bishop, an earl, a King or Queen; at least 
of a King's Thane, especially if a neighbouring land- 
holder. Even the latter are sometimes described as 
' men ' of King or Queen. No rights over land seem 
to have been necessarily acquired by the lord in this 
bond; it was purely personal and defensive. Yet it 
was possible to be a man ' of one lord as regarded one 
holding, and of another lord at another; this is proved 
by the unmistakable name of Alwin Deule (Table VIII), 
certainly man of the Bishop of Lincoln near the Bishop's 
great manor, and man of King Edward at two holdings 
some distance away; probably (judged by propinquity 
of lands) man also of Earl Harold and of Stori. There 
are other probable cases, less certain because the name 
is less definite. 

With ' men ' as with socmen, the compiler was most 
scrupulous to note the right of disposal or its absence. 
In the following list, believed to include all cases of 
the restriction of this right which have not been quoted 
already (§ 138), the holder is described either as a ' man 
of ' or as holding ' sub ' some one (§ 144), in every case 
but one." 

Beds, from Hyde to Studham. 
t. Maitland : D.B., 69. 

u. See the entries Avigi and Stori in Table IX. 
v. Translated in Table I, coL sxiii. 



§ 143-148 



PART III 



87 



Sheltun 23. Hoc mancriuni tenuit Ulueua sub Uorret. non potuit dare nec 

uendere- sine eius licentia. 
Newton 27. Aluuinus homo Iiorred. non 1 potuit dare [licet] uendere sine 

eius licentia. 

Biddcnham. 39. Leuric homo episcopi Lincolniensis sed non potuit dare 
nec uendere sine licentia eius. 

Clifton 57. Istemet tunc tenuit [sub abbate Ramesie] sed ab ecclesia 
separare non potuit. 

Warden 291. Qui earn [terram] T.R.E. tenuit nec uendere nec dare potuit 
sine licentia eius qui Jiichelesuuade tenuit. 

Ilarrowden 325. Azelinus homo comitis Tosti. non potuit dare neque uen- 
dere sine licentia illius qui Camestone manerium com[itis] tenuit. 

Cardington 326. Azelinus homo Tosti comitis. non potuit dare [licet] uen- 
dere sine licentia eius qui Caiueston teuuit. 

§ 143. Commendation. — This term is used only 
three times in our record. Two of these refer to Nor- 
man time and have already been mentioned (§ 122). 
The third relates to a Saxon lady : " This manor Leveva 
held, commended to Earl VValtheof and she could with- 
draw with her land where she would." (Aspley 138). In 
some counties the term is largely used, and seems to 
represent practically the same bond as is implied by the 
' man ' in this county, nor does Maitland attempt to draw 
a sharp line between the two phrases. 

§ 144. Tenure ' de ' and ' sub.'— There is little 
doubt that these prepositions imply tenure somewhat out 
of the ordinary. So far as has been noted, ' de ' is used 
once only to express Saxon tenure, except in the phrase 
' de Rege,' taken here to mean by special grant of the 
King. In the single case, Beorhtric held Clapham 99 
' from ' the Abbot of Ramsey ; the tenure was certainly 
dependent, probably a lease for a life or lives com- 
monly granted before the Conquest by religious houses, 
and at the Conquest leading (as in this case) to loss of 
their lands by confiscation of their tenant's estate. ' Sub 
has been noted three times : Ulueva held Shelton 23 
' under ' Borgred but had not power of disposal; Lewin 
holds and held in Clifton 57 ' under ' the Abbot of 
Ramsey, but had not power of disposal ; a socman held 
in Holme 165 ' under ' Aschil, and had power of dis- 
posal; the dependent tenure suggested by the first two 
cases seems to be contradicted by the third, but is prob- 
ably the correct explanation both of ' de ' and ' sub.' 

§ 145. The three bonds. — If the foregoing con- 
clusions are correct, it follows that the chief difficulty, 
presented in the terms and phrases by which the lesser 
landholders are described in D.B., is due to their deal- 
ing in the same sentence with three disconnected aspects 
of a man to his superior; these are 

(a) the personal bond, the relation between ' man ' and 

lord for mutual legal and military support ; generally 
unrelated in any way to land tenure : 

(b) the judicial bond, the duty of the person, while in 

possession or user of certain land, to render the soke 
inherent in that land to some manor or court : 

(c) the tenurial bond, by which a person might (some- 

what rarely did) hold land of a superior, without 
power of disposal of that land. 

In any particular instance, any one or two of the 
three might not be recorded, or any combination of them 
might appear in the same person. 

§ 146. Tenure and Geld. — The unfailing interest 
shown by the compilers of D.B. in the Saxon's power of 
disposal of his land has yet to be explained. As already 
said, the matter can have had no bearing on Norman 
-title. I hazard the suggestion (for comparison with 

w. D.B., i, 28. 

a. F. Seebohm : English Village Community, 117-125. 



other counties) that, if the Saxon holder had power of 
disposal, that is to say had been a ' free man,' after the 
Conquest he or his successor must pay the Danegeld to 
the lord of the manor; if the holder had not that power, 
the lord must pay the geld. In order to illustrate the 
point, another county must be cited : — " Lcofwin held 
a half hide and he could withdraw with his land And 
he gave the geld to his lord and his lord gave nothing."" 
If this surmise be correct, the fiscal authorities would 
be most deeply interested in the exact terms of Saxon 
tenure; so also would the lord, for he secures in D.B. 
a register of obligations due from his own tenants, to 
which he can appeal just as the Exchequer will appeal 
to D.B. against him. The incidence of taxation as be- 
tween lord and villan would thus become materially 
altered, leaving a greater manorial profit to the lord than 
otherwise would be suspected. 

§ 147. Communal Ownership.— A discussion of 
this vexed question would hardly be in place here. Yet 
it cannot be passed over entirely, since Bedfordshire is, 
nearly if not absolutely, the only county in which D.B. 
records a definite instance. Of Goldington 164 (a single 
hide) we arc told — " This land the men of the vi'll held 
in common (communiter) and could sell." 

From Seebohm* came the suggestion (swallowed 
uncritically by many of his successors, but not by Mait- 
land), that the conquering Saxons adopted the land sys- 
tem of the conquered Welsh, a system based on a close 
blood relationship, which involved common ownership 
of land by the family, co-operative ploughing, and 
periodical redistribution of the clan's arable land — a 
system only possible in undisturbed conditions, and 
singularly unsuitcd to fighting bands of individualistic 
Northmen pressing in from the coast-line, liable to be 
pressed in their turn from behind. 

Of common ownership of the land of the vill by the 
men of that vill, and of periodic redistribution of the 
strips of arable among them, there is (I believe) no trace 
in Saxon England. Assuredly, men who live in a small 
community have common interests which are best served 
by some measure of common control ; we find signs of 
this control in the Saxon laws, and we further find the 
obvious economy of co-operative ploughing ; it needed 
no Welshman to teach them that. But the entry under 
Goldington need mean no more than that the fifteen 
men" of King Edward's time or their predecessors had 
taken in a hide from the waste by joint effort, and had 
not apportioned it among their previous holdings. 

THE TILLERS OF THE SOIL. 

§ 148. The Geneat and Cotsetla. — Of the main 
classes of Saxon society, thegen, ceorl and theow — thane, 
churl and servant — the two latter present more diffi- 
culty than the former. The rematkable work known as 
the Rectitudines Singularum Personarum 0 , which may be 
translated roughly as ' rules for several folk,' sets out 
the duties which certain men and classes owe to the state 
the church and their lords ; in some cases their perquisites 
or rewards are also given. Its author constantly points 
out that the services due are different in different places, 
and that he sets down those with which he is familiar. 
The fact that he has no word of socmen seems to show 
that he did not belong to eastern England, but his 
account of the boor points to his living in Wessex or 

b. Maitland : D.H. 143 missed Goldington 368. 

c. Sehmid : die Gesetze der Angelsacnsen, 370-383. 



88 



PART 111 



western Mercia. The Saxon text is probably of the 
xth century; and a Latin translation, perhaps of the 
time of Henry I, shows which terms in the two languages 
were regarded as synonymous at the later date. The 
classes which he describes are : 

Thegen = tainus [thane]. 

Geneat = villanus [villan]. 

Kotsetla = Cotsetla [cottar or bordar], 

Gebur= Bums [boor or boer]. 
After these classes he descends to single workers with 
special duties. 

The services of the geneat or villan" are set down 
generall)', not in detail ; nor is the size of his holding 
given. His right or duty (it is pleasant to find but one 
word for the two) is " various according to the custom 
of the country " (mistlic be j?am he on lande staent); 
on some estates he pays yearly landgafol (rent) and 
grass-swine (the pannage pig), rides carries and leads, 
works on the land for and pays some L farm ' in produce 
to the lord; helps to build and fence the village and 
make new roads, pays kirkshot and almsfee (offertory 
and poor-rate), keeps head-ward and horse-ward (?mili- 
tary guard when the King was in the district), and so 
forth; it is remarkable that no special emphasis is laid 
on the ploughing, which seems later to have been his 
characteristic service, but this may have been taken for 
granted. — More definitely set out are the duties of the 
kotsetla or bordar : " Cottar-right [varies] according to 
the custom of the country. On some lands he shall, 
each Monday through the year, work first for his lord, 
or on three days a week in autumn, nor need he pay 
rent. It befits him to hold five acres, more if it be the 
custom of the country, and too little is it if it be less, for 
that his service will be frequent ; pay his hearth-penny 
on Holy Thursday as befits every free man; and if bid- 
den answer for his lord's demesne at sea-ward and at 
king's deer-drive and at such things as are of his degree ; 
and pay his kirkshot at Martinmas." The Latin text 
adds that on some estates he works every day in August 
for the lord, and mows an acre of barley for his day's 
work; he is to have his sheaf which the reeve or the 
steward will give him.— The Gebur or boor seems to 
hold on a tenure of a different kind; unlike the former 
two, he receives his holding ready stocked (two oxen, 
a cow, and six sheep), seven acres of his yardland (vir- 
gate) already sown, together with tools and house- 
plenishing; all these revert to the lord at his death, but 
the lord who has advanced them naturally exacts more 
work-rent from such a tenant, as well as a small money- 
rent, fold-soke, and some payment in produce." — If we 
may rely on the Rectitudines — and there seems to be 
no better authority — we may class Geneat, Kotsetla and 
Gebur together as ceorls or non-noble men, and may 
foresee in them their D.B. successors, the villan, the 
bordar, and the boor. They are all free men with a 
wergild (blood-money for their killing) of 200 shillings, 
but are men of different economic status and different 
tenure ; the geneat and gebur pay money-rent, the kot- 
setla does not ; the gebur enters on his holding with 
everything found for him, the other two do not; the 
kotsetla should hold at least five acres, but the geneat 
(as we know from our D.B.) may hold something like 
a hide of land although generally less. 

d. Maitland (D.B., 59, 328, 320) finds a difficulty in equating geneat and 
villanus, but the reason which he assigns does not seem adequate. The 
geneat is assuredly not exactly the villan of the xiijth century, but much had 
befallen between the Rectitudines and Uracton. 



§ 149. The Theovv. — After the gebur, the Reui- 
tudines pass to the rent-paying beekeeper and the r-esft- 
paying swineherd, two men who pay for their holdiig 
partly in work, partly in produce of so much honey &r 
so many swine; they are not serfs, but might have serf 
helpers (Jieow swan and heow beocere). But after these 
comes (i) the demesne swineherd (achte swan), who re- 
ceives certain perquisites and " other the rights whkh 
befit a serf " (beowan men); the next two paragraphs 
deal with food allowances to (ii) men serfs and (ii) 
women serfs ; followed by (iv) a statement that to evev 
' demesne man ' (eallum aehte-mannum) belongs a Christ- 
mas and Easter allowance (feorm), some arable land 
(sulh-a^ccr), and the harvest sheaf, besides the necessaiy 
payments (nyd-rihte); and it seems clear that in these 
last four paragraphs we are dealing with serfs. Next 
come the rights and duties of eleven separate farm 
occupations : — 

follower shepherd bedell 

sower goatherd woodward 

oxherd cheesewright hedgevvard 

cowherd granger 

and it is difficult to avoid the belief that these are the 
' demesne men ' whose food allowances have just betn 
prescribed. If these are not the serfs, the theowan 
menn, who did their very necessary work on a large 
demesne? Not the geneat and kotsetla, who had their 
own lands to cultivate as well as to work for the lord. 
The amount of land assigned to some of these eleven 
shows that the)- were neither geneat nor kotsetla; the 
follower receives two acres, one sown the other not; the 
bedell has but a pightle (iand-slycce) ; the hedgeward 
a piece along the meadow. I cannot avoid the con- 
clusion that the Saxon theow or D.B. servus was 
primarily a farm-servant, a man who was born to or felt 
into such poverty that he could only secure bread to eat 
and a roof over his head by taking service in almost 
absolute dependence on his lord. The close connection 
in D.B. between serfs and demesne has been already 
pointed out (§ 105); and it is remarkable that we find 
much the same payments and perquisites among farm ser- 
vants of a later date. It is not suggested that all these 
occupations were on every demesne filled solelv by serfs ; 
on a small estate some were unnecessary, some could be 
united in one man, many could be carried out bv women 
and boys; the Rectitudines merely detail the terms of 
the contract which governs such occupations if filled by 
special workers. 

" Some are serfs by birth, some bv being made such, 
some by purchase or [?] contract, others by their own 
or another man's gift.'" If a free man fall into serf- 
dom, or a serf win his freedom, the ceremony must be 
done in public, solemnly and symbolicallv, in church 
or market, Hundred or County Moot. The serf ma}' 
have free kinsfolk, he may thrive and buy his freedom, 
but till then he is a man who, for one of the reasons 
assigned, has become most strictly bound to serve an- 
other man. If he is killed, his kinsfolk receive but forty 
pence as wergild, his lord twenty shillings; he is there- 
fore at least a part of a man. 



e. The Cebur does not occur in Bedfordshire, but I have noticed him 
once in Buckinghamshire; his tenure is characteristic of western t.ngland. 

f. Leges Henrici primi, 76 § 3, in Schnnd : die Gesetze der Angelsichsen. 



5 ISO— 154 



PART IV 



89 



MISCELLANEOUS MEN. 

§ 150. Royal Officers.— i. The Staller. This 
office has already been mentioned, and its Saxon holders 
named (§ 106). ii. The Chamberlain. YVenesi is de- 
scribed in Bucks as the King's Chamberlain: his duties 
in Saxon time (as later) seem to have been largely 
financial, iii. The Housecarls. This term was applied 
to the little standing force of Thorkil and his Danes, 
raised about 1012 and continued under Cnut and his 
successors. They were probably never as many as 3,500 
men, and enjoyed special pay and privileges. When 



they were disbanded by Edward in 105 1 as a permanent 
force, the King and chief magnates retained the style 
of housecarls for their personal body-guard. Thus we 
have Tovi housccarl of King Edward (275, 305), and 
Auti housccarl of Far] Algar (141). While the service 
was naturally rewarded by a grant of land for susten- 
ance, the word does not seem to connote any tenurial 
relation to the lord, iv. Two personal servants of the 
King are recorded; his steersman (30S) and huntsman 
("293). Two bedells held jointly in Holme 362, and 
were probably lesser officials. 



PART IV : PERSONAL. 



A. IN NORMAN TIME. 

§ 151. Introductory. — These brief notes make 
no pretence of deep genealogical research, but are 
mostly drawn from the usual sources. They have been 
added because others, like myself, will probably feel a 
mere catalogue of Domesday magnates to be a little re- 
pellant unless vivified by some knowledge of the human 
(often very human !) personality behind the name. 

Some link-pedigrees, in which persons mentioned 
in the D.B. of this county stand in thick type, show 
what a small family party the invaders formed ; but it 
should hardly be needful to warn the reader that such 
work at this period is necessarily tentative. Since 
place-names and nick-names had hardly begun to crys- 
tallise into fixed surnames, the list of persons is arranged 
alphabetically by christian names, but the general index 
will supply a reference from the incipient surname if 
needed. 

It must be remembered that our most important 
local Barons, such as Beauchamp and Albini, were very 
small people indeed when compared with some Norman 
magnates; for example, Roger de Busli had 174 manors 
in Notts., Ilbert de Laci 164 manors in Yorks. Some 
of those who held a little land in Beds, had enormous 
fiefs up and down the country; for instance, Odo Bishop 
of Bayeux is credited with 439 manors, and Geoffrey 
Bishop of Coutances with 280 manors, which they held 
as statesmen and soldiers, not as Churchmen.* 

§ 152. Origin of the squire class. — Of many 
men, naturally, little or nothing can now be found, but 
the number of cases in which the D.B. undertenant 
founded a family which can be shown to have flourished 
for a century or more after the Conquest was (at least 
to the present writer) quite unexpected. It seemed 
likely that in the lawless times of Stephen and John 
security of tenure would have disappeared, but in fact 
a large proportion of the squires of Henry III seem to 
have been direct descendants of the Norman soldiery. 
One cannot but think that, had surnames been more 
usual in 1086, yet more cases could have been tracked. 
Of all the undertenants with a distinctive surname only- 
five (Paris, Rochester, Froissart. Ivri, Taissel) have as 
yet yielded no result ; on the other hand the names in 
the following list can be traced in connection with their 

a EnU : Introd. to D.D., i, »6. 



original lands for some time, often to a date well into 
the xiijth century : 

Burnard Ralf de Langetot 

Erfast Ralf Passaquam 

Ernulf de Arde Richard Basset 

Geoffrey de Trailli Richard Talbot 

Gilbert de Blossev'iUe Serlo de Ros 

Hugh de Bolcbec Walter monachus 

Hugh Hubald William Basset 

Nigel de Wast William le Caron 

Osbern de Broilg William de Locels 

Pi rot 

Great as was the part played by the overlords in 
the shaping of the Constitution, the first making of 
England was done by these smaller men in every village, 
men whose names do not appear among the dramatis 
personae of history, unless their worth brought them for- 
ward at a later date to replace the effete descendants of 
the first conquerors as lawyers, churchmen and adminis- 
trators; of this emergence from historical obscurity, 
Basset and Passelewe (Passaquam) are conspicuous 
examples from this county. 

§ 153. Auxiliaries. — The soldiers of fortune, who 
followed William's standard but were not of Norman 
blood, were mainly either Bretons or Flemings. Only 
three or four years before the Conquest William had 
repelled from Normandy an invasion of Bretons, de- 
feated Conant their Count, and raided their territory; 
as William de Poitiers tells us, the Normans found them 
' to join battle with burning z'eal; while they fight they 
rage furiously; accustomed to press, they give way stub- 
bornly.' The Conqueror must have _ welcomed such 
auxiliaries, and at Hastings they were on the left wing 
under Alan of Brittany. They seem to have been repre- 
sented in this county by two tenants in chief, Alured of 
Lincoln and Gozelin Brito ; and perhaps by four under- 
tenants. Judichel, Mortuing, Riwalo or Rualon, and 
Wenelinc; curiously, these four all held on the Beau- 
champ fief. Among tenants in chief four are clearlv 
Flemings, Gilbert of Ghent, Walter Fleming, Gunfrid 
and Sigar de Cioches; but the names of the smaller men 
are less distinctive than in the cases of Bretons. 

§ 154. 

i. Acard de Ivri, undertenant of Beauchamp at 
Aspley, has left no trace in the county as yet noted. It 
is possible that some relationship to Hugh (pincerna) 
de Ivri and to Roger de Ivri may have been the ground 
on which St. Walery, the inheritor of the Ivri fief, ob- 
tained the manor of Aspley in the xijth century." 

b. B.H.R.S., i, 9; t, 226. 



90 



FART IV 



§ 155 



ii. Adelaide de Grentmesnil (Fed. IV), see Hugh 
de Grentmesnil (§ 160, vi), 

iii. Adelulf chamberlain of Bishop Odo, accord- 
ing to Freeman " may have been an English /Ethelwulf, 
but he is more likely an adventurer from Flanders 
where the name is also found." 0 Whatever his origin 
may have been, he is probably the Bishop's chamberlain 
Adelold (the two names are often confused in D.B.). 
who held largely from him in Kent,' and appears as his 
surety in a convention made by Odo between 1087 and 
1 100 which names several of his household." From the 
date of this document it would seem likely that he had 
followed his patron into exile ; involved in Odo's dis- 
grace he had apparently ceased to be undertenant in 
Totternhoe 265 before 1086. 

iv. /Elfgifu Abbess of Barking seems to have 
ruled this house in 10S6, but little is known of its earlv 
history. She received a confirmation charter of the Con- 
queror,' probably given in 1066, as he stayed at Barking 
during the building of the Tower of London. The 
Abbey continued to hold Lidlington till the Dissolution. 

v. /Ethelsige (Ailsi), Abbot of Ramsey, 8 a monk 
of Old Minster at Winchester, in 106 1 was hallowed as 
Abbot of St. Augustine in Canterbury, and was later 
appointed by King Edward to be also Abbot of Ramsey, 
an office which he seems to have held jointly with his 
predecessor /Ethelwine (Ailwyn). In 1066, at the 
moment when the Northmen harried the north of Eng- 
land and William threatened invasion of the south, 
Harold was struck down by illness; the dead Confessor 
King appeared to /Ethelsige in a vision, bidding him 
bear to Harold a message oi comfort and encourage- 
ment. At the Conquest the Abbot was confirmed in his 
dignities; he was employed on a political mission to 
Sweyn, King of Denmark, which seems to have averted 
an invasion of England ; during his return voyage, he 
beheld another vision which enjoined the celebration of 
the Feast of the Conception of the B.V.M. (declared to 
be Immaculate by a later age); its observance spread 
from Ramsey Abbey throughout Christendom. Later 
he seems to have fallen into disfavour with the Con- 
queror, and to have fled to Denmark about 1070; even- 
tually he returned to England, regaining Ramsey, for 
which he obtained a confirmation charter of its posses- 
sions in 1077"; but ceased to be Abbot of St. Augustine. 
He died in 1087. — Of the Abbey's possessions in this 
county, Cranfield Pegsdon Shillington and Barton were 
still held by it at the Dissolution ; Holwell Clifton and 
Little Barford appear with them at the Taxatio Eccle- 
siastica of 1 288-1 291. 

vi. Albert of Lorraine (Alberic, Lothariensis), was 
one of the foreign clerics introduced by Edward', who 
showed great favour to churchmen from Lorraine ; of 
at least two such he made English bishops, and ap- 
pointed others to high office, possibly in order to intro- 
duce continental methods into his secretariat, the germ 
of the future Chancery'. Albert became chaplain to 
the Conqueror, and at D.B. held three churches in 

c. Freeman, N.C., v, 749. 

d. D.B. (R.C.), 7 b, etc. 

e. Round, Cal. Doc. France, 530. 

f. Regesta, i, nos. 240 and xxxix. 

g. Freeman: N.C., iij, 358, 359; iv, 135-138, 747-7;o. 

h. Hist. Rames. (R.S. 83), 200. 

i. Round : Commune of London. 36-38. 
j. Regesta, i, pp. xii, xiii. 

k. Regesta, i, no. 381. 

1. D.B. (R.C.), 56b. 

m. Round : F. E., 327-328. 



Rutland (which came at his death before 1096 to 
Westminster Abbey") besides lands in Middlesex and 
Herefordshire. He is probably the Albertus clericus 
who, like some others attached to the Court, held a little- 
land on the royal demesne at Windsor'. In this countv 
he held Chalgrave both before and after the Conquest; 
at D.B. he held also the manor of Wootton, with lesser 
lands at Shelton (in Marston and Wootton) and Sham- 
brook. The Lorrainers — Loharengs or Lorings — who 
succeeded him in all these four vills, may perhaps not 
have been direct descendants, but were probably of his 
kin. 

vii. Alured of Lincoln (Alfred) is little more to 
us than a bare name. Mr. Round acutely argues' 11 that 
he was of Breton origin, and identical with the Alured 
Brito who held a large estate in Devon", though Free- 
man" claimed him as an Englishman for his name. His 
Bedfordshire land appears to be that which fell to the 
Honour of Peverel of Dover in Wymington. In de- 
fault of definite information, we may assume that the 
Alured of Lincoln, who attested charters of Flenry I 
and appears in 1 130 0 , was his son, and that another who 
appears largely in the Red Book was his grandson, but 
there is no trace of either in this county. 

viii. Ansgol de Rouecestre (Rochester, the site of 
the Bishop's Castle) held from the Bishop of Bayeux 
lands in Eversholt and Milton Brian, still traceable in 
1284-6 as under the barony of Rochester, which then 
represented a part at least of Bishop Odo's fief. Of 
Ansgot, who held also in Kent from the same overlord, 
no mention has been noticed after D.B.; I suspect him 
to be the same man as Ansgot ' de Ros ' who was under- 
tenant oi the Bishop in Preston Bisset co. Bucks. 

ix. Azelina Taillebois (Ped. VI), see Ralf 
Taillebois. 

§ 155. 

i. Baldwin, Abbot of St. Edmund, originally a 
monk of St. Denys, was later Prior of its Cell at Deer- 
hurst co. Glouc. A man of marked spirituality, skilled 
in medicine and physician to a sickly King, he was made 
Abbot of St. Edmund by Edward in 1065, and con- 
firmed by William in 1067'. He found his Abbey 
Church, built of timber towards 1032, to be unworthy of 
so great a monastery, and obtained royal permission to 
rebuild it with stone from Barnack quarries free of toll; 
this led to trouble with Turold, Abbot of Peterborough 
(§ 166 iv), who claimed the toll and hampered the trans- 
port of the stone, but was brought to book by royal 
writ'. On the appointment of Herfast to the see of 
Thetford, this Bishop claimed over St. Edmund's Ab- 
bey a jurisdiction stoutly resisted by its Abbot; Baldwin 
even journeyed to Rome, and obtained from Pope 
Alexander II in 107 1 a bull to confirm his House's 
exemption from episcopal authority. This proving an 
insufficient protection, St. Edmund himself intervened 
by striking the Bishop with blindness; Herfast came to 
Bury, confessed his fault in full congregation, and was 

n. D.B. (R.C.), 115b, 1.6. 
o. Freeman : N. C-, iv, 214. 
p. P.R. 1130 (R.C.), 15, 16. 
q. Regesta, i, no. 12. 

r. Regesta, i, nos. 369 and lix. Two pillars, marked with St. Ed- 
mund's arrows, at Gunwade Ferry on the None River where the stone was 
loaded into barges, commemorate tins transaction : they are shown on the 
Ordnance Survey under their local names of Robin Hood and Little John. 
Some Caen stone seems also to have been imported for the work, presumably 
for the finer carving. 



§ 156 

cured by the absolution (and medicines) of the victorious 
Abbot. The quarrel was finally settled bv the King in 
full Council in 10S1, but it must be regretfully noted 
that the Abbey thought well to forge a charter for the 
greater security of its claim". Baldwin died in 1098'; 
the only lands which he certainly held in Bedfordshire 
were attached to the Seneschalcy of the Abbey, — Kenc- 
mondwick 49 and Blunham 50". For a half hide in Bid- 
denham 48 his protection was claimed, but it is not clear 
that he had any rights in it. 

ii. Burnard is recorded as holding the manor of 
Arlesey (97) under William de Ow, and Bernard as un- 
dertenant of Hugh de Beauchamp in Astwick and of 
Azelina Taillebois in Henlow, As Astwick and Henlow 
both touch Arlesey, it is probable that all three entries 
refer to one man, and that the two latter holdings were 
absorbed into the manor. Burnard's descendants, under 
the surname of Burnard, continued to hold in Arlesey till 
the end of the xiijth. century; they acquired also lands in 
Everton, apparently those of Ranulf brother of Ilger at 
D.B., and in Beeston, apparently by marriage in the last 
half of the xijth. century. 

iii. David dc Argentoin (dc Argentomc, but the 
spelling of the last syllable is doubtful), the only man 
of his name in D.B., is presumably the founder of a 
family which attained some importance in other counties 
at a later date, on lands other than his. The name-place, 
Argentan, is in the department of Orne. Besides his 
little holding ' de Rege ' in Riseley 287, the fate of which 
has not yet been traced, he held some land in Cambridge- 
shire, where he succeeded ' men ' of the Earls Waltheof 
and Algar'. 

§ 156. 

i. Erfast, undertenant of Nigel dAlbini, appears 
under the name of Arfast among the prudhommes (pru- 
dentum hominum) who were in attendance on Henry 
d'Albini when ratifying a gift of lands in Stratton to 
Abingdon Abbey, before 1117". His son. Nigel son of 
Erfast, attested a charter of the same Henry to Sopwell 
Nunnery 1 . 

ii. Ernuin priest (Earnwine) appears as holding- 
scraps of land among the King's thanes and almsmen 
in the counties of Yorks., Derbs., Lines., and Notts. ; in 
Lincoln city he claimed to hold a manse which had been 
of Earl Morkere. But he had assuredly seen better days 
under Edward; in Stanford he had held twenty manses 
and two churches; and in Lincoln he claimed the church 
and lands of All Saints as the inheritance of Godric son 
of Garewine his kinsman, who had apparently become a 
monk of Peterborough. There is a curious entry of a 
man who held land " on the day that Ernuin priest was 
captured, and before that.'" His connection with Lin- 
coln continued after the Conquest, for he held at D.B. 
five virgates from its Bishop in Biddenham 39, which 
still belonged to that See in 1278-9. He must surely 
have been a churchman of importance, since as tenant in 
chief he ends the tale of Bishops Abbots and such like, 

s. Regesta, i, nos. 138, 137. 

t. Ang. Sax. Chron. ii, 202. 

u. B.H.R.S., v, 6173. 

v. D.B. (R.C.), i, 202. 

w. Hist. Abingdon (R.S. 2), ii, 100. 

x. Mon. Angl. iii, 364. 

z. D.B., i, 347b. His association with Lincoln Stamford and Peter- 
borough suggests that he may have been concerned in the rising of Here- 



.91 

preceding not only all laymen, but even a notable cleic. 
like Albert of Lorraine (classed among laymen). <8 ' 
his paternal inheritance in Harrowden (67), no furthc 
trace has yet been found ; his tenure seems to have been 
irregular and was probably terminated. 

iii. Ernulf de Arde (Bed. IV ) was son of Ernulf 
lord of Ardres, close to Guisnes in the Pas de Calais ; If.' 
appears in this county as undertenant of Eustace Count 
of Boulogne. His Bedfordshire lands remained long 
with his descendants under the Honour of Boulogne, 
passing with his granddaughter Cristiana to the Count* 
of Guisnes by a marriage which healed a family feud of 
long standing. He went on Crusade in 1097, but was 
still alive in 1 1 17. By his marriage with Gertrude, sister 
of Baldwin of Alost, he became brother in law of GilbetJ 
de Gand. The account of his family and lands give* 
by Freeman* has been corrected by Round". 

iv. Ernulf de Hesding (Ped. V) of Hesdin in the 
Pas de Calais, held in chief in eleven counties, as well 
as undertenancies. He was a benefactor of Norman 
religious houses, from a charter to one of which (1094 ro 
1 100) it appears that he had 'sons' (in charters this 
word is apt to include sons in law) and that his ' so©' 
William and daughter Ava consented to the gift. 0 Tiis 

' son ' is probably the son in law William who married hi 
daughter Matilda (see below), and the daughter Ava or 
Avelina who married firstly Alan son of Fleald and later 
Robert son of Walter. He appears to have founded s 
small priory at Ruislip' 1 , where he held land at D.B.; writs 
his wife Emmelme he made to St. Peter Gloucester 
grants which were confirmed by Palric de Chaworth ana 1 
his wife Matilda. William of Malmesbury describes; 
him as ' wonderful in agricultural shrewdness, wonderful 
in generous relief of poverty '; and relates how, when 
smitten by a grievous ailment which deprived him of the 
use of his hands and defied a noted physician, he was 
cured by balsam from St. Aldhelm's tomb''. Accused 
of complicity in Mowbray's rebellion of 1095, he was 
more fortunate than William de Ow (infra, § 169), for in 
the judicial combat his champion was victorious; but, 
in disgust at the calumny, he threw up everything in 
England in spite of the King (abdicatis omnibus qui 
regis erant in Anglia ipso rege inuito et cqntradicenteii, 
and joined the Crusade of 1097; reaching Antioch, te 
fell sick and died, refusing to see a physician but trusting 
in the Lord'. Of Ernulf's brother Ilbod, who held de 
Rege in Bereford (Barford co. Oxon), nothing further 
appears to have been traced. 

In 1 138 Ernulf's grandson, William fitz Alan fit? 
Fleald, then Constable of Shrewsbury, revolted against 
Stephen, leaving his uncle Ernulf de Hesding, ' a war- 
like and venturesome knight,' in charge of the castle. 
After a vigorous resistance it was surrendered; Ernulf, 
in the manner usual with Barons taken in revolt, offered 
a ransom, but Stephen for once was thorough and hung 
him and ninety three more. There can be little doubt that 
this was a son of the D.B. Ernulf, but he has only been 
traced as holding Chivelai (Keevil, co. Wilts.) out of all 
his father's D.B. possessions". He seems to have left 

ward and the Fen-men in 1070-1071, but his name docs not seem to have 
been recorded even in legend. 

a. Freeman : N. C, in, 713, 714. 

b. Round : F. E., 462-464. 

c. Cal. Doc. France, 481-2, no. 1326. 

d. Mon. Angl. vi (vii), 1050. 

c. Gesta Pontiff. (R.S. 52), 437, 438. 

f. Liber de Hyda (R.S. 45), 301, 302. 

g. P.R. 1130 (Rec. Com.), 18. 



PART IV 



92 



PAKT IV 



§ 157—138 



a son, the third Ernulf, who in 1141 attested a charter 
of the Empress Matilda to Miles, Earl of Hereford' 1 . 

It is not yet clear whether the D.B. estates of the 
first Ernulf were escheated on his voluntary exile or on 
the second Ernulfs execution, whether the daughters 
were allowed to inherit at some point or received a special 
grant. But most of the lands are from now onwards 
held by them or their descendants, the families of fitz 
Alan, of Patric Earl of Salisbury, and of Chaworth (dc 
Cadurcis). In this county Ernulfs important manor of 
Toddington passed to the Honour of Chaworth and thus 
through Salisbury to Perche; his ten acres in Chalgrave 
were probably adjacent to and absorbed in that manor, 
as they disappear. There can be little doubt that 
Matilda wife of Patric de Chaworth was the daughter of 
Ernulf; he undoubtedly had a daughter Matilda, who 
in her widowhood gave to St. Alban lands in Hara (Hare 
or Heme in Toddington) for the soul of her husband 
William 1 ; and she probably re-married Patric de 
Chaworth, for he with his wife, known from other sources 
to have been a Matilda, made to Dunstable Priory a 
grant in Chalton, also a hamlet of Toddington; in the 
absence of direct statement, one can hardly expect better 
evidence, when the available dates are not in conflict with 
the suggestion. 

§ 157. 

i. Eudo the dapifer (Eudo son of Hubert, Ped. 
HI) was son of Hubert de Rie (Ryes in Calvados), who 
had earned the gratitude of William by helping him 
when flying for his life in his troublous youth. Eudo 
was one of several brothers, all of whom attained some 
eminence after the Conquest; he himself first appears as 
Dapifer about 1072. Before the death of the Conqueror 
had become generally known, he secured the Treasury at 
Winchester, and the castles of Dover Pevensey and 
Hastings, in the King's name, and thus ensured the suc- 
cession of Rufus, who retained him in his office J . As 
farmer of the city and constable of the castle of Col- 
chester, he appears, according to Freeman, to have been 
" one of the very few Normans in high authority who 
knew how to win the love and confidence of the conquered 
English." About 1096 he founded the great Abbey of 
St. John in Colchester, and watched over its rise with 
devotion. For the last fifteen years of his life he was 
blind, and lived at his castle of Preaux, dying there in 
1 1 20. He married Roheise, a daughter of Richard son 
of Count Gilbert of Brionne, the founder of the great 
house of Clare, but left no direct heir. 

His extensive holding in this county had been built 
up mainly from that of Ulmar thane of Eaton and his 
' men '; but in this, as in some lands in other counties, 
his immediate predecessor was Lisois de Moustiers 
(Beeston 115). The devolution of this Bedfordshire 
estate, the future barony of Beauchamp of Eaton, has 
been discussed in these volumes". 

ii. Eustace, Count of Boulogne (Ped. VII), the 
Second, known as Eustace " aux Grenons ' from his 
moustaches, married as her second husband Godgifu 
(Goda), sister of King Edward the Confessor. He seems 
to have been of turbulent character; after a visit to his 
brother in law in 105 1 he became embroiled with the 
townspeople of Dover over compulsory billeting, and 
was driven out of the town with the loss of several men ; 

h. Rvmer : Foedera (1810), i, 14. 

i. Mori. Aug., ii, 220. Compare Cat. Doc. France, pp. 364-366. 



on his complaint to Edward, that King ordered Earl 
Godwine to harry the town in punishment; Godwine 
rightly refused to harry his own men, and was banished 
by the Witan with all his sons, but they compelled the 
King to pardon them in the following year, civil war 
being narrowly escaped. Eustace, always discontented, 
eagerly embraced William's cause at the Conquest, and 
fought well at Hastings, cutting off the Saxons who pur- 
sued William's feigned retreat, and at a later moment 
helping to break the shield-wall. Within a year, how- 
ever, he headed a rebellion in Kent against the new 
King; endeavouring to avenge himself on Dover, he was 
again beaten off, this time with great loss, and owed his 
pardon to William's politic long-sufferance. At Bishop 
Odo's ill fated attempt to place Robert ' Curthose,' Duke 
of Normandy, on the English throne in 1088, Eustace 
as a great Kentish landowner was on his side, and with 
him was compelled to surrender at Rochester; after this 
he does not seem to have troubled this country further. 
In 1057 he married as second wife (Saint) Ida, daughter 
of Godfrey le Barbu, Duke of Lower Lorraine; she died 
in H13, having borne to him Eustace (III) Count of 
Boulogne, and Godfrey and Baldwin de Bouillon after- 
wards Kings of Jerusalem. He also left a son Geoffrey, 
probably illegitimate, who married a daughter of 
Geoffrey de Mandeville, and was ancestor of a later 
Bedfordshire notable, Faramus of Boulogne, long lord 
of Eaton Bray. Eustace died in 1093; his lands in this 
county were not very extensive, and came to form part 
of the Honour of Boulogne. 

§ 158. 

i. Geoffrey de Mowbray, Bishop of Coutances 
(Ped. VIII), was member of a distinguished family which 
took name from Montbrai in the canton of Perci 
(Manche). He became Bishop in 1048, and at once took 
an active part in the building of the new cathedral ; it 
was consecrated in 1056, and the see removed thither 
from St. Lo (of which he somelimes attests as Bishop). 
Orderic tells how he " plumed himself on his noble birth 
and throve by military rather than by clerkly skill, and 
so knew better how to train mailed warriors to fight than 
cowled clerks to chaunt." Notably he broke the revolt 
of the West Saxons in 1069 at Montacute near Yeovil, 
and, with the other fighting Bishop, Odo, defeated the 
rebellious Earl Ralf of Norfolk in 1075; for such ser- 
vices (and he was at Hastings also, probably in a military 
capacity) he received enormous estates, especially in the 
West Country, where he seems to have built Bristol 
Castle. In 1088 he joined the movement to put Duke 
Robert on the English throne, but was pardoned, and 
died in 1093, leaving as heir his ' nephew ' Robert de 
Mowbray whose exact relationship to him is uncertain. 
He was not infrequently employed as a judge, and some- 
times as what may be described as an ecclesiastical com- 
missioner, holding pleas of church lands and communi- 
cating his decision to the D.B. Commissioners. His 
Bedfordshire lands, all in the north of the county, seem 
to have been broken up among various estates. 

ii. Geoffrey de Traillgi (Tralgi, later Trailly etc.) 
was doubtless so styled from Trelly near Coutances, 
from the Bishop of which he was undertenant in Yielden, 
and also on an unnamed holding in Willey Hundred 
which is rightly assigned by Dr. Round to Chellington. 

j. This story is rejected by Freeman (Rufus. ij. 463-465) on grounds 
which seem inadeauate. 

k. B.H.R.S., 'i, 66 70; ij, 63-65. 



§ 159-160 



PART IV 



93 



These two vills at some later date (before 1 166) were put 
under the Honour of Gloucester and weie still so held 
by the Traillys in the xivth century. Geoffrey (or per- 
haps his son Geoffrey) married one of the three co- 
heiresses of William Spech (§ 170); her share of the 
Spech fief was thus added to the fees held under the 
Honour of Gloucester to make up the ' Barony of 
Trailly ' of 1 242. 

iii. Gilbert, Abbot of Westminster, Gilbert Cris- 
pin, was probably cousin of Miles Crispin (§ 161). 
Trained in the Abbey of Bee by Lanfranc and Anselm, 
two successive Archbishops of Canterbury, he served as 
chaplain to Lanfranc, and was appointed to Westmin- 
ster about 1085, being about 40 years of age; he ruled 
the Abbey well and wisely till his death in 11 17. Some 
charming letters from Anselm to him have been pre- 
served. His successor, the Dean of 19 10, writes of him' 
" He was a true monk and scholar, with no desire for 
fame; his vocation and his instincts alike made him 
shrink from public affairs. His Westminster sons re- 
membered him . . . chiefly for his gentleness, and they 
wrote the epithet ' mitis ' on his tomb before they praised 
his justice wisdom strength and learning." The family 
of Crispin is dealt with at some length in Dean Robin- 
son's work already cited. The Abbey retained the manor 
of Great Holwell till the end of the xvth century, after 
which its overlordship has not been traced. 

iv. Gilbert de Blosseville, undertenant of Coun- 
tess Judith in Harrold, probably drew his name from 
Blosseville by Rouen. His descendants are traceable 
at Harrold till 1232, and in the county till at least 1262"°. 
His only other holding at D.B. was also from Countess 
Judith and in Lavendon co. Bucks., probably in that 
post-Domesday village on which he has stamped his 
name as Newton Blossomville, where, as in Harrold, the 
family was replaced by Rail Morin. 

§ 159. 

i. Gilbert de Gand (Ped. IV), son of Ralf and 
brother of Baldwin lord of Alost in Flanders, was a 
captain in charge of York Castle when first built, and 
one of the few survivors of the massacre of its garrison in 
1069 by the Danes and revolted English under Earl 
Waltheof (§ 168). He refounded the ruined Abbey at 
Bardney co. Lines., and gave to it after 1086 the church 
of Edlesborough, the only place (then) in this county 
where he held land. He is said to have died in 1094, 
but the important family which he founded flourished 
(elsewhere than in this county) till the reign of Edward I. 
Legend and romance have been busy with his name. 

ii. Gilbert son of Salomon besides his holdings in 
Bedfordshire ' de Rege,' had land also at Felstead co. 
Essex. As these are the three holdings which later are 
attached to the Larderership, he probably already held 
some such office. The descent of this serjeanty, and his 
successors, have been already traced in these volumes." 

iii. Gozelin (Goscelin) Brito, one of the Con- 
queror's Breton auxiliaries, was rewarded by lands in 
Bedfordshire (Potsgrove and Gladley), Buckinghamshire 
(Cublington and elsewhere), and Gloucestershire. These 

1. J. Arniitagc Robinson : Gilbert Crispin, Cambridge, 1911, 8vo. 

m. B.H.R.S., vi, 91, no. 340; vi, 175, no. 622. 

n. B.H.R.S., iii, 251 ; v, 2.29, 230. , 

o. Dunstable Cart., fo. 23. 

p. V. C. H. Beds., iij, 85. 

q. Liber Rubeus, 334. 

r. Regesta, i, no. 23. 



identify his son as the Hugh son of Gozelin who gave 
the advowson of Cublington and land in Gladley to 
Dunstable Priory", and married a daughter of Roger de 
Chesney, by Alice de Langetot of Campton (§ 164, iii); 
their son took his mother's name, and eventually trans- 
mitted the lands to the Lucy family. 

iv. Gunfrid de Cioches had only a small holding 
in Hinwick, which appears" to have been given to the 
Hospitallers; but his extensive estates elsewhere, es- 
pecially in Northamptonshire, fell into the Honour of 
Chokes, returned by (his grandson?) Robert de Chokes 
in 1 166 as a barony of fifteen knights". His possible re- 
lationships are sketched below under Sigar de Cioches 
(§ 166). 

v. Gunter, Abbot of Thorney, was appointed by 
William in 1085, and held his office till his death in 1 1 1 2. 
He largely rebuilt the more or less ruinous timber church 
of the Abbey which had been founded in 972, completing 
his work about 1 10S-9, and some of it stands to this day. 
His manor of Bolnhurst remained with the monastery till 
the Dissolution. 

§ 160. 

i. Henry son of Azor, judged by his father's name 
(which, as Atsere, was fairly common in Saxon time) was 
probably an Englishman, permitted to hold ' de Rege ' a 
single hide : — possibly the son of that Adzor, who with 
Wulfweard the White and other English attested a' 
charter of William in io68 r , again possibly of that Azor 
dispenser of King Edward to whom William granted a 
hide in chief, but whom Robert d'Oilli forced to be his 
undertenant, the Hundred protesting.'. 

ii. Herbert son of Ivo was a considerable under- 
tenant of the Bishop of Bayeux in Kent, and to a less 
extent in Herts, and Beds. He seems to have had little 
scruple in annexing church property; he seized a mill 
from the Canons of St. Martin in Dover for which he 
paid to the Bishop the considerable sum of a mark of 
gold', and he occupied a hide in [Abbot's] Langley which 
belonged to St. Alban". But he became a monk of St. 
Augustine Canterbury in 1079, ar| d endowed it with 
lands'. The lands which he held in this county fell to 
the Honour of Peverel of Dover. 

iii. Hugh de Beauchamp (Ped. VI) and his fief 
have already been discussed in these volumes. w . 

iv. Hugh de Bolebec, undertenant of Walter Gif- 
fard, was probably a kinsman (a brother, according to 
A. S. Ellis) of his overlord, whose father Osbern de 
Bolebec also took his name from the little beck which 
joins the river Seine near its mouth. In a charter which 
Dr. Round assigns to 1080, Hugh and others granted the 
church of Bolbec to Bernay abbey, a gift confirmed by 
Walter Giffard and another overlord'. Hugh's three 
holdings in this county were transmitted to his descen- 
dants; at Woburn his [?] grandson Hugh founded the 
Abbey in 1 145 ; his lands at Maulden and Marston were 
carried by marriage to the de Vere Earls of Oxford about 
1 190. 

v. Hugh Fleming, see Walter Fleming § 167, 
and § 24. 

s. D.B., i, 62. 
t. D.B., i, 2. 
u. D.B., i, 135b. 

v. Stevens : Additions to Mon. Ang., i, 316. 
w. B.H.R.S., i, 2, 64 70. 

x. Cal. Doc. France, 137, no- 412, and pp. xjtvi, xxvii. 



94 



PART IV 



vi. Hugh de Grentmaisnil (Ped. IV) derived his 
name from Grand Mesnil in Calvados. Born of a dis- 
tinguished and pious family, he and his brother Robert 
refounded the ruined abbey of St. Evroult in 1050. After 
Hastings he was placed in charge of the city of Leicester 
where he owned a very large part of the Burgh in 10S6. 
He was also governor of Winchester, and of so much of 
Wessex as William held. There seems to be a doubt 
whether he died in 1093 or 1098. Adeliza his wife, noted 
in her day for great beauty, is one of the few wives who 
appear as tenant in chief at D.B., having apparently re- 
ceived a personal grant from the Conqueror; she died 
seven years before her husband. They left a large 
family, — five not very satisfactory sons, of whom the 
eldest, Ivo, succeeded his father, and married a daughter 
of Gilbert cle Gand. Neither the Conqueror nor his 
immediate successors would permit in this country that 
private warfare between their Barons which was one of 
the worst features of the feudal system on the continent; 
Ivo set an example of it in England, was tried, and 
banished in 1101 ; he died on the way to the Crusade, 
and, though he left an heir, the Grentmaisnil lands fell 
by two different paths to the Earls of Leicester, to whose 
Honour some of Adeliza's Bedfordshire lands are found 
to belong at a later date. It is to be noted that Hugh de 
Beauchamp had received lands in Goldington Salpho 
and Cople (§ 123) in exchange for Ware co. Herts.; as 
this was held in D.B. by Hugh dc Grentmaisnil, it may 
be presumed that the exchanged lands were granted to 
the latter at the Conquest, but he held nothing in this 
county in 1086. 

vii. Hugh Hubald, as undertenant of Osbern son 
of Richard ol Richard's Castle, had four small holdings 
in the north east; and appears to have left descendants 
on his land, for Henry Hubaut is still to be found at 
Elvendon in 1220"; and as Henry Hubolt he also held 
in 12 10-121 2 a half fee in co. Salop from the Honour of 
Richard's Castle'. The small and single holding at El- 
vendon enables us reasonably to identify as one of this 
family the Hugh camerarius who made a gift there to 
Chicksand Priory about the middle of the xijth century", 
but it does not appear whose chamberlain he may have 
been. The fact that in 1166 William Hubalt shares a 
half knight's fee of the Honour of Bedford 1 ' seems to 
suggest that Osbern's small lordship may have been 
acquired by the Beauchamps. 

viii. Hugh nephew of Herbert son of Ivo affords 
one of the few instances in this county of an undertenant 
sub-letting to a ' rear vassal.' He held also on the fief 
of the Bishop of Bayeux in Kent and elsewhere, and is 
the subject of an interesting record : — " At the entrance 
of Dover harbour is a mill which wrecks nearly all ships 
in a heavy swell, and does very great damage to the 
King and his men. It was not there T.R.E. Of this 
the nephew of Herbert saith that the Bishop of Bayeux 
gave permission for its erection to his uncle Herbert son 
of Ivo." c This seems to have been an early tidal mill. 
His Bedfordshire land passed to the Honour of Peverel 
of Dover. 

y. B.H.R.S., vi, 59, no. 243. 

z. Liber Rubens, 603. 
a. B.H.R.S., i, 11S, 121. 

D. Liber Rubeus, 321. 

c. D.B., i, 1. 

d. Regesta, i, nos. 40S, 409. 

e. Add M.S. B.M., 35296, fo. 8. 

f. John de Trokelowe (R.S. 28, iii), 447. 



ix. Hugh pincerna or de Ivri (Ped. IV) was Butler 
in the Norman Household before 1066, and still attests 
charters as pincerna in 10S2. Roger de Ivri, pincerna 
in the English Household, was probably his brother. 
Hugh's estates presumably lay principally in Normandy, 
but he held the important manor of Ambrosden co. 
Oxon.; beyond this he held only three hides in Staugh- 
ton and Segresdone, which have not been traced at any 
later date, and were presumably absorbed into one of. 
the other holdings. 

§ 161. 

i. Ivo Taillebois (Ped. VI), a name familiar to 
all readers of Hereward the Wake (a noble saga, but 
most unscrupulous ' history '), was a considerable land- 
holder in Lincolnshire as lord of Spalding, and held 
also in Norfolk. He attests charters frequently from 
1080 onwards, and from 1091 as dapifer Regis, but died 
or at least lost his lands before logS*. It appears from 
a charter to Spalding Priory', which he refounded, that 
his wife Lucy had as antecessor (not necessarily ances- 
tor) the Saxon Thorold of Bukenhale. But the Ingulf 
forger and other romancers of the time (whom Kingslej 
followed) have been busy with the family; Lucy has had 
numerous husbands fathers and children assigned to 
her, and is best left as a bare name. It is probable that 
Ivo was a brother of Ralf Taillebois, so conspicuous in 
pre-Domesday Bedfordshire. Though in 1086 Ivo held 
merely a half hide in Goldington as undertenant of the 
Bishop of Lincoln (probably absorbed into the Beau- 
champ manor later), he seems lo have been at one time 
Sheriff of the County (§ 76). 

ii. John des Roches appears only as the prede- 
cessor of Nigel de Albini in Barton (53) and Maulden 
(190). and there seems to be no further reference to him 
in D.B. 

iii. Judith the Countess (Ped. 1) was daughter of 
Lambert of Artois, and of Adelaide sister (or half sister) 
of the Conqueror. Given by William in marriage to 
Earl Waltheof (§ 168), she is said by Orcleric to have 
accused her husband of treachery for his cognisance of 
the plot of the Earls of Hereford and Norfolk in 1075. 
Her motive is not clear, and it seems certain that 
Waltheof himself had confessed his complicity before 
her accusation was brought. But the legends which 
sanctified him as the last Saxon Earl fastened upon her 
alleged betrayal, and it is not now possible to clear her 
memory. That she faced the King in order to beg her 
husband's corpse for his foundation of Croyland Abbey 
is beyond doubt, and her generous endowment of the 
Abbey at Elstow also suggests that she may have been 
unfairly treated by history. She granted land in Potton 
to St. Alban lor the souls of her dead husband and 
others'. Her extensive estate* in this county passed with 
her daughter Matilda to the Earls of Huntingdon, and 
appears for some centuries as part of the Honour of 
Huntingdon. 

iv. Lisois de Moustiers, " a bold soldier nick- 
named de Monasteriis " (says Orderic), claims remem- 
brance for having found and forced a ford on the river 

g. Though D.J1. docs not say so, Totton with Hatley and Charlton 
had probably been assigned to her husband by Harold in 1065 or 1066, together 
with Tostig's Earldom of Xorthants. and Hunts., and possibly were part of her 
dower. Potton is twice described as her proprium rnaneriuni (322, 323), 
which indicates its different status from the other manors granted to her 
by William; but it was not her own by grant of King F.dward, for she did 
not marry Waltheof till 1069; it was probably therefore re-granted to her 
after his execution. 



§ 162 



PART IV 



95 



Aire, of which the swollen state had held back King 
William's army for three weeks in 1069; William was 
thus enabled to march on York, to disperse the Danes 
and English, and to achieve that pitiless devastation of 
Yorkshire, the effects of which lasted for centuries. 
Lisois was rewarded by a considerable estate, in which 
he was succeeded before 1086 by Eudo dapifer" — part 
therefore of the future fief of Beauchamp of Eaton. As 
Lisois does not appear as a living tenant in D.B., he "was 
presumably dead ; or possibly only forfeited and 
banished ; and a Lisois de Monastferiis], who owed a 
considerable sum in 1130 on succession to his father's 
lands' in Yorkshire, is perhaps his son or grandson. 

V. Miles Crispin (Ped. II), of a family nicknamed 
from their crisped hair, was probably cousin of the noted 
Gilbert Crispin abbot of Westminster (§ 158), and son 
of the second Gilbert of the family. His Domesday 
estates were largely built up from the lands of two 
Saxons, Brihtric (Beorhtric) in Beds, and Bucks., Wigod 
thane of Wallingford in Oxon. and Berks., but of the 
latter's lands some were held at D.B. by Robert d'Oilli. 
Wigod seems to have made his submission to the Con- 
queror when he crossed the Thames at Wallingford on 
his march to London in 1066, and to have retained at 
least some of his lands till his death (some time before 
1086). His son Tokig was killed at King William's 
side in 1080, and, according to the usual account, the 
bulk of his lands passed to Robert d'Oilli who had mar- 
Tied Wigod's daughter (? Ealdgyth or Edith), and to 
Miles Crispin who had married their daughter Matilda. 
Such is the official story returned to the Exchequer by 
the Constable of Wallingford in 1212'; it is consistent 
with our entry 99a (Table I, Col. xxiii, Milton Ernest), 
which shows that Robert d'Oilli preceded Miles in the 
tenure of Clapham ; but a further statement that, on the 
death of Miles, Matilda married Brian fitz Count is open 
to suspicion, for he lived on into Stephen's reign ; it is 
more probable that he married her daughter of the same 
name (a pitfall for genealogists in all centuries), and this 
guess has been adopted in Pedigree II below. Miles 
certainly held the castle and honour of Wallingford, 
and died in 1107. The devolution of his Bedfordshire 
lands has been discussed in B.H.R.S. v, 239-242. 

§ 162. 

i. Nigel de Albini (Albingi, Albeneio, etc.) (Ped. 
VIII), the only one of his name in D.B., according to Dr. 
Round came from (St. Martin d') Aubigny near Cou- 
tances. While there is no doubt that his family held 
lands in that district 1 ', the collocation of the place-names 
of overlord and knight at Aubin St. Vast near Hesdin in 
Artois, suggests that both may have come from there, 
and that St. Martin d'Aubigny may have been named 
from the family, and not the converse. As the early 
history of this family, de Albini or Daubeny, who held 
from Cainhoe in Clophill the second largest barony in 
this county, is still somewhat obscure, it will not be out 
of place to discuss them in some detail, and to present 
a tentative pedigree (Ped. VIII). 

h. Round : F. E„ 460. In BH.R.S., i, 69, line 18, the reference is 
wrongly phrased; it is really the exception of Beeston which implies the 
succession of Eudo in other lands. 

i. P.R. 1130 (R.C.) 26. 

j. Bk. Fees (R.S.), i, 116. 

k. Cal. Doc. France, 328, no. 920. 

1. Cal. Doc. France, 330, no. 923. 

m. Mon. Angl., iii, 279. 

n. D.B., 59b. 

o. Gesta Abbatum (R.S., 28, iv), i, 66-72. 



Nigel was son 1 of Roger de Albini, who made a 
grant to Lessay abbey in 1084, and of Avice who was 
probably sister of Geoffrey de Mowbray the Bishop of 
Coutances, sister also of Roger de Mowbray a notable 
Norman at the Conquest. Other sons of Nigel were Rual- 
loc and William, named in the charters already cited. 
Nigel's wife Amice is said to have been daughter of 
Henry de Ferrieres, but the present writer is not aware 
of the evidence for this statement. She appears with 
Nigel in a charter granted with the assent of the Con- 
queror"', by which he gave to St. Alban for the Cell at 
Wallingford ten hides and the church in West Henreth 
(Hendred, co. Berks.), and 30s. in Waryngforth (Walling- 
ford, co. Berks.) where as ' Nigel ' he had held a haga 
in 1086; reference to D.B." shows that tins grant was 
made before our record was compiled. The same char- 
ter shows also Richard de Albini, Abbot of St. Alban 
1097-1119, as his brother, whose activities may be read 
in the chronicles of that House". 

Henry de Albini, Nigel's heir, succeeded to the fief 
at some date before 11 17, and gave land in Stratton 
(Biggleswade) to Abingdon Abbey in the davs of Fari- 
tius, abbot 1100-1117". With his brothers William and 
Nigel (II) he granted the church at Cloppehille (Clop- 
hill) and tithe of Cota and Kegenho (Westcotts and 
Cainhoe) to St. Alban, and confirmed the gifts of his 
father Nigel in' Henred and Wallingford", as well as 
land at Wybaldyngtone r (traced through varied spell- 
ings, this appears to represent Nigel's D.B. holding at 
Wyboston). He occurs in the Leicestershire Survey of 
1 1 24-1 1 29". 

Robert (1), the son of Henry and Sccilia (Cecilia) 
founded the little Priory of Beaulieu (de Bello Loco) at 
Moddry in Clophill, as a Cell of St. Alban, moving 
thither a handful of monks from Millbrook, apparently 
between 1140 and 1146'; his memory was kept green, for 
when about 1427-8 the priory was dissolved and its 
revenues largely used for poor scholars at Oxford, one 
of them was bound pray ' signally and specially ' for 
Robert's soul". He returned his carta of knights on the 
d'Albini fief in 11 66'. 'Stephen' de Albini who ap- 
pears as the father of this Robert in one document" 
seems to be due to a wrong expansion by a copyist of 
S., standing in his original for Secilia, Henry's wife and 
Robert's mother; the name is thus spelt in a charter of 
Robert to Beaulieu, and she appears as ' S. the mother 
of Robert ' in another Colchester charter. Dr. Round 
has called attention to the fact that she was a daughter 
of Patric de Chaworth*. From this point the Cainhoe 
pedigree presents no difficulty, but in an attempt to clear 
up this rather troublesome family, a few notes on two 
cadets will be added. 

William, described in charters as the brother of 
Henry, seems to be William de Albini pincerna, butler 
of Henry I, who conferred on hiin a rich estate' : he mar- 
ried Maud daughter of Roger Bigot, and founded the 
Priory of Wymondham co. Norf. as a Cell to St. Alban. 
His son William de Albini who succeeded to his office of 

p. Hist. Abingdon (R.S. 2), ii, too. 

q. John de Trokelowe, Appendix (R.S. 28, iii), 451. 

r. Id., 447. 

s. Round : F. E., 213. 

t. Mon. Angl., iii, 276, 277. 

u. John dc Amundeshani (R.S., 28, vj, ii, 292. 

v. Liber Rubeus. 324. 

w. Cartul. St. John Colchester, p. 179. 

x. Ancestor, xii, 149. 

y. Liber Rubeus, 397- 



96 



PART IV 



pincerna, married between r 135 and 1139 Adeliza the 
second Queen of Henry I, and became Earl of Arundel'. 

Nigel (II) de Albini, also a younger brother of 
Henry of Cainhoe, adhered to Henry I in his Norman 
wars, and fought for him at Bremule (11 19) and Mont- 
fort (11 23). At some unrecorded date subsequent to the 
imprisonment of his kinsman Robert de Mowbray, the 
rebel Earl of Northumberland, Nigel married the latter's 
wife Matilda by special dispensation from Pope Pascal 
(1099-111S), she being probably a good deal his senior. 
He seems to have wearied of her, obtained a divorce on 
the ground of consanguinity, and in 11 19 married Gun- 
dreda daughter of Gerard de Gournai ; he was dead 
apparently in 1130, when his son [ ? step-son] Roger, 
afterwards styled de Mowbray, was still a minor. 

As cadets, these men are not easily to be traced by 
feudal evidence of manorial descent, but links with the 
Cainhoe line do occur in the case of William pincerna. 
After the banishment of Odo of Bayeux, Nigel (I) de 
Albini seems to have somehow acquired his manor of 
Estwell or Esewale (Eswall in Nonington co. Kent), 
for he granted it* to St. Alban ; and Hasted" vouches a 
charter of Stephen by which William de Albini Earl of 
Arundel confirmed this land to the monastery. Further, 
from other charters we learn that two of the under- 
tenants of William de Albini pincerna were characteris- 
tic undertenants of the Cainhoe fief since Domesday, — 
Nigel del Wast c (below) and Pirot d (§ 164). 

ii. Nigel de Wast, undertenant of Nigel d'Albini, 
according to Dr. Round" probably took his name from 
Le Vast to the cast of Cherbourg. Besides his Bedford- 
shire lands he held Towersey, an important manor of 
Nigel d'Albini in Buckinghamshire. He (or less 
probably his son) gave besides other things the churches 
of Mylebrok and Hamptehulle (Millbrook and Ampt- 
hill) to St. Alban' the former of which was assigned to 
the little Priory of Beaulieu in Clophill ; as this grant 
was confirmed by Henry d'Albini*, it belongs to the first 
few years of the xijth century. He was one of the 
prudhommes of Henry d'Albini (suorum prudentum 
hominum), present to testify before n 17 to a gift of 
lands in Stratton (Biggleswade) to Abingdon Abbey b . 
As one of his knights, he attested a charter of William 
de Albini pincerna between 1102 and 1 109. We find 
what was probably another generation in the person of 
William del Wast towards the middle of the xijth cen- 
tury, who attested a confirmation of Robert d'Albini ; a 
later charter' shows that this William had held d'Albini 
land in Carlton, and seemingly that he had given it and 
himself to religion 1 . No further trace of the family has 
been noted with certainty. 

But from the subsequent history of the lands 
concerned, it seems more than likely that this Nigel (or 
his son) was the Nigel de Merstone who appears in the 
Carta of Robert d'Albini in 11 66 and was the first of a 
family which bore that name for some generations; he 
gave to St. Alban at an early date the church of Tyre- 
felde (Turville, co. Bucks.)" where Nigel d'Albini had 
held in demesne at D.B. 

z. Round : Geoffrey de Mandeville, 316-325 ; for his descendants see Compl. 
Peer. (ed. 2), i, 237. 

a. D.B., i, 9b; Mon. Angl., ii, 220; iii, 270; Gesta Abbatum (R.S., 
28, iv), i, 438.440. According to Hasted, no less than five of the Bishop's 
holdings in Kent are found later in the Albini pincerna family, Bilsington, 
Elham, Eswall, K'nohon, and Kingelton. Bilsington appears to be the Bis- 
sintona granted to Boxgrave Priory, the charter to which in Mon. Angl., 
iv, 645, further links the pincerna branch to the Cainhoe line. 

b. Hasted : History of Kent, iii, 70S. 
e. Mon. Angl., i, 164. 



§ 163. 

i. Odo, Bishop of Bayeux (Ped. I), half-brother 
of the Conqueror, was trusted and rewarded by him 
beyond any other man. Consecrated as bishop when 
quite young in 1049, he, like his fellow Bishop of Cou- 
tances, was more warrior than churchman; it is said that 
he fought at Hastings with the armour of a layman over 
his ecclesiastical habit, armed with mace instead of 
sword, to evade the Canon which forbade the shedding 
of blood by a priest; this account is confirmed by the 
Bayeux tapestry. He was at once given charge of 
Dover Castle, and made Earl of Kent; and acted at 
first as joint, then as sole, Regent of England during 
William's long and frequent absences in Normandy. 
For sixteen years he was second only to the King, but 
not even this contented his ambition; he aspired to be 
Pope, bought a palace in Rome for the extension of his 
influence, and, when in 10S2 Pope Gregory was besieged 
by the Emperor, Odo raised a force in England for his 
relief. It was intolerable that a subject should thus levy 
an army for foreign aggression, and William, who had 
been in Normandy, hastily stopped the expedition when 
about to sail; Odo was impeached before a Council of 
Barons, and arrested; when he appealed for protection 
to his Orders, William cynically remarked that he 
arrested, not the Bishop of Bayeux, but the Earl of Kent. 
His ambition, long a menace to the King, had to be 
curbed; imprisoned at Rouen, he was not released till 
William lay on his deathbed. On the accession of Rufus 
he was allowed to resume bis Earldom, but declared him- 
self in 1088 on the side of Duke Robert against the 
King; after devastating the royal and archiepiscopaJ 
manors of Kent, he was ultimately seized in his cattle 
of Rochester and banished for life. He joined the 
Crusade in 1096, but died at Palermo in the following 
year. Orderic, his contemporary, tells something of his 
character : " What may I say of Odo, bishop of Bayeux, 
earl palatine, everywhere a terror to all the English, who 
as he were a second king gave laws on all sides? He 
had precedence of all earls and of the great men of 
the realm. . . . Vices were commingled with virtues in 
this man, unless I err; he cleaved more to worldly action 
than to the graces of spiritual thought. . . . He was 
eloquent and great-hearted, bounteous and in secular 
matters energetic. He did careful honour to men of re- 
ligion, defended his clergy keenly by sword and speech, 
and enriched the Church liberally with precious orna- 
ment by every means "—at least churches which were 
manned by Normans, for he did not hesitate to seize 
property from English monasteries for his followers. 
Ellis records him as having held 439 manors in D.B., 
but his lands in Bedfordshire were not very important 
except Eaton Bray ; with that exception, they seem to 
have fallen on escheat to the Honour of Peverel of 
Dover, while Eaton Bray became apparently a dower 
manor of the Crown. 

ii. Osbern (Osbert) de Broilg is suggested by Dr. 
Round to have taken his name from Brouay in Calvados. 
He was an undertenant of Hugh de Beauchamp in 
Bletsoe (148) and Sharnbrook (152), and was un- 

<3. Lib. Rub., 308; Hasted : Kent, iv, 208, 236, 237. 

e. V.C.H. Beds., i, 199. But see S 162, i, lines 4-9. 

f. Mon. Angl., ii, 220. 

g. Mon. Angl., iii, 276. 

h. Hist. Abingdon (R.S. 2.), ii, too. 

i. Colchester Cartul., (ed. Roxburgh Club), 179, 180. 

j. " Et [terra] cum eo fuit ibi data '' ; the phiase sometimes means a 
death bed gift to secure burial at the monastery in the habit of religion, 
jj. Mon. Angl., ii, 221. 



§ 164 



PART IV 



97 



doubtedly the Osbern who held also in Bletsoe (301) 
from Countess Judith. For some unexplained reason, 
the manor was divided into two exactly equal shares be- 
tween the two overlords; Osbern held from both, and, 
as no further reference to the Honour of Huntingdon 
in this vill has been found, it may be presumed that 
Judith's share was acquired by the Beauchamps. Under 
the surname of Broy, Osbern's descendants have been 
traced till at least 1227 as undertenants of the Beau- 
champ barony in these two vills. 

iii. Osbern son of Richard was son to Richard 
Scrob (de Escrop, de Scrupa), who was one of the 
foreign captains imported by King Edward and propor- 
tionately obnoxious to the Saxon ; one of the strong 
colony of Normans planted in the West to restrain the 
Welsh, he built at the place still called Richard's Castle 
in Herefordshire the first of those stone castles which 
later were to play so significant a part in the reduction 
of England. While most of the Norman nobles were 
expelled from England at Godwine's return from 
banishment in 1052, Richard was allowed to remain, to- 
gether with his father in law Robert the deacon k . Richard 
and his son retained their lands and castle at the Con- 
quest, Osbern being distinguished by his patronymic 
from Osbern Pentecost, also owner of a Herefordshire 
castle.' In this county lie held only 2h. 2^v. in four 
holdings in the north east; owing to their small size, 
their fate has not been certainly traced ; they were prob- 
ably absorbed by the Beauchamp manors of Keysoe and 
Riseley (§ 160 Hugh Hubald). Osbern was succeeded 
by Hugh son of Osbern, and he by Osbern son of Hugh, 
but no trace of these men has been noted in this county. 

IV. Osbern son of Walter (Ted. HI) has been 
suggested as identical with Osbern camerarius'". While 
nothing of his father has been traced, it would not be 
surprising if he should prove to be a casual son of Wal- 
ter Giffard whose father was an Osbern (but it is not 
suggested that he was identical with the tenant in chief 
Osbern Giffard). His wife was Muriel sister of Eudo 
dapifer", and he held the whole of Little Barford as two 
manors, one of $h. in chief ' de Rege,' one of 5ft. from 
Eudo as knight of Ramsey Abbey. Both of these were 
assigned to the Abbey by Eudo in an agreement which 
was to take effect at Muriel's death" ; but while we find at a 
later date Hugh de Beauchamp (II E) holding the 5h. 
as knight of the abbey, the 3h. were held from the Eaton 
Barony. Osbern is not traceable elsewhere in D.B.; he 
had a son Walger [? Walter] who attested Eudo's agree- 
ment" but has not been found elsewhere. 

§ 164. 

i. Pirot, who held in Beeston and Northill from 
Eudo dapifer, and in Streatley and Wyboston from 
Nigel de Albini, founded a family which, under the 
surname of Pyrot or Perot retained most of these lands ; 
remaining under the double overlordship, they acquired 
other property and flourished until the xivth. century ; 
they were benefactors of Wardon Colchester and Dun- 
stable monasteries. Their representative in 1166 held 
five fees of the Honour of Cainhoe and four of the 
Honour of Eudo dapifer, while what seems to be a 
branch of this family held six fees under William de 
Albini pincerna. 

k. Flor. Worcest. (E.H.S.), i, 210. 

1. Round : F. E., 321-326. 

m. Regesta, i, pp. xxv, xxvi, and no. 166. 

n. B.H.R.S., i, 67; ii, 67, 68. 

o. Ramsay Cart. (R.S., 79), ii. 257, 258. 



ii. Ralf de Insula held only in this county, unless 

he appears under some other name elsewhere. Nothin<> 
is known of him beyond his tenancy ; he held ' de Re^e^ 
lands which had been of Archbishop Stig-and T.RTl., 
and eventually were formed into the Bishop of Lincoln's 
important manor of Biggleswade; it is therefore likely 
that Ralf also will prove to have been a churchman. 

iii. Ralf de Langetot, so styled from Languetot 
close to Bolbec the original home of his overlords, was 
an undertenant of Walter Giffard. By the marriage be- 
fore 1090 of his (presumed) daughter Alice de Langetot 
with Roger de Caisneto (the founder of the Oxfordshire 
Chesneys), his manor of Campton, into which his Cud- 
sand holding was apparently absorbed (§ ^9), passed to 
the Chesney family. Of the fate of his land in Dunton 
and Millo, no satisfactory evidence has been found. 
Ralf was alive in 1091, when he attested a confirmation 
by William Rufus of a charter by Walter Giffard'. 
Though the name seems to disappear from this county 
after D.B., the family continued to thrive in Suffolk for 
a cenlury and a half, where our Rail was again an under- 
tenant of Walter Giffard, apparently under St. Ed- 
mund's Abbey. The village of Stow Langtofl, co. 
Suffolk, still preserves their name. 

iv. Ralf Passaquani, undertenant of William 
Spech in Holcote, is almost certainly the ' Ralf ' who 
held jointly with Serlo de Ros in Biddenham, if the 
later history of that vill be considered. His numerous 
descendants were generally known as Passelewe (=: 
passe l'eau), and produced a race of churchmen and 
lawyers, occasionally of somewhat ambiguous character 
He appears as a considerable undertenant in Buckingr- 
hamshire; as Ralf Passaquani he had been disseised of 
' Draintone ' by the Bishop of Coutances, but he or his 
successors recovered the manor, and have left their 
name on it to this day as Drayton ' Parslow.' As simply 
' Ralf,' he seems to have held from the Count of Mor- 
tain in Swanbourne, Salden (Mursley). Wouehton, and 
Wavendon; and from Walter Giffard in Bow Brickhil! 
and perhaps Woolstone, for in all these the Passelewes 
held at a later date; some of the other ' Ralf ' entries in 
Buckinghamshire may denote him, but some at least 
seem to represent Ralf Basset. The Bedfordshire lands 
remained with the family until the xivth century. 

v. Ralf Taillebois (Tallebosc, Talgebosch, etc., 
Ped. VI), who was dead before )oS6, seems to have 
been energetic and a little highhanded as Sheriff (§ 76). 
Of his personality and origin nothing has' been noted in 
contemporary records; but the derivation of his fief 
largely from the lands of the Saxon Anschil and by 
exchange for Ware (§ 123), and his possible relation- 
ship to Hugh de Beauchamp, have been alreadv dis- 
cussed in these volumes'. Besides his wife Azeline, 
recorded in D.B. as tenant in chief ' ce Rege ' for her 
dower and marriage portion, he left a daughter who held 
in Hunsdon co. Herts.; to his niece, who had married 
Ranulf brother of Ilger, he gave a liberal portion in 
Stanstead". His estates and those of Areline were the 
kernel of the Barony of Beauchamp of Bedford. 

vi. Rannulf (Ralf) brother of Ilger (Ped. VI) 
was probably brother of that Ilger who held the unenvi- 
able post of governor (pedagogue) of the voun? Robert 

p. Ramsey Chron. (R.S., 83), 208, 233. 
q. Regesta, i, no. 320. 
r. B.H.R.S., i, 64, 70. 
1. D.B., i, i3Sb, 142. 



PART IV 



§ 165 



afterwards Duke of Normandy; in that capacity he at- 
tested a charter in 1066 immediately before the invasion 
of England'. Ranulf married a niece of Ralf Taille- 
bosc, receiving with her lands in Stanstead, co. Herts."; 
and was Sheriff of Hunts, under Rufus". By his attes- 
tations, he was much at William's court, and was suffi- 
ciently important to be associated with Geoffrey de 
Mandevillc and Hamo the Sheriff in a ' view ' of lands 
which were to be granted by the Crown to Eudo dapifer*. 
His nephew R., addressed jointly with him in a precept 
of William Rufus 1 , is probably the Ranulf son of Ulger 
who attested a charter of Duke Robert before 1098*. 
While he held a good deal of land in 10S6, his sole 
tenancy in chief in this county was the manor of Paven- 
ham, which passed to the Clares' for some undetected 
reason; he was also undertenant of Everton in Beds. 
(32) from Countess Judith and of Everton in Hunts, (o) 
from the King. 

vii. Remigius, Bishop of Lincoln (Remy), was 
almoner of the Norman abbey of Fecamp at the time 
of the Conquest, and gave a ship with twenty knights 
for the invasion; at a later date, in the conflict between 
William and Archbishop Lanfranc, his preferment was 
therefore attributed to simony. On the death of Bishop 
Wulfwig (Wulwi § 176) he was named Bishop of Lincoln, 
and allowed himself to be consecrated by Archbishop 
Stigand ; that he pleaded afterwards his ignorance of the 
uncanonical and schismatic character of this procedure 
is hardly to his credit, but he was allowed to retain his 
bishopric. In 1076 he accompanied the Archbishops of 
Canterbury and York on an embassy to Pope Gregory; 
in 1086 he was a D.B. Commissioner. During his tenure 
the actual cathedra or seat of the Bishopric was trans- 
ferred from Dorchester co. Oxon. to Lincoln, where he 
built the new Cathedral Church, the west front of which 
still remains; Rufus came in 1092 to be present at its 
consecration, but Remigius had died two days before. 
It appears that not he, but Wulfwig, was the first to be 
styled Bishop of Lincoln. Giraldus Cambrensis takes 
a favourable view of his life and character*, but there is 
evidence that, whether his motives were of a personal 
or an ecclesiastical nature, he was of a somewhat grasp- 
ing character; for example, he deprived the Canons of 
Bedford of a hide which belonged to them in alms (Bed- 
ford 1); and the King had to interfere with his oppression 
of the Abbot of Ely". His lands in this county were 
composite, and it is doubtful whether Bedford church 
was held by his predecessor in the See. The acquisition 
of Leighton (afterwards the Prebendal manor) presents 
some difficulty; D.B. is clear that it had belonged to 
Bp. Wulfwig T.R.E., but the charter by which the re- 
moval of the See to Lincoln was notified 1 tells a some- 
what different tale : — " Moreover, at the prayer and ex- 
hortation of bishop Remigius, I grant to the same church 
[of Lincoln] a certain manor which is called Lestona and 
which Earl Waltheof long ago had given (dudum 
dederat) to the said bishop by my hand." It is possible 
that Waltheof 's gift to Wulfwig, confirmed by the royal 
hand, had been revoked on his attaint, and was now 
repeated by the King on his own behalf. Some but not 

t. Regesta, i, no. 2. 

u. D.B., i, 138b. 

v. Regesta, i, no. 321. 

w. Regesta, i, no. 435. 

x. Regesta, i, no. 447. 

y. Cal. Doc. France, no. 423. 

2. V. C. H., Beds., iii, 78. 

a. Vite episcoporum Lincolniensium : Anglia Sacra, ii, 413-416. 

b. Regesta, i, nos. 151, 154, 156. 



all of the lands of ' men ' of Wulfwig fell to Remigius, 
but his holdings in this county were small and appear 
to have been alienated gradually from the Bishopric, 
with the exception of Leighton ; the important manor of 
Biggleswade was added to the See in 1132 by Henry Y. 

§ 165. 

i. Richard Basset is presumed to have sprung, like 
his overlord Robert d'Oilli, from the district of Ouilly le 
Basset in Calvados. In D.B. he appears as undertenant 
in Thurleigh only, but he or his son at an early date 
came to hold Clapham also from Miles Crispin (who had 
it in demesne in 1086) or his successor. From the asso- 
ciation of both of them with Clapham. he seems to have 
been father of Ralf Basset, the well known Justiciar of 
Henry I, and thus ancestor of a line of Bassets already 
discussed in these volumes'. Richard was probably 
brother of the Ralf Basset who in 10S6 held from Robert 
d'Oilli in Marsworth and Cheddington co. Bucks., and 
in Tiscot co. Herts. 

ii. Richard Pungiant (Pugnant) held de Rege the 
manor of Dunton, which became for some time attached 
to a Chamberlainship of the King's Court and was prob- 
ably already an official manor. In his two hides at 
Tempsford, V.C.H.' sees the origin of Brayes manor. 

iii. Richard, son of Count Gilbert of Brionne 
(Ped. I, III) is also known as Richard de Bienfaite 8 (his 
Norman castle), de Tonbridge (his English castle), and 
de Clare (Clare, co. Suffolk, the head of his barony). 
Duke Richard I of Normandy, ' the Fearless,' had two 
natural children" Godfrey and William, between whose 
descendants the Counties of Brionne and En were ulti- 
mately divided, but the contemporary chroniclers are not 
in accord as to the details. While William's descen- 
dants were certainly Counts of Eu (§ 169, v), Godfrey's 
son Gilbert became Count of Brionne; he was killed 
about 1039, in the troubles which clouded Duke Wil- 
liam's minority. Richard his son was appointed Chief 
Justiciar jointly with William de Warenne (§ 170), dur- 
ing William's absence ; at the revolt of the Earls of Here- 
ford and Norfolk in 1074 (in which Waltheof was im- 
plicated), they routed the rebels in open field. William 
had great regard both for Richard, and for his brother 
Baldwin de Meules, and ' advanced them in the world 
both on account of their kinship to himself and of their 
own valour.' Roheise, the wife of Richard, was a daugh- 
ter of Walter Giffard I, and they appear as the refoun- 
ders of the Priory of St. Neot (intimately connected with 
East Bedfordshire) and as ancestors of the great house 
of Clare. He thus appears as holding the T.R.E. lands 
of St. Neot in Sudbury (in Eaton Socon) and Wyboston. 

iv. Richard Talbot, undertenant of Walter Gif- 
fard at Battlesdon, has not yet been placed satisfactorily 
in relation to other men of the name. It has been sug- 
gested on the strength of a rather ambiguous phrase in 
Orderic, and it is possible, that he married a sister of 
Hugh de Gournai, but it appears to throw him a genera- 
tion too late. Talbots, presumably his descendants, 
held in Battlesden till the middle of the xiijth century'. 

c. Inspeximus in Mon. Angl., vi (viii), 1270. 

d. Inspeximus in Mon. Angl., vi (viii), 1271. 

e. B.H.R.S., v, 240-242. 

f. V.C.H., ii, 252, 253. 

g. Canton MoyenviUe, Arrondissement Abbeville (Joanne), not in 
Vuillemin's Atlas. 

h. But see note to William de Ow, § 1G9. 

i. B.H.R.S., v, 231, 232. 



§ 166 



PART IV 



v. Robert d'Oilli (de Olgi, Oilgi, etc. Ped. II), 
since Rait and Richard Basket were among his under- 
tenants, probably took name like them from Ouillv le 
Basset to the west of Falaise, out of the numerous places 
termed Ouillv in Calvados. His supposed marriage 
with Ealdgyth daughter of Wigod of Wallingford has 
been cited above under Miles Crispin, his supposed son 
in law (§ 161). Robert assuredly succeeded to a great 
part of Wigod's estate, and about 1071-2 built the castle 
of Oxford, of which he is described as Constable ; he 
founded the church of St. George in the castle in 1074. 
The chronicler of Abingdon describes him as very 
wealthy, sparing neither rich nor poor in his exactions; 
as is not unusual for such patrons, he is depicted as at 
first tyrannical to the Abbey, but brought to make peni- 
tential amends by an evil dream ; at least he restored the 
minster at Abingdon, and some ruined churches in Ox- 
ford, in one of which his work may still be seen. In 1084 
(et ipse prediues) he entertained at Abingdon prince 
Henry (afterwards Henry I), attended by the Bishop of 
Salisbury and by ' Milone de Walingaford cognominc 
Crispin,' and " supplied abundance of things not only 
for the royal tables but even for the tables of the brethren 
of this monastery." He died in 1092 At D.B. he held 
in this county only a little land at Thurleigh, but had 
evidently preceded Miles Crispin at Clapham (99a) ; 
lands, the fate of which has been already discussed in 
these volumes'. 

vi. Robert de Todcni (Toeni, Ped. Ill) is pre- 
sumed to have been a cadet of the notable family" which 
drew its style from Toesny (Thosny) 011 the Eure R., 
and were also lords of Conches and hereditary standard 
bearers of Normandy; but the contemporaries who 
chronicled their doings are silent as to Robert. What- 
ever his origin and services may have been, he held at 
D.B. an enormous fief, building a castle and founding in 
1076 a priory at Belvoir co. Leic., the head of his barony. 
With his grand-daughter Cecilv de Belvoir, the fief 
passed to William d'Albini (distinguished as ' the Bre- 
ton ' from other contemporaries of that name), to whose 
Honour of Belvoir the overlordship of Robert de 
Todeni's lands in Turvey and Oakley fell; his manor of 
Studham however seems to have been the marriage por- 
tion of his daughter Agnes, the wife of Hubert de Ryes 
(II), and passed to her descendants. 

§ 166. 

i. Serlo de Ros, undertenant of William Spech 
in Biddenham and of Hugh de Beauchamp in Bidden- 
ham and Bromham, was probably named from Rots in 
the Calvados. His connection with the fief of Spech 
suggests him as a relative, perhaps father, of that Peter 
de Ros who in the next generation married Adelina sis- 
ter of Walter Espec and (presumed) daughter of Wil- 
liam Spech, and founded the house of Roos of Hame- 
lake, eventually Earls of Rutland. There is no further 
trace of de Ros on these holdings ; the rights in the land 
at Biddenham seem to have been assigned to other de- 
scendants of William Spech — the Trailly family (§ 15S) 
— probably by exchange for Colesden and Chawston in 
Roxton, where de Ros is found to hold in 1242 but did 
not hold in 1086; the exchange may well have been made 
in 1 1 57-8, when Robert de Ros, Geoffrey de Trailly, and 

j. B.H.R.S., v, 239-242. 

k. Round : Hist. MSS. Comm., Rutland, iv, 106. 107. 
1. P.R., 4 Hen. II. (R.C.), 140. 

m. Hist. St. Peter Gloucester (R.S. 33). i, 90; ii, 179-181. 
n. Pipe Roll, 1130 (R.C.), Si, S4. 



William de Buissei, representing Walter Espec's thres 
coheiresses, paid heavy reliefs to the Crown for parti ticav 
of his lands'. 

ii. Sigar de Gioches (Chokes, Chukes, etc.) derive/ 1 
his name from Chocques near Bethune in the Pas dV 
Calais, and is presumed to have been a brother of Gurr 
frid de Cioches. Beyond his not considerable holding! 
at D.B., nothing has been traced of him; but Reginald 
de Chockes, who had taken his mother's name, was a 
benefactor of St. Peter Gloucester in his grandfather 
Sigar's manor of Teneurde (Yanworth, co. Glouc.) be- 
tween 1 130 and 1139"'. The early descent of the 
Honour of Cioches does not seem to have been worked 
out, nor has the present writer as yet succeeded in tracing 
it in detail. But it is clear that, while Reginald was a 
successor of Sigar, Anselm was his contemporary and 
a successor of Gunfrid to many of whose Northants. 
manors he had succeeded at the date of the " Northamp- 
tonshire Survey " (largely temp. Henry I). Apparently 
the two D.B. estates had not been united by 1130, in 
which year Anselm is found to owe 170m. to the Ex- 
chequer " for recovery of his land in England," it hast- 
ing been in the custody of Hugh de Leicester". Anselrni 
son Robert accounts for 9 fees in 1 160/ 1, and for 15 fees 
in 1 166 0 and later; this may mark the fusion of the D.B. 
honours of Sigar and Gunfrid. Robert, judged from: 
entries on the Pipe Roll, seems to have died about 1 17a, 
and to have been the last male of the family. The next 
step in descent is apparently obscured in Normandy; 
William of Bethune, who succeeded his father as Advo- 
cate of Arras in 1128/9, married Clemence daughter of 
Hugh de Oisy, castellan of Cambrai, who brought wifli 
her a third of the: lordship of Chocques"; another pari., 
which included Sigar's English lands, was transferred by 
the family of the castellans of Lens to the family de 
Bethune by an agreement which is dated by its editor 
? 1 145/60", and the Advocate of Bethune is thereon 
found to hold 5 fees in eo. Glouc. in ii6o/6i r . As far 
as has been traced, practically all the English lands of 
Cioches are thenceforward held as the Honour of Chokes 
by the family of Bethune, or their successors (by pur- 
chase) de Guisnes and de Fiennes. 



Sigar de Cioches Gunfrid de Cioches 

dau. Hildiardis Anselm de Chukes, 

alive 1 135 

Reginald de Chokes, 

charter 1130-1139 Robert de Choke?, 

carta 11 66, d.c. 1170/1 

iii. Tovi priest, see § 176. 

iv. Turold, Abbot of Peterborough, originally a 
monk of Fecamp, was promoted by William to be Abbot 
of Malmesbury. In 1070 he was transferred to Peter- 
borough in succession to the Saxon abbot Brand, as a 
man likely to offer stern resistance to the trouble known 
to be brewing in that neighbourhood. Before he could 
reach it, the Golden Borough was sacked and burnt by 
the Danes, aided by English under Hereward, a ' man 
of the abbey who held a few bovates near Bourne and 
was the leader of local enmity to Norman rule. Turold 

o. Liber Rubcus, 26, 334. 

p. Duchesne, A, : Hist, de la Maison de Relhune. 
q. Cal. Doc. Prance, 494, no. 1359. 
r. I.iber Rubeus, 24. 



100 

detached the Danes by a separate treaty, and within a 
week of his arrival the church's daily services were re- 
sumed. Reference has already been made to his con- 
flict with the Abbot of St. Edmund (§ 155). The author- 
ship of the Chanson de Roland has been attributed to 
him on rather inadequate evidence. He seems to have 
died in 1098; a small holding at Stanwick 51, then geld- 
ing in Bedfordshire, was his only land ' in ' this county. 

v. Walter brother of Seiher, see Walter Fleming. 

§ 167. 

i. Walter Fleming reaches back so nearly to the 
Conquest that it is probable that he fought at Hastings, 
for he attests as Waller fleminc in 1068*; but the entire 
absence from chronicled history of a man who held so 
considerable a barony is remarkable. It is possible that 
he was also known by some other name, but the attempt 
of Dugdale to identity him with Walter Bee of Lincoln- 
shire does not seem to be justified by the D.B. of that 
county. Two other men, apparently members of his 
family, occur in our record, whose holdings were merged 
into the fief of Walter's successors (Barons of Wahull, 
the modern Odell); these were Hugh Fleming and Wal- 
ter the brother of Seiher (Seier). This last name is of 
Flemish origin, and in the forms of Saer or Saher reap- 
pears later among the Wahulls. The presumption is 
that Seiher was the elder brother of Walter, held the 
barony and died before 1086, and that Walter Fleming 
the D.B. holder and Hugh Fleming were his sons. 
Seiher certainly preceded Walter in Southill (247). 

ii. Waller Gitlard (Ped. Ill) was a name borne 
by three successive generations, and it is not always pos- 
sible to distinguish exactly between them. The first Gif- 
fard, so nicknamed from his ' Fat Cheeks,' was son of 
Osbern de Bolebec, and lord of Longueville. He was old 
enough to hold military command at Arques in 1053, 
and was among those who charged in on the English 
standard at Hastings; his services were rewarded by an 
extensive fief in the southern midlands, of which the 
chief manor was Long Crendon co. Bucks. It is pos- 
sible that he survived the Conqueror, but some authori- 
ties place his death in 1084; according to Orderic he was 
created Earl of Buckingham in 1080, but in that case the 
D.B. tenant in chief, who is not styled Earl, was his son 
and future successor; one of the two, probably the father, 
was a D.B. Commissioner. Walter Giffard II, un- 
doubtedly Earl of Buckingham at a later date, was a 
steady supporter of Rufus, and died in 1 102, leaving 
his heir Walter Giffard III a minor in charge of his 
mother Agnes de Ribemont, a former mistress of Duke 
Robert of Normandy; this third Walter left no issue, 
and the Honour passed to the Clares. Of Walter's lands 
in Beds, much remained in the families of his under- 
tenants— Bolebec, Talbot, and Langetot, but the Honour 
has not yet been worked out in detail. 

iii. Walter monachus was a juror for Armingford 
Hundred at the Inquisition of the County of Cambridge, 
which as we possess it seems to be a transcript of the 
original returns made by the Hundreds in preparation 
for Domesday Book'. (§ 2). He held in Cambs. five 
hides at Tadlow from Azelina Taillebois, and was her 
undertenant also in Wardon and Chicksand; in Northill 
he held from Hugh de Beauchamp; for the last two vills 
he is entered simply as Walter. Under the name of 

s. Regesta, i, no. 203. 
t. Round : F. E., 7. 



§ 167-168 

Monachus or its translation le Moyne (lc Moine), his 
descendants continued to hold in Tadlow, Northill 
(Thorncote and Becston) and Wardon till the middle of 
the xiijth. century. Their Chicksand land seems to have 
been given to Chicksand Priory by Richard le Moyne, 
Walter's [?] grandson, probably at its foundation about 
1150 0 . 

§ 168. 

i. Waltheof Earl of Northampton and Hunting. 
don v (Wallef, Waldeuus, etc. Ped. I) was son of Siward 
Digera Earl of Northumbria. He was passed over for 
his father's earldom, but created Earl on the disgrace of 
Tostig in 1065. He seems to have reluctantly sub- 
mitted to the Conqueror at first, and was permitted to 
retain his dignity; but on the arrival of the Danish fleet 
in the Humber in 1069, he joined them in the attack on 
York; being of great height and strength, he took his 
stand at one of the city gates, and hewed down the Nor- 
mans one by one as they were driven out by the flames. 
In 1070 he again submitted to William and was rein- 
stated as Earl. The great stain on his character is his 
butchery of the sons of Carl Thurbrandson in 1073, but 
as this was an episode in a blood-feud which had begun 
with the murder of his great-grandfather, and been con- 
tinued by these men with the murder of his grandfather, 
he must be judged by the standard of a Norseman of 
the xjth. century rather than by that of an Englishman 
of to-day. When in 1075 the Earls of Hereford and 
Norfolk took advantage of William's prolonged absence 
in Normandy to conspire against him, Waltheof became 
involved — it is uncertain how deeply ; it is at least certain 
that he took no part in the rebellion which followed, but 
repented and confessed all to the Archbishop, who, after 
penance inflicted, sent him overseas to lay the whole 
matter before the King. William at the moment made 
light of the tale, but as soon as they returned to England 
arrested Waltheof. The mid winter Assembly which 
tried him came to no certain conclusion, and he was re- 
mitted to prison for many months, which he spent in 
penitence and piety. He offered to embrace a monastic 
life, but was again brought to trial in May 1076 ; although 
clean contrary to William's boast that he never took life 
except in war, although unprecedented for many years 
in England or Normandy, although unjustified by the 
frivolous grounds alleged at the trial, the death sentence 
was pronounced, and the Conquest was completed by 
the political murder of the one remaining Englishman 
of highest birth rank and character. But it cannot be 
overlooked that these very distinctions made him dan- 
gerous, and that he could not be trusted ; thrice he had 
submitted, and twice revolted; and, while he lived, he 
must ever be a focus of discontent. He was beheaded 
at Winchester, and buried on the spot. But the monks 
of Croyland to whom he had been ever a liberal friend, 
backed by the prayers of his wife Judith, bad leave from 
William to translate him to their Abbey. As the last of 
the English Earls, the last notable leader of Englishmen 
against their conquerors, his memory was long kept 
green in men's hearts ; he was regarded as saint and 
martyr, and miracles were shown at his tomb. 

By his wife, the Countess Judith (§ 161. iii) he left 
three daughters; Matilda married Simon de St. Liz and 
afterwards King David I of Scotland, taking to her hus- 
bands the Earldom of Huntingdon; Judith married Ralf 

u. B.H.R.S., i, 103, 104, 119. 
v. D.N.B., lix, 265. 



PART IV 



§ 169—170 



PART IV 



101 



de Toesny (Todeni) the younger; a third was the wife of 
Robert son of Richard de Bienfaite. The only land in 
this county which is definitely stated to have belonged 
to him was Kcnemondwick, which he gave to the Abbey 
of St. Edmund. But it is probable (if only for this 
reason) that he had also held after the Conquest Potton 
with its ' members,' which by 1086 were in his wife's 
hands. And it appears that at some previous date, he 
had endowed the bishopric of Lincoln with the [pre- 
bendal] manor of Leighton w , his connection with which 
has not otherwise been traced. 

§ 169. 

i. William Basset may possibly have been brother 
of Richard Basset (§ 165) but was undertenant in Milton 
[Ernest] of a different overlord, Hugh de Beauchamp. 
His descendants are still to be traced at Milton in 1227 1 , 
but about that time were being replaced by the family of 
Ernest. 

iia. William, Bishop of Durham, formerly Prior 
of St. Carilef (St. Calais) in Maine, received his see in 
1080. Probably moved by jealousy of Archbishop Lan- 
franc, he, with Geoffrey Bishop of Coutances, supported 
the attempt of Duke Robert on the English crown in 
1088; he was promptly outlawed and his estates es- 
cheated; a most interesting record of his trial has been 
preserved' in which he stood stoutly on his canonical 
rights. After three years of exile, he was restored to 
his Bishopric, in reward for the support which he had 
given to the royal cause in Normandy. In the conflict 
between Rufus and Archbishop Anselm, the Bishop led 
the King's case, controverting the very arguments with 
which he had defended his own. He is now best remem- 
bered as the designer of Durham Cathedral, the first 
building in England to be vaulted with stone; the choir 
and one bay of the nave were complete at his death in 
1096. His lands of Millo and Arlesey had formed part 
of Earl Harold's endowment of Waltham College', but 
were assigned to the see of Durham by King William, 
who seems deliberately to have undone Harold's bene- 
factions ; they were restored however to Waltham Abbey 
in the next century. 

iib. William camerarius is somewhat obscure. 
William was a common name, and many men had cham- 
berlains besides the King. But this man, who held ' de 
Rege,' seems likely to have been a royal chamberlain 
and a churchman of some importance, for he succeeded 
priests in Potsgrove and Battlesdon; and in Hartwell 
CO. Bucks, he followed a priest of King Edward, though ' 
bis other lands were apparently derived from laymen ; 
he is accepted as a roval chamberlain by Davis and 
Whitworth*. He rented a vineyard in Middlesex from 
the crown in 1086", and held in various counties; his 
Norman lands had passed by 1089 to St, Mary Bayeux c . 
His descendants and successors will be more appro- 
priately discussed in connection with the Pipe Rolls in 
which they occur. 

iii. William de Caron seems to have taken his 
name from Cairon on the river Seule in Calvados, close 
to Bretteville l'Orgueilleuse after which his (? later) 

w. Regesta, i, no. 283. 

t. B.H.R.S., vi, fine 314. 

J. Sym. of Durham (K.S. 75), i7'->95: Mon - An & < '• M4 *S°- 
1. B.H.R.S., v, 57. 

a. Regesta, i, p. xxvi. 

b. D.B. i, 137. 

C. Regesta, i, 00. 308. 
d. Freeman : N.C., v, 755. 



neighbours in Tempsford, the family de Bretteville, were 
probably styled. His father had held before him in 
Staughton (37), whereon Freeman remarks" that he 
" must have been the son either of one of Eadward's 
French favourites, or of an Englishman who had given 
his son a foreign name " ; the first suggestion seems to 
be the more probable. William's undertenancies at 
D.B. are noteworthy as being held of three several over- 
lords. His descendants remained in Clifton Temps- 
ford and Southill till about 1290; his Chicksand land 
was probably given to the Priory there by Walter de 
Caron in the xijth. century'; his parental holding in 
Staughton may perhaps be traced by a complicated 
entry of about 1242', which seems to imply that the 
D.B. holdings of Cioches and of the Bishop of Lincoln 
had been united in one undertenancy. 

iv. William de Locels, who held in Streatley and 
Higham Gobion from Hugh de Beauchamp, derived his 
style from Loucelles in the canton of Tilly sur Seule in 
Calvados. Under the name de Lucelle (de Lucellis), 
his posterity remained in possession of his D.B. lands, 
till an heiress Beatrice carried them to the Gobion family 
somewhat before 1200. 

v. William de Ow (Ped. I) derived his name, and 
later his title of Count, from Eu near the mouth of the 
river Bresle. There is some uncertainty about the suc- 
cession of these Counts, but the relations shown in Pedi- 
gree I seem best to harmonise with known facts'. His 
father, Robert Count of Eu, who accompanied the Con- 
queror -and was put in charge of Hastings after the 
battle, was still alive in 108S when he supported William 
Rufus against the attempt of Duke Robert of Normandy 
to be king in his brother's place; William his son how- 
ever adhered to the Duke. The latter ceded the Countv 
of Eu to Rufus in 1091, and in 1093 William submitted 
himself to the King as Count; his loyaltv was brief, for 
in 1095 he joined Robert de Mowbray's revolt. De- 
feated in judicial combat, he was convicted of treason, 
blinded, and (as punishment, for unfaithfulness to his 
wife Helisende) castrated at the instigation of his 
brother in law, the Earl of Chester. His lands, here as 
elsewhere, had belonged to the Saxon Alestan of Bos- 
cumbe; in some counties his immediate predecessor was 
Ralf de Limesi, notably in the West Country where he 
received the Honour of Strjgoil forfeited by Ralf in the 
rebellion of 1074; but there is no trace of such succession 
in Bedfordshire. His forfeited estafes in this county 
were eventually added to the Honour of Clare (Glouces- 
ter); but his descendants were allowed to retain the 
Norman County. 

§ 170. 

i. William Lovet, of whom hardly any record else- 
where than in D.B. has been found, held an inconsider- 
able estate in Berkshire and Leicestershire; his holding 
in Northamptonshire must surely be the smallest tenancy 
in chief recorded, consisting of a third of a virgate which 
' was and is waste.' His Bedfordshire holdings were 
' de Rege,' and probably reverted to the Crown ; they 
have not been again noticed until about 11 80, when 
Alexander son of Gerold and Adelaide his wife were 

e. B.H.R.S., i, no. 

!. Testa de XcviU (K.C.), 342b. 

g. William (I) of Ku is generally regarded as uncle of Gilbert of 
Brionne, but the dates make this most improbable, and I have found no 
manuscript authority for the relationship. The marriage of Robert of Ku 
with Haweise is a surmise of Mr. Lyton, based on the succession of the 
estate. 



102 



FART IV 



• in 



the ' chief lords of the soil.'" As William Luuet he 
granted the tithe of Flittewyk (Flitvvick) and two other 
vills to St. Alban 1 . 

ii. William Peverel 1 (Ped. I) evidently bore a nick- 
name; perhaps Pucrulus the stripling, possibly Piperel- 
lus the peppery; both forms occur in Latin documents. 
There is a great obscurity about his birth; two traditions 
agree in that they make him a natural son of William 
the Conqueror by a Saxon mother ; in spite of Freeman's 
belief in William's domestic virtue, there is no improb- 
ability about this, though no clear contemporary evi- 
dence for the tradition has been found. As he was evi- 
dently still young in 1068, there must have been some 
very strong reason for William to place him in command 
of the important castle of Nottingham, and to bestow 
on him some 162 manors, a reason which does not seem 
to depend on previous military prowess in Normandy. 
Though his witness to charters is frequent, his appear- 
ances in history are less common and in no way remark- 
able ; but he was the original Peverel of the Peak, and 
built at Castleton in Peak Forest " the true vulture's 
nest of a robber knight " which still remains. Known as 
William Peverel ' of Nottingham,' he must be carefully 
distinguished from his contemporaries William Peverel 
' of Dover,' and William Peverel ' of London ' (or ' of 
Hatfield,' or ' of Essex '). He founded the priories of 
Lenton co. Notts., and St. James Northampton, and 
died about 11 14, leaving a widow Adelina or Adeliza 
who seems to have been alive in 1130, a son William, 
and a daughter Adeliza who married Richard de Red- 
vers. His estates were escheated in the next genera- 
tion, and formed into the royal Honour of Peverel of 
Nottingham. 

A part of his D.B. honour was the barony of 
Hecham (Higham Ferrars), co. Northts.; to this 1 vir- 
gate in Rushden (121), gelding in Beds., was attached; 
it is therefore probable that he was the William 
who held in Farndish (26S), as he had two socmen in 
Farndish (p) and a half hide in Podington (q) which 
gelded in Northants. Besides these, he held the manor 
of Tillsworth, which passed to the Honour of Peverel 
of Nottingham k . 

iii. William Spech (Espec, compare Scrob, Es- 
crop) took his nickname from the green woodpecker. 
His only holdings were in Bedfordshire, but formed a 
fairly extensive barony, the basis of the later baronies 
of Trailli, Ros of Hamelake, and Wake of Wardon, de- 
rived through three coheiresses who seem to have been 
his daughters, and sisters of the better known Walter 
Espec. Of William himself nothing has been traced by 
the present writer. 

iv. William de Warenne' (Ped. VIII) drew name 
from his fortress on the River Varenne at Bellecombre 
(Seine. Inf.) Pie fought at Mortemer in 1054, and at 
Hastings; and is said to have possessed extraordinary 
courage. Richly enfeoffed after the Conquest, he 
erected his main castle at Lewes co. Sussex, and in 1086 
held lands in twelve counties. As Justiciar jointly with 
Richard de Clare, he suppressed the revolt of the Earls 
in 1075. With Gundrada his wife, he founded in 1077 
the Priory of St. Pancras at Lewes, and later that at 
Castle Acre where he had a second castle. In the rebel- 

h. Dunstable Cartul., f. 21, aid This looks as if his lands had passed 
to the Roumelli Honour of Skipton in Craven, but the succession has still 
to be worked out. 

i. Mon. Angl., ii, 220. 

j. Complete Peerage (ed. 2), iv, 761. 



lion of 108S he adhered to Rufus; in that year he n\as 
created Earl of Surrey, and died. Of his Sid- 
fordshire lands those in Dean were bestowed on iiie 
Priory of Huntingdon; the manor of Tillbrook and the 
lands in Staughton passed (by a path not yet clear) to 
William de Say with the Honour of Kimbolton. 

B. IN SAXON TIME. 
§ 171. 

A few notes can be added on pre-Conquest mta, 
the majority of whom were of Saxon blood, althou|$i 
the immigration of aliens, which became consideral»> 
under King Edward, is just noticeable in our recaraft 
It names apparently four such aliens at least; Albert af 
Lorraine (§ 154) and the father of William de Canon 
(§ 169) have already been mentioned. Almar de 0« is 
listed below. Normannus, probably a Norman in spate 
of Freeman's dictum (§ 108) had held T.R.E. 

i. Alestan (A.S. /Elfstan) de Boscumbe, whose 
name-place lies near Amesbury, held a large estate in 
Wilts, and Dorset, and important lands in other counties. 
In Beds, the lands of himself and his men were trans- 
ferred to William de Ow in block, a remarkably com- 
plete instance of replacement. He is probably tbe 
/Elfstan sheriff who attested the promised grant of Sryitl t - 
ham to St. Alban". 

ii. Algar (A.S. /Elf gar) Earl of Mercia, son of Earl 
Leofric and the Lad)' Godiva (Pedigree VII), was ap- 
pointed by Edward to be Earl of East Anglia in place 
of Harold, on the banishment of Earl Godwine and his 
family in 105 1. Ousted on their return, he was rein- 
stated when Harold succeeded to his father's Earldom 
of Wessex in 1054. Next year, however, he was out- 
lawed, probably because, as heir to an Earldom already 
300 years old, he would have a better claim to the Eng- 
lish crown than Harold could show. He thereon raised 
a force in Ireland, joined the Welsh under his brother jzi 
law, and routed Earl Ralf the marcher at Hereford, 
where they plundered and burnt after the manner of the 
time. Harold marched against them, but granted peace 
without further fighting, and Algar was duly inlawed. 
At his father's death in 1057 he succeeded to the Earl- 
dom of Mercia; again outlawed, he again compelled his 
inlawing, strengthened now by the marriage of his 
daughter Eadgyth (Edith) to Harold. He died about 
1062, leaving two sons, the future Earls Eadwine of 
Mercia and Morkere of Northumbria. In this county- 
he was represented only by his house carle (Milton Brian 

iii. Alii, King's thane, appears to have held also in 
Clifton Reynes and Lavendon", just across the Burks, 
border, while his brother Alsi held the manor of Paven- 
ham ; all these lands lie in a string. Pie is described 
variously a man, a thane, or a housecarle, of King Ed- 
ward, according: as his duty rank or service to the King 
were in the scribe's mind. His Felmersham land (304), 
assigned to Countess Judith, fell eventually to the family 
de Meppershall, but did not form part of the perquisite 
of the Larderer Serjeant. His holding at Carlton, 
according to Dr. Morris", came under the Barony of 
Beauchamp of Bedford. 

k. Lib. Rub. ^84, Tolesworthe. 

1. D.N.B., lix, 372. 

m. B.H.R.S., v, 55. 

n. V.C.H., Mucks., i, 241a, 273b. 

o. B.H.R.S., v, 3. 



§ 172—173 

iv. Almar de Ow (Ailmar, A.S. /Elfmcer or 
yEthelma?r), though his fore-name is English enough, 
deserves note as having perhaps been one of Edward's 
foreign mercenaries, taking name from Eu in the Pas de 
Calais. 

v. Almar " man of Aluric de Flitwick " seems to 
imply some error, for Aluric held in Cainhoe and Silsoe, 
while Eiitwick was held by Alwin horim. The vills are 
adjacent and the mistake easy. 

vi. Alric (A.S. /Elfric or ./Ethelric) receives in 
Table VIII a bracket for three contiguous vills. 

vii. Alric son of Coding is identified in Table VIII 
with Alric King's thane, as their estates and those of 
their men arc all close together, the unnamed holding 
180 being probably a part of Holcote (§ 52). Alric son 
of Coding had a large estate in Bucks., which like 
Woburn in this county fell to Walter Ciffard at the 
Conquest. 

viii. Alsi(A.S. /Ethelsige or ,E.lfsige) of Bromham, 
thrice mentioned as man of Queen Edith, was probably 
therefore that son in law of Wulward the White (§ 176), 
to whom the ex-Queen gave, after the Conquest and on 
his marriage, three holdings in Bucks, which William 
allowed him to hold ' de Rege.'" He appears to have 
been steward of the ex-Queen's Court at Wilton in 1072. 

§ 172. 

i. Alwin Deule (A.S. /Elfwine). The first four 
entries under this name in Table VIII are pinned to- 
gether by the double name being given in full, although 
the holdings are widely separate. As Riseley is, and 
Elvendon and Segresdon probably were (§ 50) close to 
Staughton, the presumption is that the next three entries 
refer to the same man. The ' Deule ' is in each case 
superscript as an afterthought, to avoid confusion with 
Alwin ' Sac,' another man of the Bishop of Lincoln, 
whose second name is also superscript: this confusion 
would not be likely to occur on the fiefs of Hugh pin- 
cerna and Osbern son of Richard, for which the single 
name would be enough. If this is correct, the case cer- 
tainly suggests that the relation of the ' man ' to his lord 
might sometimes be derived from the land rather than 
from a personal bond ; if Alwin had merely desired pro- 
tection, he would hardly have had recourse, at least to 
two, possibly to four, separate lords. The case is fur- 
ther interesting; in so far as he was man of Stori, his 
land fell with that of Stori to Osbern son of Richard ; in 
so far as he was man of the Bishop of Lincoln, it went 
to Bishop Remigius but drew with it also the somewhat 
distant lands which he held as man of Kg. Edward, and 
on both of them William de Caron was placed as under- 
tenant. Alwin Deule had also a virgate in Pertcnhall 
(then gelding in Hunts.) from the Bishop of Lincoln', 
but it was of King Edward's soke"; this fell to Bishop 
Remigius; and he held the manor of Perry co. Hunts, 
apparently for himself, but this went to Eustace the 
Sheriff". Lastly he is almost certainly the Alwin who 
had held T.R.E. and " now holds from the King " a 
miserable virgate in Keysoe (then gelding in Hunts.), 
farming with only 2 oxen in the plough and one villan'; 

p. V.C.H. Bucks., i, 274b, 275a. 

q- 5 2"g- 

r. § 2oh. 
s. D.B., i, 2o6d. 
t. § 2on. 
u. D.B., i, ib. 

v. V.C.H. Herts., i, 284; V.C.H. Beds., i, 200. 



103 

a wretched end to a man who before the Conquest had 
controlled something like 1200 acres. 

ii. Alwin brother of Bishop Wulfwig held also in 
Westbury by Shcnley co. Bucks., but apparently not 
from his saintly brother. A second brother, Codric, 
held in Buckland in the same county, probably from the 
Bishop, since his land fell to Bp. Remigius. 

iii. Alwin Horim. His second name, an easy 
error in transcription for Hornu or Horni, shows that he 
was the Alwin Home who held in Herts, and on mort- 
gage in Middlesex. Further Alwin hor (superscript) 
appears in the list of the Saxons who had sake ami soke 
in Kent", where he would therefore also hold land. 

iv. Alwold (Adelold, A.S. ^Ethelweald) of Stevin- 
ton. The first six entries under this name in Table VIII 
have been bracketed by the nearness of the lands to each 
other ; the seventh is less certain, but probable. 

v. Anschil (Aschil etc, A.S. Anschetil, Anscytel) 
is known in the Herts. D.B. as ' of Ware.' Dr. Round' 
shows that in all probability his estates in both Beds, 
and Herts, were originally [or at any rate at an early 
date] granted to Ralf Taillebois, who parted with Ware 
in exchange for additional Beds, lands (§ 123 i), thus 
consolidating his estate. The devolution of his lands 
and those of his men in this county to the fief of Beau- 
champ of Bedford has been discussed briefly in an 
earlier volume". 

vi. Asgar (Ansgar, Ansgardus; A.S. Esegar) was 
Staller (§ 106) of King Edward and Sheriff of Middle- 
sex as early as 1044; this appears from a royal writ to 
Bp. /Elfwold, to him, and " to my burh-thegns in 
London." 1 As Sheriff he led the men of London at 
Hastings against the invader, and was borne back 
wounded from the field. When, some two months later, 
William advanced upon London from the north, Asgar, 
who had been engaged in diplomatic negotiation with 
him, carried in a litter, headed that gathering of the 
Elder Men of the City which at Bcrkhamstead accepted 
the Conqueror as King of the English, subject to the 
confirmation of a national election. He does not seem 
to have been continued in office by William, either as 
Staller or as Sheriff. The pedigree', based on the de 
Inventione Crucis of Waltham, which makes him the 
active contemporary of his great-grandfather, is obviously 
untrustworthy. His estates lay in many counties; he 
had numerous lands in Herts., of which it is implied 
that he was at one time Sheriff; though he held nothing 
in Beds., his man Eadwine held the manor of Biscot. 

§ 173. 

i. Bondi (Bundi) was Staller (§ 106, 150) under 
Harold, and fought at Stamford Bridge against Harold 
Hardrada and Earl Tostig, but seems not to have 
reached Hastings in time to take part in that battle. He 
appears to have kept his place as Staller under King 
William, and attested at the Whitsun Court of 1068 
under his official title 0 . About 1067 he was Justiciar in 
Oxon. The only reference to him in the Beds. D.B. 
seems to imply that he had been Sheriff of this county 
before Ralf Taillebois (Strcatley 364), and as Staller 
he attested the promised grant of Studham to St. Alban". 

w. B.H.R.S., i, 64. 

x. Kemble : Cod. Diplom., iv, 22r, no. 872. 
y. Searle : Anglo-Saxon Bishops, etc., 454. 
z. Kemble : Cod. Diplom., iv, 217, no. 864. 

c. Regesta, nos. iS, 23. 

d. B.H.R.S., v, S5 . 



PART IV 



104 



PART IV 



§ 174-i75 



ii. Borred (Burred etc., A.S. Borgred) held in the 
north of the county an estate of 3ijh. which was trans- 
ferred, with nearly all his numerous men and their 23I1., 
to the Bp. of Coutances ; but his chief estate, which also 
fell to the Bp., lay in Northants. He had a son Ead- 
wine who held in Lathbury and Sherington, and a son 
Ulf who held in Marsh Gibbon, all in co. Bucks."; the 
latter, by mistake of f for s, is probably identical with 
the Ulsi son of Borgret who had a man in Hinwick 213. 

iii. Brictric (Brixtric, A.S. Beorhtric) held Clapham 
probably on lease for a life or lives, from the Abbot of 
Ramsey (§ 73). As this was assigned to Robert de Oilli 
and passed to Miles Crispin, he is probably the Beorh- 
tric, called variously thane of King Edward or man of 
Queen Edith, whose men and important manors in 
Bucks, fell to the same Norman estate. He may also be 
the Brihlric who was at the Court of Whitsuntide in 
1068'. 

iv. Edith Queen of England (A.S. Eadgyth), 
daughter of Godwin and sister of Harold (Ped. VII) 
married Edward in 1045, and seems to have been a 
devoted wife — almost mother— to a poor creature of a 
husband. Owing to his lack of health, she often took 
his place in Council and at state functions. After the 
Conquest she retired to Winchester, well treated by Wil- 
liam, and died in 1075, having lived under six reigns and 
four dynasties. Though she held no land in this county, 
she appears in the record as protector of several ' men 
of Queen Edith,' among them Alsi of Bromham (§ 171). 

v. Edward the Confessor (A.S. Eadward) Kincr 
of the English 1043 — 1066, held only the manors of 
Leighton Luton and Houghton as royal demesne, which 
naturally fell to the Conqueror. He seems to have held 
also Potton, with its berewicks of Hatley Everton and 
Charlton for a brief period as escheats on the banishment 
of Tostig in 1065. The number of ' men of King 
Edward ' is remarkable, and the principle on which they 
were distributed at present inexplicable. 

vi. Edward wit, see Wulward the White. 

§ 174. 

i. Goda (Gytha, A.S. Godgifu) the Countess, who 
had a priest as her man in Rushden 121, may have been 
any one of the three ladies of the name shown in Pedi- 
gree VII. The most likely is perhaps the wife of Earl 
Algar, the Lady Godiva of the Coventry legend, with 
whose lavish generosity to the Church the endowment 
of a priest well fits. 

ii. Godric the Sheriffs to whom four entries seem 
to refer, was Sheriff of Oxon and Berks, possibly also 
of other counties, and appears to have been unusually 
high handed, even for a sheriff. By implication he was 
also at one time Sheriff of Bucks.," in the D.B. of which 
we have the pleasant touch of his granting a half hide 
to Alwin the maid while he should be Sheriff on condition 
of her teaching his daughter orfrey work (aunfrisium). 
He is probably the Godricus tribunus who attested the 
Studham charter'. 

He fell at the battle of Hastings, and most of his 
land passed to Henry de Ferrieres. Of a hide in Berk- 
shire it is told that it was of the King's farm and held 

e. V.C.H., Bucks., i, 240a, 241b, 246a. 

f. Regesta, no. 23. The possibility of his identity with a great Gloucester 
thane, of whom a legend is told {Freeman, N.C., iv; Ellis, Introduction 
to D.B., ii, 54-56) should be borne in mind. 

g. Freeman, N.C., iv, 724-728. 

h. V.C.H., Bucks, i, 258b. 

i. B.H.R.S., v, 55. 



by Godric T.R.E., and that one man says that hr lias 
seen a writ of the King quod earn dederit femine Golnci 
in dono eo quod nutriebat canes suos 1 ; this has been cted 
as referring to Godnc's wife and as an instance of the 
contemptuous treatment of Saxon ladies by Normsns, 
but is capable of other interpretations. 

iii. Godwin, King's thane, has been bracketed in 
Table VII J with three other entries, because the feur 
vills are contiguous. The possible objection to tbi — 
that they fell to three different Normans, — is met by the 
unquestionable case which follows next. 

iv. Godwin Franpolt (Fran-iboU") is probably for- 
bear of the family of Frambald or Frembaud which in 
the xiijth. century held a good deal of land in the couiiy 
Th is nickname in Elizabethan time apparently trafsmt 
' spirited ' or secondarily ' peevish.'" The fate ob his 
four holdings is instructive, for each fell to a different 
Norman. 

v. Guert 1 (A.S. Gyrth), Earl of East Anglia 2nd 
of Oxford, was fourth son of Earl Godwine (Ped. VII). 
He is related to have fought at Stamford Bridge, 2nd 
afterwards to have urged Harold to remain in Lorafon 
while he himself would lead the English against the in- 
vaders. He stood by his brother under the royal stan- 
dard at Hastings, and on the second onset of tin Nor- 
mans brought down William's charger with a spear; Wil- 
liam rushed forward afoot and slew Gyrth with Ms 
own hand. Much legend has gathered round his nasae. 

vi. Harold, Earl of Wessex (Ped. VII). Kin? of 
England tor ten months of 1066, held in this eownty 
only the manor of Westonin^. The fact that 'after 
King Edward's death, it did not acquit itself of the 
King's geld ' seems to imply that it was Harold's own 
land. Like many of his manors in other counties it vss 
seized by William, but tenants on five vills who were 
Harold's men were not added to the royal demesnes or 
even to the King's service. 

vii. Homdai presents something of a puzzle. It 
is distinctly written as one word (though this might be 
Honidai). Just across the Bucks, border are Wlwin ho' 
di\ Uluric ho' di', and Dot ho' dei m . Maitland" points 
out that in two Saxon charters the homo dei was evi- 
dently intended as a ' man of God,' a vassal of the abbey 
benefited by the charter; but in the three Bucks, entries 
there is no suggestion of a religious house, and Uluric 
at least is apparently described in the previous entrv as 
a man of Borgred, while our Homdai is a man of Earl 
Harold. Ellis" expanded Wlwin as homo dim. or Half 
man; and this is the most likely explanation, on the 
analogy of a nickname met early in Beds., namely Half 
knight (Half cniht, Halveknit); and the names perhaps 
referred to the size of their holdings. 

viii. Leveva (A.S. I.eofgifu). As one lady of the 
name was commended to Earl Waltheof, and the land 
of the other fell to his wife, they have been provisionally 
bracketed ; but the name is not uncommon. 

§ 175. 

i. Levenot (Map IV) is probably the man of King 
Edward who held 14-Jh. in Ellesborough co. Bucks., and 
the Levenot son of Osmund who had a man in Waven- 

j. D.B., i, 57b. 

k. Merry Wives of Windsor, II, ii, 0,4. 

1. D.N.B., xxiii, 411. 

rn. V.C.H., Bucks., i, 241, 264. 

n. D.B,, 275, 292. 

o- Intro, to D.B., ii, 273; and compare Commcndati dimidii in the sarne 
work, i, 65, 66. 



§ 176 

don; this is rather supported by the holding of Leuric 
son of Osmund in Tillsworth, the next vill to Levenot's 
great manor of Totternhoe. His succession by Walter 
Fleming enables us to identify him as once a wealthy 
thane in Northants., where he seems to have retained 
after the. Concjuest a single hide of land as Walter's 
undertenant". 

ii. Levvin cilt (the second name seems to denote 
royal or at least noble blood) was son of Eadwine de 
Cadendune, whose will' bequeathed to him lands in 
Sunnandune Cadendune Strcetlea Hretlea (apparently 
Sundon Caddington Streatley and Hatley, co. Beds.), 
Pirian Puttanho and Beranlea (probably Barley co. 
Herts.). Of these, he appears in the Beds. D.B. as 
having held in Streatley which touches Sundon, and in 
Caddington; in the Herts. D.B. as in Caddington and 
Barley. He appears in none of the three Hatleys; and 
Pirian is still unidentified, unless it represented Bure in 
the Tring district, where a Lewin had held freely 
T.R.E., and at farm T.R.W. But Lewin man of Earl 
Waltheof, who had 6h. 3V. in Totternhoe is probably 
the same man, and the transcriber of the will seems to 
have made Totternhoe into Puttanho by the common 
mistake of p for b, Tholenho being a known early spell- 
ing of this name. 

iii. Osulf son of Franc held also across the 
Herts, border at Barworth in Studham and at Miswell in 
Tring, and in Bucks, at Cheddinglon and Clifton 
Reynes; all these with his Beds, lands fell to Robert 
de Todeni; as man or thane of Kg. Edward he held also 
in Moulsoe and Sherington co. Bucks, which fell to 
others. The charter by which he and his wife /Ethelitha 
promised land in Studham to St. Alban at their deaths 
(§ 73) has been already printed'. 

iv. Stigand 5 , schismatic Archbishop of Canterbury, 
appears as a royal chaplain so far back as 1033, and in 
this capacity served successively the Kings Cnut, Har- 
thacnut, and Edward; though he does not appear to 
have been styled Chancellor, he certainly acted as head 
of the royal secretariat. Consecrated Bishop of Elm- 
ham in 1043 and of Winchester in 1047, he was em- 
ployed in diplomacy by Edward and Harold, and ap- 
pointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1052 on the out- 
lawry and flight of his predecessor. The appointment 
was uncanonical, and was resisted by Rome ; the only 
pallium which he received was sent by a schismatic 
pope in 1058, and was repudiated by succeeding popes, 
who in turn summoned and excommunicated Stigand 
as schismatic. He submitted to William at Walling- 
ford in 1066, and was present at his coronation. Accused 
before Papal Legates in 1070, he was imprisoned for 
life, and died in 1072; Orderic describes him as an 
ambitious and worldly minded man, whose hands were 
stained by perjury and homicide. Extensive lands in 
this county seem to have been held by him personally 
and not as Archbishop. 

§ 176. 

i. Tosti (A.S. Tostig), was third son of Earl God- 
wine (Ped. VII), and outlawed with his father in 105 1 ; 
shortly after their return he was created Earl of 

p. V.C.H., Northants., i, 341b. 
q. B.H.R.S., v, 53, 54. 
r. B.H.R.S., v, 55. 
s. D.N.I)., liv, 369. 

t. Anglo-Saxon Chron., R.S. 23, ii, 163. 



10S 

Northumbria, and possibly also of Hunts, and Northants. 
He proved himself blood}' and treacherous; his mis- 
government was so great that in 1065 the Northumbrians 
revolted, elected Morkerc as their Earl, and marched 
southward, joined by the men of Lines. Notts, and 
Derbs., and by the western Mercians and Welsh under 
Morkere's brother Eadwine. The revolt was not merely 
political; it was an excuse for the last of the old Danish 
forays for plunder and slaves; not only was Northants. 
devastated, but " the other shires which are nigh there 
were for many winters the worse '"; among these Bed- 
fordshire seems to have been touched in the north. 
From Northampton, where the main part of the rebels 
seems to have hailed, Morkere went forward as envoy 
to Oxford, and there met Harold who in Edward's 
name confirmed him as Earl, and Tostig was outlawed. 
Having married in 1051 Judith sister of Count Baldwin 
of Flanders, in 1065/6 he wintered in that country, and 
on Edward's death offered his help to William; during 
the summer of 1066 he made piratical descents on the 
English coast from the Wight to the Humber with no 
great effect. Later in the year he joined Harald Hardrada, 
King of Norway, in his invasion of Northumbrin, and 
with him was defeated and slain at the battle of Stamford 
Bridge. The probable descent of his lands in this 
county, and his possible function as Earl of Bedford, 
have been already discussed (§ i27n). 

ii. Tovi priest is the only priest in our Record who 
can be definitely attached to a church ; he appears merely 
as undertenant of the Bishop of Bayeux in Bolnhurst 
13 ; but in a confirmation of Bolnhurst to Thorney Abbey, 
made between 1085 and 1093. it is provided thai the 
church which Tovi priest holds there, he shall hold at 
the pleasure of the Abbot". 

iii. Turchil, King's thane, held also in Moulsoe, 
just across the Bucks, border. 

iv. Ulf, King's thane, who held both the Bucks, 
and Beds, moieties of Edlesborough, seems to have held 
also in Newport Pagnell, Tickford, and Little Wool- 
stone, co. Bucks. 

v. Ulmar of Etone [Socon], whose Beds, lands 
mainly passed through Lisois de Moustiers and Eudo 
dapifcr to form ultimately the Barony of Beauchamp of 
Eaton, has been already discussed in this publication 1 . 

vi. Ulsi (Ulf) son of Borgred, see Borred (§ 173). 

vii. Wenesi chamberlain held also in Turvveston 
co. Bucks., and is there described as chamberlain of 
King Edward. 

ix. Wulvvi (A.S. Wulfwig) was appointed to the 
see of Dorchester co. Oxon. in 1052-3, and in 1053 we nt 
to Rome for consecration in order to avoid the ministra- 
tions of the schismatic Stigand; he died in 1067 or 1068. 
Since he attests in 1067 as Wlwinus episcopus Lin- 
colniensis", it seems that he and not Remigius should 
be regarded as the first bishop of Lincoln. This view- 
is confirmed by the references to Lincoln and St. Mary 
of Stow in his will", and accounts for his men in this 
county as ' of the Bishop of Lincoln.' The transference 
of the cathedra must have been determined upon long 
before it actually occurred, producing the apparent 

u. Regesta, i, nos. 345 and liv. 
v. B.H.R.S., i, 64 70. 

w. Round : Commune, 29 ; Regesta, no. 8. 
x. Kemble : Cod. Diplom., iv, 290, 291. 



PART IV 



106 



DESCRIPTION OF MAPS 



§ 177-1S1 



paradox that while Wulfwig was first bishop of Lincoln, 
Remigius was last bishop of Dorchester, and attests as 
such in I072 y , although actually addressed officially 
as bishop of Lincoln at an earlier date'. 

viii. Wulward (A.S. Wulfheard) the White (lewet, 
wit, albus) held a large estate in Bucks, and other coun- 
ties. Living for some time after the Conquest, he was 
present at William's Court in io68\ Both he and his 
wife Edith seem to have been members of the House- 
hold of Edward's Queen Edith, and he attested (prob- 
ably as her Chamberlain) at her Court at Wilton in 
1070". From the D.B. of Hants, it appears likely that 
he had also been of the Household of Emma, Queen 
x of Cnut and .Ethelred (d. 1052); for she had given one 
moiety of the manor of Hayling to the Old Minster at 
Winchester, the other to Wulward for life, to pass to the 
Monastery with his body for sepulture'; this was attested 
by Aethelsigc, Abbot of Ramsey (§ 154), a monk of 
Winchester at that time. Wulward died before 1086, 



apparently leaving a son Wmlward whom D.B. records 
to have had three burgesses in Buckingham and a man 
in Woughton' 1 under the style of Wulward filius Eddeue, 
his father being dead but his mother alive. She seems 
to have been allowed to retain after the Conquest four 
hides at Linford, held from the Bishop of Coutances', 
as well as a manor in Somerset. Wulward and Edith 
had also a daughter who married Alsi, Queen Edith's 
' stiweard ' or dapifer at the Wilton Court already men- 
tioned; he received with her from the Queen three hold- 
ings in Bucks.' which he retained ' de Rege ' as tenant 
in chief in 10S6. ft is very probable that he is the ' Alsi 
man of Queen Edith ' who had held in Bromham and 
Biddenham (150 and 149). 

In Beds. Wulward held Toddington (101), and he 
is almost certainly by scribal error the ' Edward wit ' 
who held 10 acres in Chalgrave (102), the next entry 
and the next vill ; this fell with Toddington to Ernulf 
dc Hesding. 



G. PEDIGREES. 

These form pages 109 to 112. 



DESCRIPTION OF MAPS. 



§ 177. General.— On each map are shown in black- 
ink the names ol existing parishes in modern form, 
names of D.B. vills and manors which are not- 
modern parishes, and (by dots) the modern parish boun- 
daries.* All supplementary information is given in 
coloured inks. The scale of the maps is a half inch 
to the mile. — The County shown is the existing County, 
plus Tillbrook and Flolwell now lost to it. Hanefeld, 
Elvendon, and Segresdon cannot as yet be exactlv 
placed, but were apparently intermixed with Keysoe, 
Riseley and Pertenhall, perhaps also with Kimbolton 
and Little Staughton ; they have been marked near these 
vills but outside the County. 

§ 178. Map I : The Hundreds of 1086.-This has 
been drawn on the assumption that the existing parish 
boundaries are now the same as they- were in 1086. The 
assumption is not merely unjustifiable ; it is demonstrably 
incorrect. But as we are unable as yet to draw these 
parish boundaries for Norman time, this is the only- 
possible method of obtaining a mental picture of the 
extent of the Hundreds, and is therefore valuable within 
the necessary limitations. 

§ 179. Maps II and III : Norman Estates. — 
These have been prepared to show the distribution over 
the County of those chief estates which later formed 
important Honours. From the centre of each fief — the 
caput or the castle — radiate leading lines, terminating 
in circles which show the number of hides and virgates 
held in the vill concerned ; fractions of virgates are 
omitted ; demesne is shown by tint in the interior of the 
circle. In the case of the Fleming estate in Map III. 
the lands of Hugh Fleming and of Walter brother of 
Seiher are indicated by breaks at long intervals in the 

y. Regesta, i, nos. 64, 65. 
2. Regesta, i, no. 53. 

a. Regesta, i, no. 23. 

b. Hist. MSS. Comm., Wells, i, 434. 

c. D.B. i, 43b; V.C.H. Hants., i, 473a. 

d. V.C.H., Bucks., i, 230, 246a. 



leading lines; the lands of Azelina Taillebois, treated 
in Map II as part of the Beaut hamp fief, are similarly 
broken. 

§ 180. Map IV : Saxon Estates. — The more 
important Saxon holdings are shown by methods similar 
to those employed for Norman estates; in addition, the 
locality of ' men ' of a thane are indicated by a cross at 
the end of their leading line. It is apparent from this 
map that the lands of ' men ' lay almost invariably 
within a few miles at most of some holding of their 
overlord; the principle of the association was certainly 
geographical, when not actually territorial. An excep- 
tion is formed by Earl Tostig (his ' men ' not shown); 
his importance was sufficient to attract ' men ' from all 
over the shire, as happened also in the case of Edward 
and his Queen. 

§ 181. MapV: Distribution of Meadow Land. 

— In spite of the impossibility of arriving at an exact 
result in absolute figures, it seems worth while to attempt 
to record the proportionate amount of meadow in each 
vill on a map. In the first place, we have no certain 
and exact measure for the meadow land, we only know 
that it would support so many teams; in the second, we 
know that the acreage of many vills has been altered 
since 1086, land having been transferred from one to 
another, and though the materials for ascertaining the 
extent of the alteration may still be on record in manv 
cases, they have never been brought together. Yet if 
we take the suggested 24 acres of meadow as sufficient 
for a team of 8 oxen (§ 59), and find what percentage 
the meadow thus estimated bears to the present day- 
acreage, we ought to obtain an idea of the amount of 
D.B. meadow land, which should be — not absolutely true 

e. V.c.H. Bucks., i, 240a. 

f. V.C.H., Bucks., i, 274, 275. 

* The name of the parish or manor is not set over the centre of population, 
but (as this map is designed for further use) where it will leave most room 
for notes. 



§ 182 — 181 



DESCRIPTION OF MAPS 



107 



for each vill— but in most cases proportionately true as 
between vill and vill." The Map has been prepared on 
this assumption, and shows by figures and tints what per- 
centage of the modern acreage the estimated meadow 
formed. 

The distribution of meadow for swathe depends 
mainly on two things,— water and soil. Thus the rather 
waterless clay lands in the north ot the county, and the 
chalk area in the south although fairly watered," show 
very little meadow land ; the conditions are not favour- 
able to its development. The maximum appears on 
the alluvial lands of the valleys of the Ivel and its 
tributaries, of the Ouse (notably in the limestone area in 
and above Biddenham), and of the Ouzel and its tribu- 
taries; the lie of these is shown on Map VII. There 
is one obvious exception in a strip of low percentages 
on the Ouse at Wilshamstead, Harrowden, Cardington 
and Cople, which may with fair probability be set down 
to their northern ends, abutting on the present river, 
having been pure marsh, as already suggested ; a similar 
explanation would apply to Wardon. Geological!)' 
speaking, the areas of the Gault, Greensand, and Oolitic 
Limestone, show the highest amount of meadow; those 
of the Boulder Clay, Chalk, and Oxford Clay, the least. 

§ 182. Map VI : Distribution of Woodland. 

— The acreage of woodland available for pannage has 
been calculated on the assumption (§ 66) that each head 
of swine needs some i| acres; the result has then been 
expressed as a percentage of the modern acreage in 
figures on the Map, and the percentages have then been 
grouped by a system of graduated tints. The difficul- 
ties and dangers of the method are those discussed in 
the last paragraph. 

§ 183. Map VII : Probable sites of D.B. mills. 

— For identification of the sites of D.B. mills, we may 
with fair safety hazard the postulate that a water mill 
which is still at work, or which can be traced by tradition 
or name or by the remains of mill-pond and dam, is 
almost certain to be on the site of the D.B. mill if there 
is and was only one in that vill. There are exceptions 
in the shape of a few mills not recorded in D.B. and 
Ampthill's Doolittle Mill appears to be one of them. 
But the mill was so valuable a source of revenue to the 
lord, and so advantageous to his husbandry, that we may 
feel fairly confident that a mill was set up in nearly 
every vill where it was possible. Here again there is 
an exception, but it is one that helps the argument; once 
and once only does our D.B. say that " a mill can be 
made there " (Cudsand 82), and in this case the tenant 
Ralf de Langetot already had one close by (Campton 
83). Our Record further complains that a mill is out of 
repair (fractum) at Shillington 58, but its lord the Abbot 
of Ramsey had two at Pegsdon 54. a little higher up 
the stream, and the phrase need not mean more than 
that some part of the gear was broken. The mere men- 
tion by D.B. of these two cases seems to show that few 
opportunities of setting up mills were lost. 

Not only would their economic value stimulate their 
erection, but as a rule they could be erected and worked 
more advantageously then than at a later date. While 

a. Even if the figures of 24 acres be wrong, the proportion between the 
various percentages will remain the same ; and the amount of meadow is 
generally so small a part of the total that its percentage value would only be 
affected by a large error in the acreage. The result can, however, only be 
regarded as approximately true, until an intimate study of the alterations in 
parish boundaries has been made. 

b. The large amount of woodland in Luton, estimated at 20 per cent, of 



the great lowering of the water level due to the drainage 
of the Fens only dates from the time of fames I, yet 
this lowering must have been slowly continuous through 
the earlier centuries, as a result of that gradual clearing 
of forest which enabled the surface water to run off more 
easily, and of the almost incessant extension of arable 
land ; the ditches and dykes, of which early records make 
such frequent mention, all served to get the water away. 
Consequently we find record of D.B. mills on brooks or 
near spring-heads which to-day seem ludicrously inade- 
quate to drive a heavy wheel. 

In the compilation of Map VII therefore, where a 
mill exists to-day in the parish, the site of the D.B. 
mill has been assigned to it as a rule. Where a D.B. 
mill has disappeared, the evidence of the six-inch Ord- 
nance Survey has been sought; sometimes this has pre- 
served a record in such names as Mill Holme, Pinch- 
mill, Watermill Bridge; where this evidence is wanting, 
the Survey has been searched and has often revealed 
an islet with sufficient channels on each side to serve as 
mill-stream and weir-stream, and this has been suggested 
as the probable site, especially if approached by drift- 
ways or lanes. But a map prepared on these lines can 
only be regarded as a somewhat rash experiment ; it 
needs to be supplemented by detailed knowledge of the 
locality and checked by manorial descent, but it at 
least draws attention to an attractive field for research. 

§ 184. Notes on Special Mills. — 

Totternhoe 233, 265. It is difficult to realise that the 
Totternhoe streams can have worked four separate 
mills; probably two or even three wheels were 
coupled on Walter Fleming's holding. One is 
extant as a Doolittle Mill (a name often applied to 
that on the head waters of a stream). 

Bletsoe 148, 301. Probably these two moieties formed 
Stoke Mill, which lies in a detached part of Bletsce 
surrounded by Sharnbrook on three sides. 

Goldington 128. The ' Priory Mill ' which later was 
given to Newenham Priory has been traced in 
V.C.H. 1 to Hugh de Beauchamp's holding in Gold- 
ington which ' lay to ' Putnoe. 

Putnoe 124. The same authority refers the Putnoe mill 
to ' Castle Mill ' at Risinghoe in Goldington. 

Chainhalle 126. When I ventured to identify Chain- 
halle with the modern Ravensden on feudal 
grounds," Mr. Steele Elliott pointed ouf the diffi- 
culty presented by the mill, as it seemed improbable 
that anything so small as Ravensden Brook could 
have carried a mill of 40s. and 100 eels. Now that 
the D.B. mills have been tabulated, I agree with his 
contention; but as it also appears from D.B. that 
a mill did not always lie physically in the manor to 
which it belonged (§ 12), the mill of Chainhalle 
must be sought elsewhere. That Ravensden manor 
undoubtedly had a mill has already been pointed 
0111." It may prove to have been connected with, 
possibly a part of, the Putnoe Mill, which later was 
described as three mills under one roof.* 

its area, does not seem to leave much room for meadow when tcamlands 
have been deducted. 

a. V.C.H. , lii, 206. 

b. B.H.R.S., i, 63. 

c. Zoologist, 1014, p. 121. 

d. B.H.R.S., ii, 266; v, 228. 

e. Pat. Roll, 29 Henry viii. pt. 2, m. 21 ; quoted in V.C.H. iii,. 2060. 



108 



DESCRIPTION OF MAPS 



§ S5-186 



Pegsdon 54. The only mill at present on this brook 
is in Hexton parish on the county boundary, though 
D.B. records three mills of the total value of 6s. 8d. 
As the Abbot of Ramsey's mills were worth 27s. 8d. 
they were presumably lower down the stream, but 
the Ordnance Survey shows no likely spot. 

Stanford. The extant 1 Holme Mill ' is really in 
Southill. 

Beeston 115. The manor lay in both Sandy and 
Northill ; the mill may have been on the same island 
as the present Sandy Mill. 

Keysoe 122. Possibly at Grange Farm. 

Eyworth 218. Possibly Hook Mill now in Guilden 
, Morden. 

Hatley 339. The value seems too high for this to have 
been on the head waters of Sutton Brook ; it may 
have been on the Rhee in Tadlow, which was also 
a manor of Azelina Taillebois. The present boun- 
dary between Cockayne Hatley and Tadlow is 
purely arbitrary, apparently made with a ruler. 

Luton 4, 5. Advantage has been taken of Mr. W. 
Austin's study of these mills.* 

§ 185. Map VIII : Devastation of 1065 and 
1056. — The principles, on which the data for this map 
have been prepared, have been explained in § 119. The 
contour lines include all vills in which the Q.R. Valet 
of 1066/7 had been reduced to 55 per cent, or less of 
the T.R.E. Valet; the figures in red show the percent- 
ages; the nearest points in neighbouring counties on the 
apparent line of the Conqueror's march, are also shewn 
in red. 



A few outlying depreciations in the north, which 
may be due either to the Normans, or to Earl Morkere's 
raid in 1065, are connected by arrows. 

§ 1S6. Map IX : Distribution of Socland T.R.E. 

— It is not very instructive, it may easily be deceptive, 
to plot the mere numbers of soclands on a mafj); we 
need some method of comparing them with lans!; held 
on other tenures. But the record unfortunately does 
not supply data for calculating the proportionate area 
which they occupied, nor the proportion of socmen Co the 
rest of the population. We are compelled therefore to fall 
back on their assessed value, on their hidage, m&ich 
usually is recorded. On Map IX this hidage has been 
expressed in figures as a percentage of the total Fudage 
of the. vill, and the intensity brought out by tinting; 
thus ' 100 ' means that the whole vill was held in soke, 
but ' 50 ' that only half of it was thus held; and the 
darkest tint brings out all the vills in which moie than 
half was socland. In a few cases, marked by a ? instead 
of a figure, there is record of socland but the Jstetage 
is not given; the tint of these has been determined from 
another map, based on the ratio between soclands and 
teamlands, a method which gave results almost identical 
with those shown on Map IX. The result of both 
methods is to show the intensity of soclands, and' (pre- 
sumably) indirectly of socmen. The percentage of the 
hidage of the county shown as held in soke is 20.1, but 
this figure is somewhat too small, since the hidage of 
socland is not recorded in every case. Of course the 
whole calculation takes for granted that all land held 
in soke is recorded as such in D.B.; this is possibly not 
the case, but there is nothing in the text to show it. 



a. B.H.R.S., iii, 207 247. 



PBDIGRBES I— III 



109 



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THE HUNDREDS IN 1086. 



- Willey, Biggleswade, Flitt, 
... Buckley. Wensley, SUinbridge 

Stodden. Wixamtree, M.-,nshead. 
_ BarFord, Rcdburnstoke , Clifton. 
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REACH 
HEATH 



BAT TLESOON JODDINGTON 

oy 

. HOC KL IFFE / CHALGRAVE 



5TREATLEY /■ 



LCIGHTON EGCJNGTON 
BUZZARD '•■ . 



HOUGHTON REGIS 



TILLSWORTH 
SEWELL 



LIMSURY 

BISCOT STOPSLEY 



N03MAN ESTATES ; i. 

Boauchamp ^Honour of Bedford). 

Azelina Taillebois (Honour of Bedford). 

Countess Judith ( Honour of Huntingdon). 
Will ;arn Specb (Honour of Wcdon) 



E Cl I S80ROUOH 



STUOHAM 



SWINESHIAD PERIENHAtL 



(HANIFILD 
I'jLOdiSDON 



WTMINOTON 

2-, ® 



KEYSOE .'LITTLE 

■'.STAUGHTON : 



THURltIGH 




EATON SOCON.0 
i?o>v.-"" 



RAVENSDEN : WILDEN 
CHAINHALLE 



WIBOSTON 

■ \(5T) l.barford 

CHAWSTOH " 
ROXTDN / / 



RE NHOLD . GT. BAR FORD 
iALPHO ' ' ':. 

.7 BLUNHAM 

•VIILLINC-TON ' CHARLTON 
tcPL£ ' /'.MOGCERHAU&ER . 



•TEMP&roRD 

■' * ? v© .. 

EVEKTAlj 



6 



KEMPWON . ' ELSTOW 

\ HARROWDEN 



WESTCOTTS g'ASTCOTTS . 

6t\ ' 



'.HELTON ■ 

0. 



ylARSTON MORTEYNE 



(a^\ houohton 

CONQUEST 



. HUSBORNE 
. ASPLEY CRAWLEY 

:' GUISE..'.. 

ASPLEY 

HEATH WOBURN 



1 

L MILL6R0OK KS> 

j Sfj&ENHOg) ■;. AMPTHILL 

@ : klOGMONT STEPPINGLEY j;"" 



PRIESTLEY-' ' i 




WRESTLINGWORTH 
SUTTON £ VW0ftTH 

DUNTON 



iPULLOXHILl 
& 



. STONOON 
SHILLINGTON 



TINGRITH 



WESTONi 
INC 



I HICHAM 
I C-06'ON 



POTSGROVE 



REACH 
HEATH 



MILTlON 
BRIAN 



RATTLESOON TO00INGTON 



HARLINbTON 

e 



LtlGHTON EGGINGTON 
BUZZARD 



HOUGHTON REGIS 



TIL LpWORTH 

SE WELL 



© 
STREATLEY 



LIMC.URY 

BISCOT , STOPSLEY 



N01MAN ESTATES : ii . 

Fleming (Honour of Wahull). 

Albini (Honour of Coinhoe). 

f.udo (Honour of Falon). 

Count, tustace (Honour of Boulogne) 



EATOJ^' IOTTERNHOE ^ 



CADOINGTON 



[ cusbomjugh 



STUDHAM 



WYMINOTON 
rARNDISH 

PODDINGTON 

^ / 
' HINWICK V / 



HARROLD 



CARLTON i 



CRANF1ELD 
SALFORD -.. 



-ASPLEY 
HEATH . 



REACH 
HEATH 



G-LADLE Y 



LEIGH TON EGGINGTON 
DU22ABD 




■■'HUSBORNE 
AjPLEY '• - CRAWLEY 
GUISE ' 



E»iCN iott;f[<hoe 

■. imAT ... A O 

•• ... © . 



EDLLS90ROU&H' 



■V'-- DUNSTABLE 



CADOINGTON 
KENSWORTH © 



HYDE 



ST'JDHAM 



■MX ION 

■ z 



D! AN 

I 



RUSHDEN 

■ ' WYMING70N 
FARNJJISH — -r 5 

'. PODDING ION 2 
HINWICK 



YltLDlN 
4 • 



NEWTON 



Ml 1 CHHOURNE ■SWIM5H(A0_; | ^ PERTENHALL 



lELVENDGN 
' IsEGRS'jDON 



KNOTTING 
2 



RISELCY 

3 



SOUL DROP 



SHARNBROOK 
8 



ODE LI 

6 



euTr>0E 
2 



KE YSOE . ■' LITTLE • 

2 •'.stad&htoh; 

3 



BOLNHURST 

3 



SUDBURY 



HARROLD 
4 



liLUERSHAM |3 



RADWELl 



THURLEIGH 

0 



it • 

CAP.L ton 



TURVEY 
3 



WILTON E RNE'jT 

!3 

paveniiam 

.21 . 

OAHLFV 

' • > 6 / 

STE^ENTON . j CLAPHAM 

r, ' 8ROMHAM ' 

13 



COlMWORTh 
0 



RAvENSDEN WIEDEN 
CH AINHAL LE 



EATON SOCON 
5 

WYBOSTCN 

CHAWSTON 
ROXTON iO 



1 .8ARFOPD 



STAGSDEN 
I 



BIDOf nham 

14 



KEMPSTGN 

3 



BEDFORD 



RFNHOLD C.T BARFOIID 

3 4 
•. SAIPHO 

PUTNOE '0 
GOLOINGTON r ' BLUNHAM: 

' WUINOTON CHARLTON 
, 7 13 
'• COPLE ' M3GCERHANGER . . . 



TEMPSfORD 

3 



EVERTON 



SANDY 



WOT TON 

3' 



CRANFIELO 

SALFORD 

13 HOLCOTE . 

/ O 



Ji'ElTOn' 



vlARSTON MURTEYNE 



7 

LIOLINSTON . 



' :CA«DlNGTON 

3 

. ELSTOW ■•. 

5 •.HAftROWOEN '. 

- 3 " 

WESTCOTTS EASTCOTTS . 
WILSHA.MSTEAD 



8EEST0N 



12 



I 



kiNWICK 



POTTON 

10 



NORTHILL 



12 vWRESTUNGWORTH 
SUTTON , -EYWORTH"\ 



4 

WARDON 



BIGGLESWADE 

II 0 
BROOM 11 STRAT TON : 



HAWNFS 
I 



5 

HOUGHTON 

CONQUEST 



■ " CLOPMILL 

'MAULDEN 

12 



CHICKSAND 
..' CAMPTO 



S 

STANFORD .■ 

: CLIFTON 
14- / 



HOLME 
L ANGFORO 

13 



. MILLO 
FOWORTH . 

4 



I V 

ASTWICK . 



SEGENHO. •. 
8 

14- R1DGM0NT 



MILL6R0OK ■ 
AMPTHILL ; 

STEPP1NGLE Y 



. ';. ."HUSBORNS 
■ ASPLEY '■" CRAWLEY 
< GUISE 

A5PLEY 
HEATH . 



12 



FLITWIGK 

8 



13 



WOBURN 

4 



PRIESTLEY 



..FLinGtt 
' PULLOXHILl 



CAINHOE .•"'■VOUHANCEP. 

.. \.- : 8 

silsoe';':; "'••gravenhur S t. ; ., m£PPE " shail 

5 >•' STONDON 



ARLE'EY stotfold'.. 

b 10. j 7 ' 



SHILLING-TON 



POTSGROVE 

REACH 
HEATH 



10 /, 
'■ EYERSHOLT 

G 

TINGRIIH 

MILTON - 
BRIAN 



3ATTLEiD0N TOUOINGTON 13 



WESTON ■ » 
ING 

10 

HAP.LINGTON 

5 



I UGH AM 
GOBION. 



II 

HENLOW 



HOLWELL . : '■ 

7 



PCGSDON 



GLADLE Y 



HOCKLIFfC 



CHALGKAYE 



LEIGHTON EGCINGTON 
BUZZARD 



HOUGHTON RE CIS 
STANUniOGE " 7 

■TILLSWORTH 

. — . sEwm 



BARTON 



STREATLEY ■ 



9ISC0T STOPSlEY 

. .4 



MEADOW LAND 

as percenua^e of modern .acreage 

I 1 0 to 4 per cent 
1 1 5to 21 per cent. 



V8ILLINCT0N 



EATON lOItERNHOe 

UHAY j 



ECLE^90ftOUC- 



OUNSTACit 



CADDINGTGN 

0 



LUTON 



HENSWORTH 



ST'JE>HAM 

0 



NEvVlCN 



YltlUFN 
I 



; MClCHtOVKNE 5« AO / KMtNMAU 



WYMINGTON 



KNOTTING 
SOIJLDROP ; . . • ' •■ 



IILVENDON 

'"AMtfllO 
15EGRESDON 



RISE LE If 
II 



KEYSOE .-••intLE ; 

■'.STAOWTON 



SHABNBROOK 

10 



OOELL 

6 



BOLNHURST 
12 



THUflLCIGH 

9 



HARROLD 

9 



FtLMERSHAM 



MILTON ERNEST 

4 



RAVEN5DEN ', WILDEN 
CHAINHAL LE 



EATON SC.C ON 



TURVEY 
4 



S.TEVENTON 

2 BPOMHAM 



15 

CLAPHAW 



STA&SOEN : BIDDCNham 

8 



KEMPSTON 

6 



RENHOLD GT.BARFORO 

3 

SAIPHO 

6 

PUTNOE 

G0L01N&T0N '•'......■' ; .-■■■-•' 

'■yflLLIN&TON 
:. . '• '■. 4- 



COPLE 
CARDIN&TON '. 7 



MOOCERrfAN&ER . 
.■■ 9EEST0N 



HARROYlDEN 



WRESTLIKOYIORTH 



SALFORD'-.. 

26 '■ HOLCOTE 
■10 



16 



MARSTON MORTEYNE 



UDUNGTON . 



WESTCOTTS EASTCOTTS 

5 

.WlLSHAMSTEAO 



"■ BIGGLESWADE 



HOUGHTON 

CONQUEST 



MAULDEN 

10 



• : is 



19 



2 

WARDON 



CHICKSAND \$'.s"-\ 
' ■ : ''"'•iamnf '■ 
CAMPION 

/"'WUHANCER 



DUNTON 

3 



MILLO 
EDWORTH 



LANGFORD 



CLIFTON 



ASTWICK \ 
ARLESEY STOTFOLD 



RID&MONT STEPPIN&LEY 



."H'JSBORNE 
/ '-. ASPLEY '.CRAWLEY ■■ 
; ':. GUISE..' 

AiPLEY . 
' HEATH • W oBURN 



.-' S'LSOE ;GRAVENHURST,'. MEf ' PE " 5HAa 
FLIT70H 10 '•; a / '"''': STONOON 



PRIESTLEY .■■.' 



PU110XHILL 

9 



SHILLINGTON 



iO 

EYERSHOLT 



mil ton 

BRIAN 



TINGRI f H 



WESTON ,9 
ING . 



KARL'NC-fON 



HICHAM 
G-06I0N 



REACH 
HEATH 



3ATTLESD0N TOOOINGTON 



S'JNOON 

7 



IEIGHTON EGGINGTON 
BUJZAP.D - 



HOUGHTON REGIS 



TILLSWORTM.' /| 
SEWELL 



LIMBURY 

8ISC0T STCI'SIEY 



CAODlN&TON 

9 



KENSWORTH 



EDLESBOKOUGH' 



WOOD LAND, 
■is percentage of modern acreage 

._ . .' Le^'-i than I per cont 

L ..-j I to b per cent 

I ~ ! 6 id 10 per- c«nt 
[ 

L_ .... il to 20 per cent 
r '1 

L J Mo-e than 20 pur cent. 



STUDHAM 



5 T^iO MiC l < 



111 IH HUM 




till SHOU» 

: 125 




.' so 

YlFLUCN 



NEWTON 



: MUCHBOURNi 



IELVENDON 

.■SWINtSMEAD PERTEUHAIL ' 1 )h*NUILD 



WYMINGTON 



HINWICK 

! 22 



knotting 

souldrop ; . . ■■■■ 



SHARNBROQn 

31 



40 



ODE L L 

5 



FELMEASHAM 



39 



BLETSOE 

15 



MILTON ERNEST 

53 



KEVSOt .'LITTLE ; 

''.STAUGHION . 



BOLNHURST 
II 



EATON SOCON 



COLMWCRTH 



■* 6 
WYBOSTON 



L.BARFORD 



RAVENSDEN : WILDEN 
CHAINHALLE 



TEMPSFORO 

> S3 ; 



RENHOLO GT.BAAFORD 

100 100 



TURVIY 

4-3 



STAGSOEN : BIDDtNHAM 

36 

47 



PJTNOE 
. GOIOINGTON 

46 ' 



■flllLIN'.TON 

\ 70 



,■• SO 

BLUNHAM 



MOGGERHANGER 

C 'BEESTON 



POTION 
12 



HATlE< 
II 



ELSTOYY 

!00 



KINWICK 



tURRCWPEN '. 

..; 60 \ 

WESTCOTTS EASTCOTTS- 



100 
W:l.SHAWSTEAO 



NOR THILL 

30 



tJARSTON WORT E rFJE 



HOUGHTOM 

CONQUEST 



100 



MAULOEN 

6 



31 

WARDON 



CHICKSANO J *<>■'.■ CLIF' 
66. " "vntrvv" . 22 
. CAMPTON '•• 



1 00 



BIGGLESWADE 

S 



30 
HOLME 



G7 .•' c 

vYVRESTLINGWORTH 
SUTTON ,£ YW0RTH 

.OUNTON •. 

17 ''■.,:. • ,;- 



5 0 

MILLO 
E DWCiRTH 
14- , 



RIDGMONT ST E PPINGLE Y 



CAINHOE 
SILSOE 'GRAVENK'RVT. 



.'HUS80RNE 
ASPLE Y CRAWLEY 
C-UISE 



WOBURN 

13 



8 



PU'.IOXHILL 

100 



WESTON 
ING 



100 



HICHAM 
003, ON 



50 



STONOON 
SHILLINGTON 



: SO '..■' 

ASTWICK 
ARLESEY STOTFOEO- 

9 36 



HENLOW 



IQO 



TINCRITH ' ' • 

M; '"8°IAN ' "ARLINGTON 

40 



REACH 
HEATH 



IBATTLESDON TODDiNGTON 



LCIGHTON EGGINCTON 
BUZZARD 

STANBRiOCE 



HOUGHTON REGIS 



TILLSWORTH 

SEWFLL 



10 

■STREATLEY 



UMBURY 

BISCOT STOPSlEY 



'•'BILLING TON . 



EATON IOTTERNHOE 
BRAY 



OUNSTAB! E 



SOCLAND 

as percentage of t,l>e hidage of the vi II. 

L- 1 I to 25 per cent 

n 

L..-J 26 to 50 « 

I 3 over 50 •• 



CADOINGTON 



F. Ci I S90JGUGH 



STUOHAM 



113 



INDEX. 



This Index is to be used merely in supplement to 
the Tables; their contents do not appear in it as a rule, 
for they are themselves alphabetical indices to Domes- 
day Book by names of Vills (Table I), Hundreds (Table 
II), Normans (Tables IV, V. VII), Saxons (Table 
VIII) or by Soclands (Table IX). 

The references in Arabic numerals are to para- 
graphs (§), except when pages are named ; and the 
numbers of the paragraphs on it are shown at the head 



of each page of the text. Pedigrees and Maps are 
specified by Roman numerals. The Personal notes are 
generally marked as * note on/ 

Personages of D.B. are listed under font- names, 
with a reference from the place-name or nick-name if 
any. Patronymics will be found under the entry 1 son 
of.' 

Since the variants of place-names are given in 
Table I, they have not been repeated in the Index. 



Abbot's Langley, co. Herts., 160 ii. 

Abbreviations, pa^c 4. 

Abingdon, co. Berks., abbey of, 156 i, 

162 i, 162 ii. 
A card de Ivri, 89 ; note on, 154 i. 
Acre, 60-62 ; used for non-arable or odd 

arable land, 61 ; fiscal and 

areal, 61 ; a day's ploughing, 

62. 

Adeliza de Grcntmesnil, 7S iv, 160 vi, 
Ped. IV. 
dau. of Will. Peverel, 170 ii. 
On. of Henry I, 102 i. 
Adelold, see AdcluU. 
Adelult, chamberlain of Bp. Odo 3 note 

on, 154 iii. 
Advocatus, 122. 

sec also A1-. 
A£lfgifu, abbess of Barking; note on, 
154 iv. 

,fclfstan the Sheriff, 128, 171. 

.fcthelred, King, 127. 

/Kthelsige (Ailsi), abbot of Ramsey, 

176 ; note on, 154 v. 
.^thelwine, abbot of Ramsey, 154 v. 
Agnes de Kibemont, 167 ii. 
,, de Todeni, 165 vi. 
Agricultural efficiency of Normans, 85. 
Airy, Rev. W. ; his D.B. tables, 10; 

statistics of population, 14, 

no; estimation of woodland, 

66. 

Ailsi, see A£thelsige. 
A1-, see also JE\-. 
Alan of Brittany, 153. 
,, s. of Flaald, 156 iv. 
Alberic. see Albert. 

Albert of Lorraine, 73, 78 viii, 109, 

171 ; note on, 154 vi. 
Albini, see Nigel, William. 
, family of Cainhoe, 156 i; note on, 

162 i, Ped. VIII- 
,, barony, 52, 82 note. 
Alestan of Boscumbe, 135, 136, 169 v; 

note on, 171 ; estate. Map IV. 
Algar, Karl of Mercia, note on, 171 J 

Ped. VII. 
Alice de Langetot, 164 iii. 
Alii, King's thane; note on, 171. 
Allic, 20 i. 
Almar, 135. 

Alinar de Ow, note on, 171. 

Almar m. of Aluric de Flitwick, 171. 

Alric, 30, 171. 

Alric s. of Coding, 171. 

Alsi of Broinham, 13^, 176; note on, 

171 ; estate, Map IV. 
Alured Brito (Alured of Lincoln), 153; 

note on, 154 vii. 
Aluric parvus; estate, Map IV. 
Aluric priest, 74. 

Aluric m. of Earl Waltheof, 20 f. 
Alwin, 20 n, 30. 
Alwin bro. of Bp. Wulfwig, 172. 
Alwin Deule, 20 g, 20 h, 20 n, 142; 
note on, 172. 



Alwin Horim, note 011, 172; estate, 

Map IV. 
Alwin priest, 74, 81, 129. 
Alwin reeve, 30. 
Alwin Sac, 172 i. 

Alwold of Stevinton, 135, 136, 172; es- 
tate, Map IV. 

Ambrosden, co. Uxon., 160 ix. 

Amice, dau. of Hen. de Ferriercs, 
162 i. 

Ami'THILL, church, 162 ii ; mill, 183. 
Ancient Demesne, see Demesne. 
Angers, St. Nicholas' Priory, 73. 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 1, 2. 
Anschetil priest, 74. 
An sell il, n$, 136, 164 v, 172; estate, 
Map IV. 

Anselm, Art hbp. of Canterbury, 158 iii. 
Ansind, Canon of St. Paul Bedford, 
73' 

Ansgar, see Asgar. 
Ansgot de Ros, 154 viii. 

de Rochester, note on, 154 viii. 
Ardres (Arde), see Ernulf. 
Arfast, see Erfast. 
Argentan, 1 55 iii. 
Argcntoin (Argentein), see David. 
ARLESEYj 19, 73, 78 vii, 96, 155 ii, 169 
ii. 

Armmgford Hund., co. Cambs., 167 
iii. 

Arpent of vineyard, 95. 

Aiundcl, Karl of, 162 i. 

Asgar the Staller, note on, 172. 

Aspley [Guise], 8, 52, 57, 71, 154. 

Asi'LEY Heath, acreage gained from 
Bucks., 39. 

Assessment of the Shire, perh. of Al- 
fred's date, 38. 
,, of the Vills, before 1086, 57. 

Astwick, 155 ii. 

Aubigny, 162 i. 

Aubin St. Vast, 162 i. 

Austin, W.j 184. 

Authorities chiefly cited, 16. 

Auxiliaries of the Conqueror, 153. 

Ava (Avelina) dau. of Ernulf de Hes- 
ding, 156 iv. 

Avcra, 137. 

Aylesbury, co. Bucks., 120. 

Azelina Taillebois, 78 iv, 136, 164 v, 

167 iii ; Ped. VI ; her fief, t;i ; 

Map II. 
Azor f. of, Henry, i^o i. 



Baldric, 20 a. 

Baldwin, Abbot of St. Edmund, note 
on, 155 i. 
,, de Alost, 156 iii, 159 i. 
., de Bouillon, 1^7 ii. 
,, de Meules, 165 iii. 
Bardnev Abbey, co. Lines., 159 i. 
Barford, Great, 19, 74. 
Harford. Little, 82, 88, 120, 154 v, 
163 iv. 



Barford Hundred, 4, 43, 45, ^3. 
Baring, Hon. F. H., 43; his" D.B. 

tables, 10, 16; on William's 

march to London, 119. 
Barking, see ..Elfgifu Abbess of. 
Barley, co. Herts., 175. 
Barnack, co. Northants., 1 55 i , 
Barons, see Domesday Commissioners, 

and Tenants in chief. 
Barton, 6i, 71, 154 v. 
Bar worth in Studham, then in co. 

Herts., 46. 
„ description of, 20 a. 
Basset, see Richard, and William. 
Battles don, 10, 78 iii, 165 iv. 
Bayeux, Bp. of, see Odo. 
Bavford, co. Herts., 13a n. 
Beali, J. C, 94. 

Beaucharnp of Bedford, see Hugh, 
barony of, 51, 164 v; Map II. 
,, Payn de, charter of, 50. 
Beaucharnp of Eaton, 157 i, 161 iv ; fu- 
ture Honour of, 78 iii, Map 
III. 

Beaulieu Priory in ClophJU, 162 i, 
162 ii. 

Beaumont, Hugh de, 127. 

Bedell, 107, 149, 150. 

Bedford, Burgh of, 72, 78 v, 130. 

burgesses, hold de Rege, 78 v; 
probably by money service, 81 ; 
deal in land, 72. 
church of St. Paul, 19, 73, 74, 76, 
78 vi, 164 vii. 
,, conquest from the Danes, 130. 
fiscal status, 48. 
Half Hundred, 41, 48, 72. 
,, King's land, not yet a burgus, 72, 
130. 

,, market [ ?] at, 96. 
,, mint at, 113. 
,, reeve of, 107, 126. 
,, William's seizure of, 120. 
Bedfordshire, see al^o Shire. 
,, allotment in primary tenancies, 83. 
,, alterations in boundary, 39. 
,, assessment, perhaps of Alfred's 
time, 38. 

devastation in ro6c;, 176 i ; in 

1066, 1S5, Map VIII. 
,, D.B. ; text and translation, 8, 9; 

tables, 10. 
,, earldom of, 127. 
,, heights above sea level, 93. 
,, invasion of, 119, 120, 185, Map 

VIII. 

river systems, 36, Map VII. 
„ Sheriffs before D.B., 76, 128. 

shire, not county, 37. 
„ statistics, Table III. 
BEESTON in Sandy and Xorthill, 78 
iii, 78 viii, 82, 84, 125, 126, 
x« 11, 161 iv note; mill, 184. 
Belcamp, Bello Campo, see Beaucharnp. 
Belvoir Castle and Priory, co. Leics.,- 
165 vi. 



Beorhtric, see Bnhtric. 

Berewick, 91. 
Bereworde, see Barwoith. 
Bernard, see Burnard. 
Bernay Abbey, 160 iv. 

BlDDENIIAM, 43, 73, 74, 76, 78 V-vii, Si, 

122, 123, 125, 126, 155 i, 156 ii, 
164 iv. 

Biggleswade, 52, 64, 164 ii, 164 vii. 
Biggleswade Hundred, 9, 41, 42, 45. 
Bilmnoton, 46. 

Rilsington, co. Kent, 162 j note. 
Birch, W. de G., on D B. spellings, 3. 
Biscot, 41, 75, 76, 125. 
Blanching '»[ silver, 114. 
Btoadon, co. Soms., 123 h. 
IIletsoe, detached mill, 50, 1S4. 
Blosseville, see Gilbert. 
Blunh.aM, 78 vii, 139, 155 i. 
Bolebec, see Hugh. 
., stream and church, 160 iv. 

BOLNHURST, 43, 52, 58, 120, 123, 159 V. 

„ ch. and priest of, 74, 176. 
Bondi (Bundi) the Staller; probable 
Sheriff of Beds., 76; note on, 
»73- 

Bonds, the three, between lord and 

man, 145. 
Boor (gebur), 148. 

Bordar, the; practically identical with 
the Cottar, 102; his tenement 
and oxen, 103; his status, 104; 
his numbers, 1 to. 

Borgred, 135, 136; note on, 173; estate, 
Map IV. 

Bouillon, family of, 157 ii. 

Boulogne, see Eustace. 
Faramus of, 157 ii- 
,, Honour of, 156 iii, 157 ii, Map 
III. 

Bovate, Danish land measure, 54. 
Bow Brickhill, co. Bucks., 164 iv. 
Boxgrave Priory, co. Kent, 162 i note. 
Brand, Abbot of Peterborough, 166 iii. 
Breton auxiliaries, 153. 
Bretteville family, 169 iii. 
Brian fitz Count, 161 v, Ped. II. 
Brihtric, 144. 161 v; note on, 173. 
Bnonne, Counts of, 165 iii ; Ped. I and 
II. 

Bristol Castle, 158 i. 

Brito, see Alured, Gozelin, Will, de 

Albini . 
Broilg, see Osbert. 
Bromham, detached mill, 12, 50; 82. 
Broom in Southill, 19, 43. 
Brouay in Calvados, 163 ii. 
Broy family, 163 ii. 
Buc'helai Half Hundred, see Buckley. 
Buckingham, 120, 130. 
,, Karl of, 167 ii. 
Buckinghamshire, 120 ; D.B. of, 2 ; 

lands transferred to and from, 

39- 

Bi/cklev Half HUNDRED, 41-43, 45- 
Bnissei, 166 i. 



114 



INDEX 



Bundi, see Bondi. 

Bure, co. Herts., 175. 

Burh, Burgh, sec Bedford. 

Burh bot, 130. 

Burh gcat setl, 130, 133. 

Burnard, 30, 96, 152; note on, 155 ii. 

Bush mead Priory, 62. 

Butler, see Pincerna. 



Cadendone, see Caddington. 
Caddington, co. Beds., 71, 7S vii, 
120, 122. 

Caddington, then co. Herts., 175. 
acreage gained from Herts., 39. 
(l description of, 20 c. 
Cadurcis, see Chawortb. 
Cainhoe, 67, 1G2 i. 

barony, 52, 162 i, 164 i, Map III. 
Cairon in Calvados, 169 in. 
Caisneto, see Chosney. 
Caissot, see Keysoe. 
Cam or'Rhoe River, 36. 
Cambridgeshire, inquisition of, 2; pas- 
ture returns, 68, 6S n. 
camerarius, see chamberlain. 
Campion, 19, 43, 50, 78 iii, 164 iii, 183. 

Cancsworde, see Kensworth. 

Canons, see St. Paul London, St. Paul 

Bedford, Ansfrid, Osmund. 
Canterbury, Archbp.. see Stigand. 
Cardingxon, 71, 127. 
Carlton, 78 iii, 88, 122, 162 ii, 171. 
Caron, see William. 
Caruea, terra pro una, see Teamland. 
„ and Carucata, 54 n. 
Carucate, Danish land measure, 54, 58, 
140. 

,, in Beds. , a geld-free hide, 58. 
Carucated Counties, 140. 
Castle Acre, co. Norf., 170 iv. 
Castleton, co. Derby, 170 ii. 
Cecilia de Albini, 162 i. 
,, de Beauvoir, 165 vi. 
„ de Chawortb, 162 i. 
Ceorl, 148; and thane-right, 133. 
CHAINHAU.E, 4, 43. qi ; mill, 184. 

,. identified with Ravensden, 50, 184. 
CtiALiikA vk, 57, 58, 58 n, 71, 154 vi. 
Ch at.ton m Toddington, 156 iv. 
Chamberlains, royal, 106, 150; see also 
Tur.stin, William, 
of magnates, 86, 106 n. 
Channel's End in Colmworth, 50. 
Charlton in Mogerhanger, 51, 91, 

127, 161 iii. 
Chawortb (de Cadurcis) family, 156 iv, 

162 i, Ped. V. 
Chawston in Roxton, 43, 61. 
Cheddington, co. Bucks., 165 i. 
Ckellington, 51, 52, 15S ii. 
Cheneinondewiche, see Kimwick. 
Chesney (de Caisneto) family, 159 iii, 

164 iii. 
Chester, Earls of, 169 v. 
Chicks and. Priory of, 50, 160 vii, 167 

iii, 169 iii. 
Chokes, see Cioches. 
Church and Churchmen, 73, 74, 129. 
agricultural efficiency, 84. 
endowments; spared by William, 
73V recent, 78 vii, 125. 
„ higher clergy, 73. 

parish churches and priests, 74, 
129. 

„ manors on lease forfeited, 73. 

share of the Shiie, 83, i2<); Tables 

VI. and XI. 
Churl, see Ceorl, 
Cioches, see Gunfrid and Sigar. 

Honour of, 159 iv, 1O9 iii. 
Claims for land, 124. 
Clapham, 4, 5S, 67, 71, 99, 126, 144, 

161 v, 165 i, 165 v. 
Clare, family and honour of, 165 iii, 

167 ii, 169 v, Ped. I and II ; 

see also Gloucester. 
Clergy, see Church. 
Clifton, 154 v, 169 iii. 
Clifton Hundred, 41, 42, 45 
Clifton Reynes, co. Bucks., 123 h. 
Clot-hill, 67, 162 i. 
Cnut (Canute), King, 127. 
Coinage, 113. 

Colchester, co. Essex; castle, 157 i; 

Abbey, 157 i, 164 i. 
Colmeborde, see Colmworth. 
Colmworth, 3. 
Com i tales ville, 127. 
Commendation, 122, 143. 
Common rights already stinted, 68. 



Communal ownership, 147. 
Conception of the B.V.M., feast of, 154 
v. 

Constabulary of 10 kts., 79. 
Continuous tenure T.R.E. et W., 109. 

COPI.K, 71, 74, 90, gi, 123. 

Cotsetla, 148. 
Cottar, see Bordar. 

County, see Shire, and Bedfordshire. 

,, Hidage, 38, 47. 
Coutances, Bp. of, see Geoffrey de 
Mowbray. 

,, Cathedral, 15S i. 
Ckanfield, 67, 71, 154 V. 
Crawley (Husborne C), 52. 
Crernentum, 76, 116. 
Creadon, co. Bucks., 167 ii. 
Crcsswelle, a lost Hundred of Hunts., 
4»- 

Crispin, see Miles and Gilbert. 
Cristiana de Ardres, 156 iii. 
Crowmarsh, co. Oxon., 119. 
("roy land Abbey, co. Lines., 161 iii , 
168. 

Cubbnton, co. Bucks., 159 iii. 
Cudsand, 43, 8S, 164 iii, 1S3. 

identified with Shefford and Hard- 
wick, 50. 



Dacorum Hundred, co. Herts., 20 b, 

140 note. 
Danais, see Dane, and Dacorum. 
Dane (Daco, le Daneis), personal name, 

140. 
Danegeld. 
,, inadequately assessed, 4. 
,, on lands of T. in C at 2s., Table 
V. 

,, on primarv tenancies at 2s., Table 
VI. 

on undertenants at 6s., Table VII. 
and the Hundred Hides, 40, 45- 
arithmetical ratio to areas, 45, 53. 
assessed on the Hundred, 40, 53. 
,. assessment lower than the actual 

teimlands, 56. 
date of existing assessment, 57. 
exemptions from, 70, 48 notes b c, 

iii. 

punishment on slack husbandry, 
84- 

,, charged at the manor, 90. 
„ sketch of its history, n 1. 
its yield, 1 12. 

relation to power of disposal, 146. 
,, not. levied on Bedford, 72. 
,, not assessed on churches, 74. 
Danelaw, in relation to socmen, 140. 
Danish settlement, 54, 58. 

influence from east and north, 140. 
,, raid in 1065, 120. 
Dapifer or Steward, royal, 106, 150. 
of magnates, 86, 106 note, 
see also Ivo, Eudo, Asgar, Bondi. 
Daubenv, see Nigel. 
David I, Kg. of Scots, 78 iv, 168. 

de Argentoin, 78 viii, 155 iii. 
Davis, H. W. C, 16. 
4 De,' in right of, 12 ; ' de 1 and ' sub,' 
144. 

Dean, 9, 122, 125, 141, 170 iv. 
Deathbed gift, 123, 126. 
Deer, 95. 

Deerhurst, co. Gloucs., 155 i. 
Defendit and defendebat, 57. 
Delestune Hundred (? Leightonstone), 

co. Hunts., -20 n. 
Demesne, Ancient or Royal, 75, 105, 

107, 131. 
,, administered by Sheriff, 76. 
,, farm of, 75, 115, 116, 131. 
privileges of, 75. 
share of the shire, 83, 131. 
Demesne of tenants; hidage on, 13; 

meaning of, 17, 90; serf labour 

on, 105, 149. 
' de Rege ' tenancy, 18, 78. 
Devastation bv invasion, 119, 120, 185, 

Map VIII. 
DlLWICK in Stagsden, 95. 
Disposal of land, power of, see Land, 

disposal of. 
Dogs, 68 note, 116. 

Domesday Book : inception of, 1 ; col- 
lection of material for, 2 ; its 
scribes, 3; object of, 4; infor- 
mation demanded for, 5 ; re- 
arrangement of original returns 
in, 6; need for reconstruction 
of the original returns, 7 ; text 



of, and its treatment, 8; facsi- 
mile of, 9; corrections to 
V.C.H. translation of, 9; pre- 
vious tables of, for Beds., 10; 
use of reference numbers to en- 
tries in, 11; translation of 
special phrases in, 12; difficul- 
ties of tabulation of, 13 ; 
general statistics of, 14; need 
for theory in treating, 15; 
literature cited as bearing on, 
16; explanation of common 
terms used by, 17. 

Domesday Commissioners, 2, 5. 
measures, 54-71 - 

Doohttle Mill, 1S3, 1S4. 

Dorchester, co. Oxon., 164 vii. 
,, See of, see Wulfwig, Remigius. 

Dover, co. Kent, troubles with Ct. Eus- 
tace, 1157 ii ; tidal mill at, 160 
viii ; castle, 163 i. 

Dower, 123 g. 

Drayton Parslcw, co. Bucks., 164 iv. 
D tlx stable, 51; priory, 159 in, 164 i. 
Di;nto\, 164 iii, 1G5 ii. 
Durham, Hp. of, 73, 78 vii ; cathedral 

of, 169 ii ; see also Will. Bp. 

of Durham. 



E&dwine, Earl of Mercia, 120, 171, 176, 

Ped. VII. 
,, de Caddington, 175. 
Ealdonnan, 127. 

Earls, Norman and Saxon , 76, 127. 

East Anglia, Earldom of, 127, 171, 174. 

East Hatley, co. Canibs,, 51. 

Easton, co. Hunts., 50. 

Eaton Bkay, 67, 163 1. 

Eaton Socon, 43, 95; Eord in, 120; 
Honour of, Map HI. 

Edge, Mr. S. E., on swine, 65. 

Edith, Qu. of Edward Confessor; her 
men, 132 ; note on, 173 ; her 
household, 176; Ped. VII. 
,, dau. of Wigod, 161 v, 165 v, Ped. 
II. 

w. of Earl Harold, 171, Ped. VII. 
,, w. of Wuhvard the White, 176. 
EpLESDOROfgn, co. Beds, and Bucks., 

20, 39, 159 i. 
Edward, King; his manors, 131, 173; 

his men, 132, 173; Ped. VII. 
7'^d war d wit, see W ul w a r d t he White, 
>-6. 

Edworth, 108. 
Eels, 94. 

ECCINTON, 46. 

Elliott, J. Steele, 94 n. 
Ellis, Sir H., population statistics, 14. 
Klstow, Abbey of, 73, 161 iii. 
Elvendone, locality of, 5° ; 160 vii. 
Ely Abbey, co. Cambs., 78 viii, 164 vii. 
Abbot of, 20 r. 
,, Inquisition of lands of, 2, 5. 
Emma, Qu. of Cnut and .•Ethelred, 
176. 

Emmeline de Hesding, 156 iv. 

Encroachments, 124. 

Englishmen (Saxons) holding de Rege, 

^ 109. 
Equarius Regis, 107. 
Erfast, 152; note on, 156 i. 
Ermin Street, 120. 

Ernuin priest. 74, 109; note on, 156 ii. 

Ernulf de Arde (Ardres), 89, 152; note 
on, 1^6 iii; Ped. IV. 

Ernulf de Hesding, 7S viii; note on, 
156 iv ; Ped. V. 

Espec, see William, and Walter. 
,, Adelina, 166 i. 
,, fief of, 52, 158 ii. 

Estone, see Staughton, Little. 

Estone (? Staughton co. Beds, or Eas- 
ton co. Hunts.), description of, 
20 r. 

Estrange, Roger le, 51. 

Eswall (Nonington), co. Kent, 162 i, 

Eu, Counts of, 16s iii ; Ped. I. See also 

Will. de'Ow. 
Eudo the dapifer, 24, 30, 78 iii, 84, 

qe;, 123 i, 136, 161 iv ; Ped. 

Ill; note on, 157 i; Honour 

of, 164 i, Map III. 
Eustace, Count of Boulogne, 78 viii, 84 ; 

note on, 157 ii ; Ped. VII; fief, 

Map III. " 
the Sheriff, 20 j, 20 1, 20 r. 
E veksholt, 9, 19, 82, 122, 125, 154 viii. 
Evekton, cos. Beds, and Hunts., 30, 

91, 127, 155 ii, 164 vi ; descrip- 
tion of, 20 o. 



Exchange of land, 123 h. 
Extracentenal land : tabulated, Table 

II; defined, 41 ; as a possible 

hundred, 47. 
Extrinsec land, defined, 20; schedule 

of, 20 r. 
Evwoeth Mill, 184. 



Facsimile of D.B., S, 9. 
Earamus of Boulogne, 157 ii. ■ 
Earitius, Abbot uf Abingdon, 162 1. 
Earm of Ancient Demesne, 75 ; in kind, 
115, 116; in money, 116. 

,, of the County, 76. 

,, land let at, 123 i. 
Earndish, co. Bods., 2^, 120. 
Earndish, co. Northahts. 

,, acreage, 39. 

,, description of, 20 p, 170 ii. 
Fecamp Abbey, 164 vii, 166 iii. 
Felmersham, 30, 78 iii, 80, 171. 
P'elstead, co. Ess., 80, 159 ii. 
Eeorm, see Farm. 
Kcudum, 82. 
Fin the Dane, 140. 
Fishery, 94. 
Fish Stewpond, 94. 
fitz, seo Son of. 
Eitz Alan family, 156 iv. 
Fitz Gerald, 50. 
Five Hide Unit, 53. 
Fleming auxiliaries, 153. 
Fleming, sec Walter. 
Eutt Hundred, 41, 42, 45, 76. 
Flitwick, 170 i. 
Fold-soke, y8. 

Eorinsec land, defined, 20; schedule of, 
20 a-q ; tabulated, Tables II, 
III, IV, VII. 

Free Man (liber homo), 138, 146. 

Freeman, E. A., 16, 76. 

Frembaud, 174; see also Godwin Fram- 
bolt. 

Frenchmen, 2, 108; see also Normans. 
Fulcher of Paris, 52, 87. 
FuTfa, 20 1, 20 rn. 
Furlong, 62. 



Gablum or rent, 117; failure to pay. 

76, 126 v. 
Gafol, see Gablum. 
Gand, see Gilbert. 

Gayues Hall (Gain Hale), co. Hunts., 

50 n. , 
Gebur, see Boor. 
Geld, see Danegeld. 
Geneat, 148. 

Geoffrey de Mowbray, Bp. of Coutan- 
ces, 73, 123, 136, 151; note on, 
158 i; Ped. VIII; Avice sis. 
of, 162 i. 

,, de Trailly, 152, 166 i; note on, 
158 ii. 

Geological facies and meadow land, 181. 
Gertrude of Alost, 156 iii. 
Ghent, see Gilbert. 

Gilbert Crispin, Abbot of Westminster; 
note on, 158 iii. 
de Blosseville, 152 ; note on, 158 iv. 
,, de Gand, 153, 1^6 iii, 160 vi ; 

Ped. IV; note on, 159 i. 
„ s. of Salomon, 20 d, 30, 78 iii ; 
note on, 159 ii. 
Giffard, see Walter. 

,, Honour of, 50. 
Gifts of land; royal, 122; subject, 123. 
Gladley, 46, 159 iii. 
Glebe, 74. 

Gloucester, Honour of, 158 ii, see also 
Clare. 

Goblon family, 169 iv. 

Goda (Godgifu, Qodiva), the Count- 
ess, 174. 

w. of E. Godwine, 123, Ped. VII. 
,, sis. of Edw. Confessor, 157 ii, Ped. 
VII. 

,, w. of Earl .Elfgar, 171, 174, Ped. 
VII. 

Godfrey dc Bouillon, 157 ii. 
Godric the Sheriff, 76, 128; note on, 
174. 

Godwin, Earl of Wessex, 157 ii, Ped. 
VII. 

„ Frambolt, 136; note on, 174. 
,, King's thane, 174. 
Godwinssons, see Gyrth, Harold, T03- 



INDEX 



115 



Gold, mark of, 113. 

,, Queen's 1 14, 1 16. 

,, Sheriff's, 76. 
CrOLDlKGTOXj 43, 91, 123, 147 ; mill, 
184. 

Gozehn Brito, 7S viii, S4, 153; note 

on, 159 iii. 
Gkavf.nhukst, 43. 
Grazing, 68. 

Great Harford, see Barford. 
Grentmesnil, see Hugh. 

,, family, 160 vi, Fed. IV. 
Guert, see Gyrth. 
Guisues (Gyries) family, 156 iii. 
Gundreda, dau. of Gerard de Gournai, 

162 i, Ved. VIII. 
,, w. of Will, dc Warenne, 170 iv, 

red. VIII. 
Gunfrid dc Cioches, 78 viii, 153; note 

on, 159 iv. 
Gunter, Abliot of Thorney, note on, 

Gun wad « Kerry, co, Northants., 155 i. 
Gyrth (Gucrt), Karl of East Anglia, 
127; note on, 174; Ped, VII. 



Hale or Hall (A-S. Healh) for meadow, 

Half Knighl, 174. 
Hall of the Manor, 00. 
Hanepelde, locality of, 50; 91 note, 
117. 

Hare (Heme) in Toddmgton and 
Chalgrave, 156 iv. 

Harlinodon, 67, 69. 

Harold, Karl : land of, 20 e, 20 k, 171 ; 

gifts to Waltham revoked by 
the Conqueror, 73 ; his men, 
132 ; his manor, 174 ; Ped. VI C. 

Harroi.u, 158 iv. 

Uarrowden, 71, 73, 74, 122, 125, 127, 
156 ii. 

Harvest, failures of, 121. 

Hatley (Port or Cockayne) 67, 91, 127, 
161 iii ; mill, 184; probably in- 
cluded Wrestling worth, 51. 

Hatley St. George, co. t'ambs., 51. 

Hay, 64. 

Hayling, co. Hants., 176. 

Heath ani> Reach, 46. 

Hecham, see Higham Ferrars. 

Heights above sea level, 93. 

Hcile River, see Till. 

Helisende sis. of Karl of Chester. 169 v. 

Hendred, co. Berks., 162 i. 

Henlow, 6S, 73, 90, 91, 125. 155 ii. 

Henry I; as prince, 165 v; corona- 
tion declaration, 78 n. 
de Albini, i=;6 i, 162 i, 162 ii, 

Ped. V and VIII. 
de Ferrieres, 174. 
,, Hubald, 160 vii. 

s. of Azor, 7S viii ; note on, 160 i. 

Herbert s. of Ivo, note on, 160 ii. 

Hereford, Earl of, 165 iii, 16S. 

Herefordshire Castles, 163 iii. 

Hereward the Outlaw, 156 ii note, 161 
i, 166 iii. 

Herfast Bp. of Thetford, 155 i. 

Hertford, 120, 130. 

Hertfordshire : D.B. of, 2 

forinsec entries from, 20 a-f; 
land transferred to and from, 
39 ; socmen in, 140 n. 

Hesding, see Ernulf. 

Hide, 54-57. 14°; meaning of, 17;= 4 
vi r gates = 120 acres, 18 ; the 
Hundred Hides, 45; the Five 
Hide unit, 53 ; fiscal and areal, 
54; relation to k-amland, 55; 
old definitions, 53 n, 55 ; origin- 
ally ? equal to team land, 55 ; 
less numerous than team lands, 

5 6 - 

Hidage, meaning of, 17 ; ' ( ounty Hid- 
age,' 38, 47; an assessment 
not a measure in 1086. 54. 

Hidated Counties, 140. 

nidation, ' beneficial.' sb. 

High Wycombe, co. Bucks., 64 n. 

Higham Ferrers, co. Northants., 20 p, 
20 q, 170 ii. 

Hicham Gomion, 43, 69. 

Htnwick, t), 43, 7S iii, 120, 122. 

Hitchin (Hiz), co. Herts., 20 e, 51. 

Hiz River, 36. 

Hiz, vill and Half Hundred, see Hit- 
• chin. 

Hocklikfe, 9; added to Manshead 
Hundred, 46. 



HOLCOTE, 52, 57, 123 

Holme in Biggleswade, 52, 53. 

HOLWEI.L, 154 v, 158 iii; acreage lost 
to Herts., 39. 

Homdai, note on, 174. 

Honey Hill in Pertenhall, 50. 

Horse, 6S note, 116. 

Houghton" Conquest, 61. 

Houghton Regis (see also Sewell), 47, 
75, 76, 115, 116, 120, 131 ; acre- 
age lost to Herts., 39; church, 
74- 

Housecarl, 150. 

Household, Royal, see Officers. 
Hubald, see Hugh. 

Hubert de Ryes, 157 i, 165 vi, Ped. 

III. 
Hugh, 30. 

de Beauchamp ; 4, 95; a probable 
undertenant, 30 ; order of Hun- 
dreds on his fief, 44; his 
Danegeld, 84 ; succession to 
Anschil, 13G; 160 iii, 160 vi, 
163 iv, 164 v, Ped. VI 5 estate 
Map II. 

de Beaumont, 127. 

dc Bolebec, 152; note on, 160 iv. 

canierarius, see Hugh Hubald. 

Fleming; a probable undertenant, 
30; 25, 78 viii, 167 i; lands. 
Map III. 

de Grentmesnil, note on, 160 vi ; 
Ped. IV. 

,, Hubald, 152; note on, 160 vii. 
,, neph. of' Hcrbt. s. of Ivo, 88; note 
on, 160 viii. 
pincerna (de Ivri), 78 iii, 106, 
1 54 i ; note on, 160 ix ; Ped. IV. 
,, s. of Gozelin, 159 iii. 
,, s. of Osbern, 163 iii. 
,, undertenant, prob. Fleming and 
de Beauchamp, 30. 
Hundreds (divisions of shires). 
., as fiscal areas, 40-47. 

instability of, 41 , 47. 
., often omitted as headings in 

D.B., 43- 
,, assessed at 100 hides, 4^. 
,, suggested origin of, 53 note. 

antiquity of, 40. 
,, reeve of, 107. 
Hundred Moots or Courts, returns for 
D.B., 2, 40 ; returns considered 
in Shire Moot, 37 ; witness to 
livery of seisin, 122; evidence 
on disputed ownership, 124. 
Hundreds of Bedfordshire, 
guide to tabulation, 21 . 
„ list of, 41. 

,, spelling and meaning of names of, 
42. 

,, order in D.B., 44. 
,, relation to Hundred Hides, 45. 
alterations in, 45, 47 
and the 1 County Hidage,' 47. 
tabulated, Table II. 
,, map of, Map I ; explained, 178. 
Hunsdon, co.* Herts., 164 v. 
Iluntercombe [? co. Bucks.], Walter 

and William de, 51. 
Huntingdon, Burgh of, 72, 130. 
Earldom of, 78 iv, 161 iii, 168. 
,, Honour of, 51, 161 iii, 163 ii, Map 
II. 

Huntingdonshire; D.B., 2, 37, 61, 133; 

forinsec entries from, 20, go; 
extrinsec entry from, 20 r ; 
pasture, 6S; churches in, 74; 
sheriff of, 164 vi ; land trans- 
ferred to and from, 39. 

Huntsman, 150. 

Husbome Crawley, see Crawley. 
Hydrography of Bedfordshire, 36. 



Icknield Way used in Invasion, 120. 
Ilbert de Laci, 151. 
Ilbod de Hesding, 156 iv. 
Ilger the Pedagogue, 164 vi. 
Increment, 76, 116. 
Ingewar. 20 o. 
Ingulf forgery, 161 i. 
Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis, 
2. 

,, Elicnsis, 2, 5. 
Insula, see Rait, and Isle. 
In trio sec [arid, 20. 
Invasion of Bedfordshire, 119, 120. 
Inward, 137. 
Iron fur ploughs, 26, 97. 
Isle, Robt. de 1*, 50. 



Ivel River, 36; nulls of its system, 

Table XII. 
Ivo Taillebois, probable sheriff of 

Beds., 76; note on, 161 ; Ped. 

VI. 

Ivri, see Acard, Hugh, Rcger. 



' Jacet in ' etc, 12, 126. 
Jarl, the Danish, 127. 
John des Roches, 124, 161 ii. 
Judichel, 153. 

Judith, Countess, 73, 78 iv, 84, 16S ; 

note on, 161 iii; Ped. I; her 
fief, 51, Map II; her daus., 
168. 

,, w. of Earl Tostig, 176. 
Jurors for D.B. returns, 2. 



Keevil, co. Wilts., 156 iv. 
KEMPbTON", 68, 69, 127. 
Kencbaltune, see Kimbolton. 
Kenemond wick, sec K tmwick. 
Kens worth (Canes wordc), then co. 
Herts. 

acreage gained from Herts., 39. 
,, description of. 20 b. 
Kent, Earl of, 163 i. 
Kevsoe, co. Beds., 91. 
„ Mill, 184. 
Keysoe (Caissot), co. Hunts., descrip- 
tion of, 20 i, 20 n. 
Kimbolton, co. Hunts.. 36 note, 120; 

Honour of, 170 iv ; Hundred 
of, 20 1. 

Kimwick (Kinwick), 73, 78 vii, 125, 

15S i, 168. 
,, identified with Chenemondewiche, 
50. 

King, the ; his share of the Shire, 75, 
83, 131 ; Tables VI and XI. 

King's Almsmen, 109; see also King's 
Service. 

King's Land, see Demesne, Ancient. 

King's Serjeants, So; see also Officers 
of Royal House hold. 

King's Service (numslcrium Regis), 
76, 125; heading apparently 
omitted, 25 ; tenet de Rege, 78 
i, 78 ii ; Norman miuor otlici- 
als, 107 ; Saxon minor officials, 
150 iv. 

King's Soke, 137. 

King's Thanes, 133. 

Knight's Fee, a D.B. phrase, 108. 

Km ghts Hospitallers, 1 51) iv. 

Knight Service, see Military Service. 

Knotting, 51, 52. 

Kotsetla, 148. 

' Kym ' River, see Till. 



Eambert, Count of Artois, 161 iii. 
Land; status in Norman time, 101. 

., power of disposal of. 18, 101, ro4, 
*33> '34i 137. 1381 
transfer of, 123, 125. 
Eangetot, see Ralf. 

,, family, 159 iii, 164 iii. 
Lancford, 64, 6S, 120. 
Eanguetot near Bolboc, 164 iii. 
Larderer Serjeanty, see Scrjeanty, and 

Gilbt. s. of Salomon. 
I .avendon, co. Bucks., 1 20, 1 58 iii. 
Eegati, see Domesday Commissioners. 
Leges Hcnnci primi, 104. 
Leicester and its Earls, 160 vi. 
Lmghton [Buzzard], 57, 75, 76, 96, 
115. 1 16, 120, 125, 131. 

,, additions to, 46, 47, 75. 

,, ch. of, 19, 73, 74, 164 vii, 16S. 
Lessay Abbey, Lower Normandy, 162 i. 
I^venot, 135, 136; note on, 175; estate. 

Map IV. 
Leveva, 143, 174. 
Leviet priest, 129. 
Lewes Castle and Priory, 170 iv. 
Lewin, 144. 

Lewin cilt, 20 b-d, 131;, 136; note on, 
175 ; estate, Map IV. 

Liberator, 122. 

Liber homo, 138, 146. 

Lll'LINr.TON. 71, T54 i. 

Lifwi I Leof^-'ine'f , 113. 

Lincoln, Bishops of, see Remigius, 
Wultwig ; diocese of, 73; epis- 
copal lauds of, 164 ii, 169 iii ; 
cathedral, 164 vii. 



Lincoln City, Ernuin tenant in, 156 ii. 
Lmslade, co. Bucks., 120. 
Lisois de Moustiers, 1:7 i; note on, 
161 iv. 

Little Barford, see Bar:ord. 
Little Staughton, see S'aughton. 
Livery of seisin, 122. 
Locels, see William. 
Loring family, 154 vi. 
Lorrame, see Albert. 
Lorraincr churchmen, 1 s4 vi. 
Loucclles in Calvados, 169 iv. 
Lucy family, 159 iii. 
Elton (see also" Biscot). 
,, 47, 67, 75, 76, 96, 115, 116, 120, 

,, church, 74, 78 iii 



Maitland, Prof. E. \V M 16 et passim; 

his statistical tables, 14 ; theory 

of the manor, 90. 
Mahnesbury Abbey, co Wilts., 166 iii. 
' Man of,' 137, 138, 142, 144, 172, 1S0. 
Manor, meaning and history of, 90; 

its dependencies, 91. 
Manorial profits; of miscellaneous 

character, 26, 31. 97 ; mills, 92, 

93 ; fisheries, 94 ; park and 

vineyard, 95; market, 96. 
Manshead Hundred (Maneheue), 20 e, 

41, 42, 45, 46. 
Maperteshale, see Meppershall. 
Maps, description of, 177-187. 
Mark, of silver and gold, 113. 
Market, 96. 

Marriage portion, 123 f. 
Marshland, 71 , 1S1 . 
Makston (Moretainc), 160 iv. 
Marsworth, co. Bucks., 165 i. 
M artel, 20 f. 

Matilda de Hesding, 156 iv. 
,, dau. of Judith and Waltheof, 161 
iii. 

,, dau. of Robt. de Oilli, 161 v, Ped. 
II. 

dau. of Roger Bigod, t(">2 i. 
,, w. of Nigel de Albini, 162 i. 

M Al'I.DKN, 6l , 160 IV. 

Meadow land, 61-64 ! possible factor for 
estimation of, 63; a manorial 
piofit, 64 ; map of distribution, 
Map V, explained, 181. 

Measures, see Hide, Carucate, Acre, 
Pole, Meadow land, Wood 
land. 

Mei.chi!Oi;kne, 9. 

Member (of a manor), 91. 

M kpi'f r shall, co. Herts, portion, 19, 
23, 78 iii, 80, 102; see also 
Poleh anger. 
,, acreage of Herts, portion in 1853, 
39- 

,, description of, 20 d. 
Meppershall, co. Beds., 19, 67, 102. 
Mercia, Earls of, 171. 
Mesne holders, 29, SS. 
Miles Crispin, 4, 30, 158 iii, 165 v; 

note on, 165 vj Ted. IE 
1 Miles,' its D.B. meaning, 108. 
Military service as basis of tenure, 

79. 85, 133. 
MlLLBHOOK, 19; cell at, 162 1; church, 

162 ii. 

Miixo in Dunton, 73, 7S vii, 164 iii, 
169 ii. 

Mills, 12. See also Molendinum. 

character of, 93. 
,, detached from their parishes, 50; 

or from their manors, 12. 
,, map of, Map VII ; explained, 183. 

soke, 92, 98. 
,, tabulated, Table XII ; guide to 

table, 36. 
,, tidal, at Dover, 160 viii. 
value of, 92. 
Milton Brian, 92 note, 154 viii. 
Milton Ernest, 19. 23, 43, 61, 92 note, 
1 17, 126, 169 i. 
probable meaning of entry 99 a, 

Ministerium Regis, see King s Service. 
Mint at Bedford, 113. 
Moodry in Clophill, 162 i. 
Mogerhanger, see Charlton. 
Molendinum or molinum, s?e also Mill, 
hiemale, 92. 

used for the mdl wheel, 93. 
Monachus, see Walter. 
Monasterus, see Lisois. 
Moneyers, 113. 
Moneys of account, 113. 



116 



INDEX 



Montacnte, co. Soms., battle of, 158 i. 

Month rai, 158 i. 

Morcar priest, 78 iii, 129. 

Morin, Jialf , 1 58 iii. 

Morkere, Earl of Northumbria, 120, 

171, 176, Ped. VII. 
Morris, Dr. J. E., 16. 
Mortgage, 72, 123 e. 
Mortuing, 153. 
Moustiers, sec Lisois. 
Moyne, see Walter Monachus. 
Mowbray, see Geoffrey. 

family of, 15S i, 162 i. 
Muriel sis. of Kudo, w. of Osb. s. of 
Ric., 163 iv. 



Newenham, Priory of, 73. 
Newton BlossomviHe, co. Ducks., 1 s;S 
iii. 

Newton Bromswold, co. Northants., 20, 
39- 

Nigel de Albini, 6, 82 note, 84, 13G, 
161 ii ; note on, 162 i; Pcd. 
VIII ; fief, Map III. 
de Merstone, i$6 i. 
de Wast, 152, 162 i; note on, 1G2 
ii. 

,, s. of Erfast, 156 i. 
Norfolk, Earl of, 165 iii, 16S. 
Norman (a man's name), 78 viii, 108, 
126. 

Norman Social Fabric, 72-126. 
,, estates in relation to Saxon, 135, 
136. 

principal fiefs, Maps II and III ; 

explained, 1 79. 
Normans imported by Kg. Edward, 

1 63 iii, 171. 
,, formed a small percentage of 

D.B. papulation, no. 
Norse Mills, 93. 

Northamptonshire, forinsec entries 
from, 20 p, 20 q ; devastated 
by Morkere's raid, T20, 176; 
earldom of, 127, 168; laud trans- 
ferred to and from, 30. 

NorthiU, 3, q, 167 iii, 

Northumbria, Earls of, 127, 162 i, 168. 

Nottingham Castle, 170 ii. 

Nuncupative testament, 123. 



Oakley, 43, 71 , 108. 
Oat?, 26. 

Odecroft Hundred, 4t, 46, 76. 

ODELL (Wahull), 84, 167 i. 

Odo, Dp. of Bayeux, 73, 151, 154 iii; 

note on, 163 i ; Ped. I. 
Officers of the Royal Household, etc. 

tenent de Rege, 78 iii. 

list of Norman, 106. 

list of Saxon, 150. 

see also Dapifer, Chamberlain. 
Officers of Baronial Households, £5, 
106 note. 

Officials, minor, see King's Service. 
Oilli (Oilgi, Olgi), see Robert. 
Ordnance Survey, value for research, 
69, rS 3 . 

Ordui, reeve of Bedford, 78 vii. 
Ore, ri 3 . 

Osbein (Osbert), 30. 
., chamberlain, see Osbern s. of Wal- 
ter. 

de Bolebec, 160 iv, 167 ii. 
de Broilg, 30, 89, 108 note, 152; 
note on, 163 ii. 
,, Giffard, 163 iv. 
,, Pentecost, 163 iii. 

piscator, 78 iii , 80. 
,, s. of Ric. Scrob, 78 viii; note on, 
163 iii. 

,, s. of Walter, 78 viii ; note on, 163 

iv; Ped. III. 
Osbert, see Osbern. 
Osmund, Canon of St. Paul, Bedford, 

73- 

Osulf, son of Frane, 20 a ; note on, 175. 
Oswi, 126. 

Ouilly le Basset, Calvados, 165 i, 165 
v. 

Ouse River, 36, 93, 94; mills, Table 
XII. 

Ousel River, 36; mills, Table XII. 
Oxen, see also Team, 
fodder for, 63. 

possessed sometimes by bordars 
and serfs, 103. 



Oxford, scholars of, 162 i ; castle of, 
165 v. 

Oxfordshire, earldom of, 127, 160 iv, 
174. 



Pannage, a manorial profit, 67. 

PapWorth, co. Cambs., 120. 

Parish boundaries, often unstable and 

irregular, 69. 
churches, 74. 
Park for beasts, 95. 
Partenhale, see Pertenhall. 
Passaquam, see Ralf. 
Fasselewe, see Ralf. 
Pasture, a manorial profit, 68. 
Pavenham, 61, 78 iii, 164 vi. 
Payments; in bullion, 114; in kind, 

"5- 

PEGSDON in Shillington, 71, 154 v ; 

mill, 183, 184. 
Penny, silver, 1 13. 
Perch, see pole, 
Perot, see Pirot. 

Pertenhai.l (returned in co. Hunts.), 
50 bis. 

description of, 20 g, 20 h. 
Peter de Ros, 166 vi. 
Peterborough Abbey, see Turold. 
Peverel of Dover, Honour of, 154 vii, 

160 ii, 160 viii, 163 i. 
Peverel of. the Peak, see William Pev- 
erel. 

Peverel of Nottingham, see William. 

,, Honour of, 170 ii. 
Pigs, see Swine. 
Pileworde, see Tillsworth. 
Pincerna, royal, 106; and see Hugh dc 

Ivri, Roger de Ivri, William 

de Albini. 
Pirot and his descendants, 30, 82 n, 87, 

152, 162 i ; note on, 164 i. 
Pitstone, co. Bucks., 120. 
Place names as indication of rank, 89. 
Plough, Ploughland, see also Team, 

Teamland. 
,, iron for the, 69, 97. 
Ploughing, cooperative, 99, 147; the 

chief work-rent, 100, 14S. 
PODINTON (Northants. portion) ; des- 
cription of, 20 CJ; brook, 36. 
,, acreage gained from, Northants., 

39- 

Pole (rod, perch) of varied length, 62. 
POLEH ANGER in Meppcrshall (then co. 

Herts.), description of, 20 f. 
Population, 1 10. 
Port, family of, 51. 
Potintone, see Podinton. 
Potton, 43, 68 yi, 120, 127, 132, 141, 

161 iii. 

Potsgrove, 19, 78 iii, 120. 
Preaux Castle, 157 i. 
Prebendarius, 107. 
Prefectus Regis, 107. 

,, de Hundredo, 107. 
Prepositus burgi, 107. 
Preston Bisset, co. Bucks., 154 viii. 
Priest, see Church. 
Priestley in Flitwick, 69. 
pseudo-lngulf, 161 i. 
Pllloxhill, 69; detached mill, so. 
Pungiant, see Richard. 
Purchase of land, 123. 
Putnoe, 43. 184. 
Puttanho, ? Totternhoe, 17c;. 
Pyrot, see Pirot. 



Queen's Gold, 114, 116. 



Radwell in Felmersham, 82, 120. 
Ragg, Rev. F. W., 8, 57. 
Ralf, 20 1, 30. 

Basset, 164 iv, 161; i. 
de Insula, 78 viii ; note on, 164 ii. 
,, de Langetot, 152 ; note on, 164 iii. 
,, de Limesy, 169 v. 
,, de Todeni, 168. 

Morin, 15S iii. 
,, Fasselewe, 30, 152; note on, 164 iv. 
,, Taillebois, 124 126, 161 i ; activity 
as sheriff, 73, 75, 76; note 
on, 164 v ; Ped. VI. 
Ramsey Abbey, co Hunts., 73; 163 iv ; 

see also .-Ethelsige. 
Rank, grades of, among undertenants, 
So, 108. 



Rannulf bro. of Uger, 20 o, 30, 155 ii, 

164 v; note on, 164 vi ; Ped. 
VI. 

,, s. of Ulger, 164 vi, 
Ravensden, see Chainhalle, 
Rear vassal, 29, 88. 

Recti tudines Singula rum Personarum, 
14S. 

Reddornestoke Hundred, 41, 42, 4^. 
Reeve, see Prefectus, Prepositus, 

Sheriff. 
Reeve of the burgh, 107. 
Reeves and Almsmen (see also King's 

Service), 
tenent de Rege, 78 i, 7S ii, 81. 
Rermgius (Remy), Bp. of Lincoln, 20 g, 

73; note on, 164 vii. 
Remy, see Remigius. 
Renhold, sec Salchou. 
Rent, see Gablum. 
Rhee River, 36. 

Riciiard I, Duke of Normans, 165 iii, 
Ped. I. 

,, Basset, 152; note on, 165 i. 

de Albini, Abb. of St. Alban, 162 i. 
,, de Bienfaite, see Ric. s. of Gilbt. 

de Clare, see Ric. s. of Gilbt. 
,, de Redvers, 170 ii. 

le Moyne, 167 iii. 
,, Pungiant, 78 viii; note on, 165 ii. 
,, s. of Ct. Gilbert, 78 viii, 157 i; 
note on, 165 iii; Ped I and 
III. 

Scrob, 163 iii. 

Talbot, 152; note on, 165 iv. 
Richard's Castle, Honour of, 160 vii, 

163 iii. 
Ridgmont, see Segenhoe. 
Risborough, co. Bucks., 120. 
RiSELEY, 74, 91, 155 iii. 
River systems of Beds., 36; mapped. 
Map VII. 

and meadow land, 181. 
Riwalo, 89, 153. 

Robert de Albini, 162 i, Ped. VIII. 

de Mowbray, Earl of North u in b. , 
15S i, 162 i, Ped. VIII. 
,, de Oilli, 20 f, 126, 160 i, i6r v, 

165 i ; note on, 165 v ; Ped. II. 
de Ros, 1 60 i. 

,, de Todeni, 20 a, 78 viii; note ou, 

165 vi ; Ped. III. 
,, Fafiton, 78 viii. 

,, s. of Walter, 156 iv. 
,, the Deacon, 163 jii. 
Robin Hood and Little John, pillars, 
155 i- 

Robinson, Dean J. A., 158 iii. 
Roches, sec John. 
Rochester, sec Ansgot. 

,, Castle, 163 i. 
Rod, see Pole. 
Roger de Albini, 162 i. 
,, de Busli, 151. 

de Ivri, 154 i, 160 ix, Ted. IV. 
de Mowbray, 162 i, Ped. VIII. 
priest, 74. 
Roheise dau. of Richard s. of Gilbert, 
157 

,, dau. of Walter Giffard, 165 iii. 
Roland, Chanson de, 166 iii. 
Ros, see Serlo. 

of Hamelake, family and Honour, 

166 i, 170 iii. 
Rots in Calvados, 166 i. 
Rouecestre, see Ansgot. 
RoumeLli, Honour of, 170 i. 
Round, Dr. J. IL, 16 et passim. 
Royal Demesne, see Demesne Ancient. 

,, land other than demesne, 132. 
Rualon, 89, 153. 
Rubrication of T. in C, 25. 
Ruislip, co. Middx., priory, 156 iv. 
Rushden, co. Northants., 20, 39. 
Rutland, churches in, 1^4 vi ; Earls of, 
166 i. 



Saegod, 113. 

St. Alban's Abbey, co. Herts., 73, 160 
ii, 161 iii, 162 i, 162 ii, 170 i, 
r 75- 

St. Augustine's Canterbury, 11:4 v. 
St. Canlef (St. Calais), see Will. Bp. 

of Durham. 
St. Edmund's Abbey, co. Suff., 30, 73, 

78 vii, 126, 164 iii. See also 

Baldwin. 

St. Edward, see Edward, King; his 
manors, see Demesne, Ancient. 
St. Ida, w. of Count Eustace, 157 iii. 



St. Liz, Simon and Matilda, 168. 

St. Lo, cathedral, 15? i. 

St. Martin d'Aubignv, 162 i. 

■St. Martin Dover, 160 ii. 

St. Neot, priory, 16^ iii. 

St. Nicholas, Angers, priorv, 73. 

St. Paul Bedford, see lledford. 

St. Paul London, 20 b, 20 c, 78 vii. 

Salchou in Renhold, 50, 51, S4, 123. 

Salden in Mursley, co. Bucks., 164 iv. 

Salfoku, 2, 67. 

Salisbury, Earls of, 156 iv. 

Salomon priest, 74. 

Salpho, Salphobury, see Salchou. 

Samar priest, 129. 

Sandy, 61, 08, 117. 

Saxon 

estates; map of principal, Map IV, 
and i8o; size of, 135; trans- 
ference to Normans, 136; guide 
to Tabulation, 32. 

freed otn restricted b v No rm a n s y s. 
rem, 101. 

holders of lands, tabulated, Table 
VIII. 

,, letters misread and names misspelt, 

.3-. 

majority in D.B. population, no. 

military system, 85. 

names of priests, 74. 

owners remaining on their land, 

101, 109. 
Social Fabric, 127-150. 
,, T.R.E. tenancies summarised, 
Table XL 

Schedule to Table 1 of forinsec lands, 
20. 

Scrob (Escrop), Richard, 163 iii. 
Secta Curie, 98. 

Scebohm, F. ; on numbers of socmen, 
140; on communal ownership, 
'47- 

Segeniioe in Ridgmont, 51, 67. 

Secresdone, locality of, 50; 78 iii, 
160 ix. 

Seiher Fleming, 167 i. 

Seisin, livery of, 122. 

Seneschal, see Dapifer. 

Serf, the; his tenement and oxen, 103; 

his status, 104; his distribu- 
tion in the shire, 105; a dem- 
esne labourer, 105, 149 ; his 
numbers, no; equated witli 
the theow, 149. 

Serjeanty ; of tHe larder, 30, 78 iii, So, 
159 ii. 
,, of fishery, So. 
,, tenure in chief by, 80. 

Serlo de Ros, 89, 152; note on, 166 i. 

SewELL in Houghton Regis, 75, 12^. 
removed from Odecroft Hundred, 
46, 76. 

SllARNRKOOK, 9, 52, 76, 78 iii, So, 94, 
IoS, 117, I20, 122, 126. 

Sheep, 26, 67, 68, 68 n. 
Shefford, Shefford Hardwick, see Cud- 
sand. 
Shefford Brook, 36. 

Shelton in Redburnestoke Hund., 91. 
Shelton in Stodden Hund., 744. 
Sheriff (Shire-reeve, Scirgerefa), 2. 

,, duties, powers, etc., 76, 116, 128. 

,, of Beds., pre-Domesday, 76, 128. 

,, adds to royal lands, 125. 
Shilling, 113. 

Shillington, 71, 154 v. 183; acreage 
lost to Herts., 39. 

Shire, see also Bedfordshire. 
,3 as fiscal area, 37; possible date of 
assessment of, 3S ; gain and 
loss of area since D.B., 39; 
its composition, 41 ; compari- 
son with modern county, 70, 
71 ; allotment after Conquest, 
83 ; relation to Saxon burh, 
130; apportionment, Tables VI 
and XI; tabulation of, Table 
III, and 22. 

Shire Moot or Court. 

considered returns from Hundred 

Moots, 37. 
evidence on disputed ownership, 
124. 

,, relation to D.B., 2. 
Shrewsbury Castle, 156 iv. 
Sibrand, 113. 

Sigar de Cioches, 78 viii, 153; note on, 

166 ii. 
SiLSOE, 67, 78 viii. 
Silver, methods of paying, 114. 
Simon de St. Liz, 16S. 



INDEX 



Siward, Earl, 20 k. 
Soham, co, Cambs., So. 

Son of ifitz}. 

„ Alan s. of Fleald, Will., 156 iv, 
Ped. V. 

,, Azor, Henry, note cn, 160 i. 

Borgred, Eadwine, 173. 
„ liorgred, Ulf (Ufsi), 173. 
,, Count, Brian, 161 v, Ped. II. 
„ Erfast, Nigel, i<\6 i. 

Fleald, Alan, 156 iv, Ped. V. 

Frane, Osulf, 20 a ; note on, 175. 

Ceroid, Alexander, 170 1. 
„ Gilbert, Richard, see Ric. s. of 
Gilbt. 

,, Gozelin, Hugh, 159 iii. 

„ Hubert, Kudo, see. Eudo dapifer. 

Hugh, Osbern, 163 iii. 
,, I V0j Herbert, note on, 160 ii ; 
Hugh his nephew, sec Hugh. 
Osbern, Hugh, it> ^ iii. 
M .» Waiger [? Walter], 163 iv. 
Osmund, Leuri'/, 175. 
tt Levenot, 175. 
,, Richard, Osbern, 78 viii ; oote on, 
163 iii. 
„ Robert, 16S. 
M Salomon, Gilbt., see Gilbt. s. of 

Salomon. 
„ Ulger, Ranulf, 164 vi. 
„ Walter, Osbern, 78 viii; note on, 
163 iv; Ped. 111. 
,, Robert, 156 iv. 
Wigod, Toki, 161 v. 
Wulward, Wuhvard, 17b. 
Soclands, sec also Socmen, Soke. 
,, distribution, 140, 186, Map IX. 
,, number of, cjS, 139. 

size of, 39. 
„ tabulated, Table IX and 33. 
„ total T.R.W., Table XI. 
Socmen, 1 37 - 14 1 ; see also Soclaods, 
Soke. 

,, Danish origin possible, 140. 
„ fate, 14 1. 

holding after Conquest, 109. 
,, meaning cf, 17, 98. 
( , numbers, 139, 140. 

relation to vtllan, tOI. 
status, 13H. 
Soke, 137, 13S; see also Soclands, Soc- 
men. 

meaning of, 17, 98. 

of the King, 137. 
Soldier (solidanus), ioS; disabled 122. 
Sopwell, co. Herts., nunnery of, 156 i. 
SOUI.DROP, 51, 52- 

SOUTHtLL, 3i 169 

Spalding Priory, co. Lines., 161 i. 
Spaldwick, co. Hunts., 20 r. 
Spcch, see Espec, William, Walter. 
Squire class, the future; importance of 
their lands, 83 ; origin, Sg, 152. 

Stagsdln, 9, 43, 95. 
Staller, see Dapifer. 
Stamford, co. Lines., 156 ii. 
SlANBfitDGE, 42 n, 46. 

Half Hundred, 41, 42, 45> 4 6 - 

Stanford in Sour-hill, 19, 67, 123 i, 
139 ; mill, 184. 

Stanstead, co. Herts., 164 v, 164 vi. 

Stanwick, co. Northants., 20, 29. 

Statistical difficulties of D.B., 14. 

Staughton, Little (Estone), 9, 19, 20 r, 
58, 61, 78 iii, 122, 126, 138 n, 
160 ix, 169 iii, 170 iv. 
,, identification with Estone, 50. 

Steersman, 150. 
Stephen, King, 156 iv. 

de Albini, 162 i. 
Steward, see Dapifer. 
Stew pond, 94. 
Stiches of eels, 94- 

Stigand, schismatic Archbp. of Canter- 
bury, 164 vii; note on, 175. 

Stodden Hundred, 41, 45- 

Stotfold, 73, 91, 100. 100 n. 

Stow Langtoft, co. SufiV, 164 iii. 

Stow, co. Lines.. 176. 

Stratton in Biggleswade, 9, ig, 52, 53, 
91, 162 i, 162 ii. 

Streams and meadow land, 181. 

Streatley, 43, 76, 82, 125. 

Strigoil, Honour of, 169 v. 

STUDHAM, 73. 120, 165 vi, 175; see also 
Barworth. 
,, acreage gained and lost, 39. 

Sub and de, 144- 



Subenfeoffment, 88. 

Subsoil and meadow land, 181. 

Subtenant, see Undertenants. 

StJDDL'UV, in Eaton Socon, 52, 16^ iii. 

Suincshefet, see Swineshead. 

Suit of Court, 98. 

Sl'NDON, ioS. 

Surnames as indication of rank, 89. 

Surrey, Earl of, 170 iv. 

Suthgihle, see Southill. 

Sutton, 19, 43, 64. 

Swanbourne, co. Bucks., 164 iv. 

Swineshead, then in co. Hunts. ; de- 
scription of, 20 j, 20 k, 20 1 ; 
acreage, 39. 



Tables [forming Part IIJ : guides to, 
18-36; list of, page 11. 

Tabulation of returns, 13, iS : errors 
in, 2S. 

Tadlow, co. Cambs., 167 iii, 184. 

Tai Heboid j sec Azelma, 1 vo, Ralf . 

Talbot, see Richard. 

Talgebosc, sec Ralf. 

Taxation, see Danegeld. 

J'eamland, 59, 60; meaning of, 17; re- 
lation to hide, 55 ; excess over 
hides, 56 ; land for 8 oxen, 59, 
99; a real measure of about 120 
acres, 60. 

Team of 8 oxen, 18, 59, 99. 
relation to meadow, 63. 

Tedbald, Table I, col. xxiii (Eaton 
Socon, 103.*) 

Tlmi\skoki», 78 viii, 8?, 165 ii, 109 iii. 

Tenancies, continuous T.R.E. et W., 
109. 

„ de Rege, 78. 

,, primary; tabulated Tables VI and 
XL 

Tenants in Chief from the King 
[Barons]; 2, 77-84; tabulated 
alphabetically, Tables IV, V; 
guide to tabE- of, 23; as under- 
tenants, 24; synthesis of their 
estates, 27 ; definition of, 77 ; 
' lenet de Rege,' a special 
tenure in chief, 78; status of 
widows of T. in C. and other 
women, 78 iv ; title deeds of, 
78 ix ; by military service, 79; 
by serjeanty, 80; by money 
rent, divine service, and minor 
ofhee, 81 ; their share of the 
shire, 83 ; agricultural effici- 
ency of, 84; number of, 110. 

Tenure, methods, etc., of. 
„ Norman, 77-82, S$-S8, 98-104, 122- 
126; Saxon, 13 3, 134, 137, 138, 
142-149; see also Tenancies, 
Tenants. 

Terra and Manerium, 90. 

Thaneland ; tabulated, Table X. 

Thanes, 134, 148; lands of, Table XL 
,, King's, 20 n, 133 ; as monastic 
knights, 133; lands tabulated, 
Table X and 34 

Thegn, see Thane. 

Theow, 148, 149. 

Thorkil and other house carls, 150. 
Thorney Abbey, co. Cambs., 159 v, 176. 
Thorold of Bukcnhale. 16 1 i. 
Tltt-'HLEIGH, 71, 74, 122. 
Till or Heile Rivf.r, 26 n. 

,, mills of its system, Tab. XII. 
Tillbrook, 122, 141, 170 iv. 

,, acreage lost to Hunts., 39. 
Tills wukth (Pileworde), 3, 126, 170 ii. 
TiNGRITH, 52, 69. 
Tiscotc, co. Herts., 165 i. 
Title to land, 122-126. 

TODDINGTON", 58, 69, 123 h. 

Todeni, see Robert. 

Toesny sur Eure, 165 vi. 

Toleslund, see Toseland. 

Toscland Hundred (Toleslund), co. 

Herts., 20 o. 
Tostig, Earl, 120, 127, 132, 135, 136, 

1S0; note on, 176; Ped. VII; 

estate, Map IV 

TOTTERNHOK, 28, 69, 78 iii, UJ, 1 54 

iii, 175. 
,, mills, 1S4. 
Tovj, priest of Bolnhurst, 74; note on, 

.76. 



Trailli, see Geoffrey. 

fief, 52, 158 ii, 166 i, 170 iii. 
Trelly near Coutanccs, 158 ii. 
Trimoda necessitas, 130. 
Tring Hundred (Treunge, Tredunge), 

co. Herts., 20 a, 20 d. 
Turchil, King's thane, 176. 
Turner, G. J., if>. 

Turold, Abbot of Peterborough, 155 i; 

note on, 166 iii. 
Turstin chamberlain, 73, 78 iii, 106. 
Turvev, 6, 74, 81, SS, 108, 123. 
Turville, co. Bucks., 156 i. 
Two-couise system of cropping, 100 

note. 

Tyringham, co. Bucks., 123 h. 



Ulf, King's thane, 176. 

Ulf (Ulsi) s. of Borgred, see Borgicd. 

Ulmar of Etone, 13^, 136, 157 i, 176; 

estate, Map IV. 
Ulmar priest, 129, 
Ulueva, 144. 

Undertenants : tabulated alphabetic- 
ally, Table VII and 29; mul- 
tiple holdings by, 30; their 
share of the land, 83 ; by mili- 
tary service, 85 ; may be tem- 
porary or permanent, 86; from 
one or more lords, 87 ; could 
sub-enfeoff, 88; of different 
ranks, 89; number of, 85, 110. 

Unnamed holdings, 52. 



Valet : meaning of, 17. 
,, T.R.W., as percentage of Q.R., 

Tables IV, VII. 
,, T.R.W. demesnes, as p.c. of Q.R., 
Table V. 
depreciation in 1066/7, 1 *8. 
,, as evidence of William's route, 
1 19, 120. 
as evidence of recovery, 121. 
Vast, le, 162 ii. 

Verc, Earls of Oxford, 160 iv. 

Viceconics, see Sheriff. 

Victoria County History, translation 
of D.B., 8; corrections to, 9. 

Vills, 49 53 ; 

representatives of, 2; 
returns to D.B. from, 2; 
tabulated, Table I ; 
old names on Ordnance Sur- 
vey, 49; 

of uncertain locality, 50; 

and villages not named in 

D.B., 51 ; 

and the Five Hide Unit, 53; 
date of existing assessment ot, 
57 ; 

area! comparison with modern 
parish, 70, 71. 

their boundary unstable, 69. 
Villans, 99-101. 

tenement and oxen, 99. 
rent, 100. 

legal status, 101, 104. 
rotation to bordar and serf, 

numbers, no. 

includcd pre-Conquest socmen, 

ini, 141. 

relation to Geneat, 148. 
Vineyard, 95. 

Vinogradoff, P., on the Manor, 90. 
Voucher, 122. 



Wahull, Honour of, Map III. 
Wake of Wardon, Honour of, 170 iii. 
Walger [? Walter], s. of Osbern, 163 
iv. 

Wallingford, co. Berks., William at, 
120. 

,, Honour and Castle of, 161 v. 
,, priory of, 162 i. 



Walter Bee, 1 67 i. 

,, bro. of Seiner, 167 i; lands, Map 
til. 

,, de Caron, 169 iii. 

de Chcsncy, 164 iii. 
( , Espcc, 170 iii. 

Fleming, 30, 84, 7S viii, 153; note 
on, 1C7 i; fief, Map III. 
,, Giffard, 78 viii, 136, 160 iv, 163 
iv, 164 iii; note on, 167 ii; 
Ped. III. 

,, of Henley, iG; on food for draught 
beasts, 63; on swine in the 
open, 64 ; on ploughing, 100. 
monachns (le Moyne) and his de- 
scendants, 30, 152; note on. 
167 iii. 

Waltharo, co. Berks., 78 vii note. 
Waltham College (afterwards Abbey), 

co. E^scx, 73, 78 vii, 169 ii. 
Walthenf, Earl of Northants, and 

Hunts., 73, 78 vii, 127, 1 y> i, 

ini iii, 164 vii ; note on, ib8 ; 

Ted. I. 

Wakdcn, 91, 167 iii; Abbey, 164 i; 

Honour, Map II. 
Ware, co. Herts , 123 h, 100 vi, 164 v. 
Warcnna, sec William. 
Warra (Wara), 117, 126. 
Wast, see Nigel. 

Waste land (gone out of cultivation), 

Waste of the Manor, important in ques- 
tions of D.B. areas, 71. 
Water drainage of Beds., Map VI I. 
Water Level, lowering of, 183. 
Water Mills, seo Mills. 
Wathng Street, 1 20. 
Waveudon, co. Bucks., 120, 164 iv. 
Wemlover, co. Bucks., 1 20. 
Wenelinc, 1 53. 

Wenesi chamberlain, 150. 176. 
Weneslai, see Wen slew 
Wenslev Half Hundred, 41, 4^. 
Were gild ol free men, 104 ; <A serfs, 
149. 

Wessox, Earl of, 171. 

Westcotts in Wilshamstead, 67, 162 i. 

Westminster Abbey, 158 iii. 

Westone, see Westoning. 

Westoning, then in co. Herts., 39, 51, 

117, 120, 174. 
,, description of, 20 e. 
Whaddon in Slapton, co. Bucks., 120. 
Whipsnade, 51; acreage lost to Herts , 

39- 

Whitwell, R. J., 16. 

Wigod of Wallingford, 161 v, Ped. II. 
Wildkn, 88, 141. 
Willey Hundred, 41. 

William, King : policy of uniting his 
subjects, 2 ; wish to reassess 
the kingdom, 4 ; generally re- 
spected church endowments, 
73; policy towards Sheriffs, 
76; his advance through Beds-, 
119, 120; at Barking, 154 iv ; 
Adelaide sis. of, 161 iii ; his 
domestic virtue, 170 i; his 
family, Ped. I. 

William Basset, 89, 152; note on, 169 i. 
,, chamberlain, 73, 78 iii, 106; note 

on, 169 iib. 
,, Bp. of Durham, note on, 169 iia. 

de Albini Brito, 161; vi. 
,, dc Albini pincerna, 162 i, 162 ii, 

164 i, Ped. VIII. 
,, de Buissei, 166 i. 
,, de Caron, 87, 152 ; note on, 169 

iii. 

,, de Locels, 89, 152; note on, 169 iv. 
,, de Ow, 136 ; note on, 169 v ; Ped. I. 

de St. Carilef, note on, 169 ii. 

de Say, 170 iv. 
,, de Warenne, 20 g, 20 i, 20 j, 
78 viii, 124; note on, 170 iv ; 
Ped. VIII. 
,, del Wast, 162 ii. 
,, Froissart, So- 
,, Hubald, 160 vii. 
,, Lovet, 78 viii ; note on, 170 i. 



118 



INDEX 



William. 

Peverel of Nottingham, 20 p, 20 q, 
78 viii ; in ? Fa radish (26s), 
25; note 011, 170 ii, Ped. I. 

[prob. Peverel], T. in C, 25. 
„ son [ ? in law] of Ernulf cle Hea- 
ding, 156 iv, 

Spech, 78 viii, 15S ii, 166 i; note 
on, 170 iii ; fief of, Map II. 

WlIJINGTON, 71. 

Winchester, 160 vi ; D.B. returns en- 
rolled at, 2 ; Treasury of, 157 i ; 
Old Minster, 176. 



Wimund de Taisscl, 89. 
WiXAMTBSE Hundred, 41. 
WOBURNj 19; abbey, 160 iv. 
Wooockoft Manor in Luton, 41.. 
Wood land, Gi, 62, 65-67. 

used to run swine in the open, 

factor for estimation of, 66. 
,, value of pannage in, 67. 

map of distribution, Map VI; ex- 
plained, 182. 



Woolston, co. Bucks., 164 iv. 

WOOTTON, 91. 

Woughton, co. Bucks., 164 iv. 
Wrat worth, co. Cambs., 51. 

W T RESTLING WORTH, prob. included in 

Hatley by D.B., 51. 
Wulfwig, Bp. of Dorchester, later of 

Lincoln, 129, 164 vii ; note 

on, 176. 

Wulward the White, 135; note on, 
176. 



Wvdoston in Eaton Socon, 43, 82 

84, 162 i, 165 iii. 
Wymington, 19, 154 vii. 
Wymondham Priory, co. Norf., 162 



Vieldkn, 108, 158 ii. 
York, revolt at, 168; Castle, 159 i. 
Yorkshire, devastation of, 161 iv. 
Yttingaford, 120. 



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!':,•:'.■• J e, I -.--J. iv l"f. - ! ■ - !l : - ■ 

Records of North ill College, N-j. i, by C. Ciare Chambers. 

CONTSNTS OF VOLUME il (191 t) 
! rir.m C. C, C. 

- • t ' - ■ 3! 

in th.' \ • '■ j : ii f flu '.K.i \. ' i'r,:c.ff. 

I'ht IJeaiii . i, U. 

Ancient Bedfordshire Deeds, No. J, by F. A. Page-Turner. 
Records o£ NurtMIl College, No. j. by th-j late C.'Gorc Chambers. 
Bed Cltai .111"' ! . C 1 . I Fo» ior. 

1 he Br n : :-= 1- ai lily of, IrK • '■ 
Marhets and : . < m Luioi;, ! V : u in 

'J he Assessment of Knight Service in Bedfordshire, No. 1, by John E. 
U tris. 

Matories ;ica N: . A. 

An Eariy Bedfordshire Taxation, bv Mrs" Hilary lenkiiuou (Miss V. 

A Commutation of VilSan Services, by William Austin. 

Records of Kaijrlil Scrvic! in Bedfordshire, by (». Herbert Fov'er. 

Notes and Replies.— -Ravensden and Chainhaiis : G. ii. F. — Tf/ddingtcn 
IfJace Names, 1453 ; )'. A. P. T. — Luton Names it) the xiith Cen- 
tury; G. II. I''.— Duties 012 Briucs- IT. 5. Holt. 

< .5; .1/ • 

.,'!„.'( 

The Domesday Water Mills of Bedfordshire, bv William Austin. (With 
Map)/ 

The Ki/>;"a Larrierer of Meppershall, by Mrs. Hilary lenkinsoc (Mies V, 

Rickards). 
Recruiting cf Militia, 1798. 

CONTENTS OV VOLUME IV (1917) 

The Will of Ro;er Beoetheton, ^38-0, by the late the n<rv. Ii. M. 
Serji so; 

Ancient Bedfordshire Deeds : No, 2. De?ds rearing to Elstow, by F. A. 

"Page-Turner. 
Ancient Indictments, 1391 by G. Herbert Fowler. 
Selections from Jury DstB, by the Rev. J. E. Brown. 

■»nts or . . 

: ' . ii! ■ l:'. r.j; hire, No. _>, by J .1 

St. J n . ' ■.: 

0 If.y - . ' ' i -. • V 

- ' , 1 

Grro: : 
. Fari 

- 

x.i Ii ' ; 

: ' .tor/ ! ii.-; ir.'le, by 

■ ■ 

Sote ■ '.' - ■ 

CONTENTS OP VOLUME VI (1»19) 

Calendai ; fir 3 f ,ur. I. 

U,erbe;i F . ier. 



1 0 88